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L (Y 

FACULTY OF FORESWY 
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



v. 



OL-" 



MANUAL OF INDIAN TIMBERS 



AN ACCOUNT OP 



THE STRUCTURE, GROWTH, DISTRIBUTION, AND 
QUALITIES OF INDIAN WOODS. 



PREPARED BY 

J. S. GAMBLE, M.A., F.L.S., 

OFFICIATING CONSERVATOR OF FORESTS, BENGAL, 




bu (Drier of tlte (Sobcrnmcnt of Inoiit. \J 

.1 




CALCUTTA : 

OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING. 

1881. 



Si) 



CALCUTTA : 

OFFICE OF THE BtTPBBINTENDHNT OF GOVEBHMENT PBINTING, 
8, HASTINGS STEEBT. 




INTRODUCTION. 



IN publishing the 'Manual of Indian Timbers/ the compilation 
of which has, owing 1 to the writer having been at the same time engaged 
in his ordinary official duties, lasted over three years, it is necessary 
to make a few remarks on the circumstances which have led to its 
preparation, the materials by the assistance of which it has been 
compiled, and the sources from which the information given in its 
pages has been drawn. It will be remembered that the forests and 
forest products of India were represented at the Paris Exhibition of 
1878 by a collection which was undoubtedly the most complete that has 
ever been formed in India and sent to Europe for exhibition. This col- 
lection, prepared and arranged under the immediate supervision of Dr. 
Brandis, the Inspector General of Forests, was got together in the winter 
of 1877-78, by the simple process of inviting from the different Local 
Governments and their Forest Officers the contribution of rough wood 
specimens and other products, which were afterwards prepared and ar- 
ranged in a central workshop, first in Simla and afterwards in Calcutta. 
During the progress of this work, which lasted from August 1877 to 
May 1878, a very large and valuable series of wood specimens, of un- 
doubted botanical determination, was received. The pieces of wood (to 
which class of specimen alone we need now refer) which were then sent, 
were so large and valuable that it was settled that at the same time as 
the principal object of the work, the collection for exhibition at Paris, 
was got ready, a number of duplicate sets should be also prepared, suffi- 
cient to supply a good stock to the Royal Gardens at Kew, and to other 
museums both in Europe aad America, as well as type collections to 
be deposited in the offices of the Forest Conservators in the different 
Provinces or Circles. It is obvious that such authentic collections are 
likely to serve as reference collections of great and undoubted value, 
not only to Forest Officers, but to all persons interested in timber 
and ornamental woods and their applications to engineering works 
or industrial manufactures. Chief among these collections was that 
specially set apart for the Museum of the Forest School of Dehra Dun, 
and next to it in completeness in India was the collection deposited in 



ii INTRODUCTION. 

the office of the Conservator of Forests in Bengal at Darjeeling, and 
it is these two collections, and especially the former, which have been 
chiefly used and consulted in the preparation of this work. But it is 
necessary here to point out, that the collections prepared in 1877-78 
from the contributions to the Paris Exhibition works, would not alone 
have sufficed for the description of anything like the number of species 
which find a place herein, and it was owing to the fortunate circum- 
stance that the large private collection of Dr. Brandis was available 
that it was found possible to make sure of the identification of most of 
the more ordinary timbers and lay the foundation for the descriptions 
which are now published. When it is considered that Dr. Brandis' 
private collection gave no less than 320 specimens, and that the private 
collection personally formed by the writer in the Darjeeling forests, 
and that of Burmese and Andaman woods made by the late Mr. S. 
Kurz and presented by the Superintendent of the Royal Botanical 
Gardens, Calcutta, gave a further series of 194 specimens, it will be 
understood that considerable material was available to add to the nucleus 
formed by the Paris Exhibition sets. But this is not all, for, by the 
kindness of several Forest Officers, supplementary pieces were received, 
sometimes spontaneously, sometimes by special request, from time to 
time ; and there have been, even since the work itself was completely 
printed, several important additions. These were chiefly obtained by the 
writer's personal collection in various parts of Bengal, such as Darjeeling, 
the Western Duars, Chittagong, Chota Nagpore, and Orissa, and have 
been described, if not in the pages of the work, at any rate in the 
rather voluminous Adddenda-Corrigenda sheets. In order to explain 
more definitely the sources from which the original Paris Exhibition 
woods were obtained, the following extract from Dr. Brandis' Intro- 
duction to the Catalogue of specimens of forest produce sent to that 
Exhibition will be worth quoting : 

" The orders for the preparation of the present collection were received in August 
1877 ; and, as it was necessary to despatch it early in February 1878, so as to be in 
time for the Exhibition, barely six months were available to bring together specimens 
from all parts of India, and to prepare and name them. The work was entrusted io 
the undersigned and to Mr. J. S. Gamble, Assistant Conservator of Forests, who un- 
dertook the task of supervising the preparation of the specimens. A workshop was at 
once established in Simla, and a large number of pieces were collected from the hills 
in the vicinity of that place. These sporini'-ns are numbered from 1 to 115, ami from 
145 to 159. Early in November the work was transferred to Calcutta, where the 
specimens from all provinces were collected. 

"The bulk of the logs and pieces from which the specimens were prepared arrival 
in December and January; some, however, were not received until February, after the 
collection had been prepared, packed, and despatched. It thus happens that u largo 



INTRODUCTION. Ill 

proportion of the contributions from the southern forests in the Bombay Presidency 
from Sind, Oudh, and Chittagong, and a portion of those from Madras and Assam 
could not be utilized for the Exhibition, because they arrived too late. 

"The difficulty was, in the short time available, to bring together seasoned pieces 
of the different species required. Fortunately, a number of pieces collected between 
1866 and 1870, from the North- West and Central Provinces, the Punjab and British 
Burma, which had been kept at Calcutta until they should be required, were available. 
Some of these pieces had decayed or been eaten by insects, but the remainder yielded 
a number of excellent and thoroughly seasoned specimens : and it is remarkable how 
well many of the woods had kept in the damp climate of Calcutta. The specimens 
yielded by these collections were numbered from 160 to 353. 

" From the Punjab a large, varied, carefully named, and selected collection was sent 
by Mr. Baden-Powell, the Conservator, and the officers under his orders ; the main 
series is numbered from 881 to 947, while those sent from the forests of Kulu, Kangra 
and Chamba, by Lieutenant-Colonel Stenhouse and Mr. Pengelly, are numbered, re- 
spectively, 116 to 132, 602 to 617, and 770 to 782. 1 

" Besides these collections and those made by the undersigned in Simla, and already 
alluded to, the Rev. Mr. Heyde of the Moravian Mission, Lahoul, sent a number of 
most interesting specimens from the arid districts of the inner Himalaya (numbered 
133 to 144 inclusive) : and Mr. F. Halsey of Madhopur sent a small collection of fine, 
well-seasoned pieces from the district of Gurdaspur (numbered 1190 to 1201). 

" The contributions of Ajmere were not large enough to give timber specimens of 
the size required for the Exhibition ; they were numbered from 437 to 472. 

" Mr. Groig, the Conservator of Forests in the North Western Provinces, sent col- 
lections made by Messrs. O'Callaghan and Bagshawe and Captain Campbell in the 
forests of Dehra Dun, Jaunsar, and Kumaun ; they are numbered respectively 527 to 
544, 420 to 432, and 873 to 875. Larger collections had been made, but, as the logs 
were unseasoned, they were not sent down to Calcutta. From Oudh a few well- 
seasoned pieces were early received (Nos. 387 to 394), but the remainder did not arrive 
till after the Exhibition specimens had left Calcutta. 

" The collections sent from Bengal under the orders of the Conservator, Dr. W. 
Schlich, arrived, with the exception of those from Chittagong, in very good time, and 
furnished a large number of interesting specimens from parts of the country the forest 
resources of which are not yet generally known. Mr. Richardson's contributions from 
the Sundarbans (Nos. 395 to 419) illustrate well the forest growth of the delta of the 
Ganges and Brahmaputra ; and those sent by Mr. Chester from Chittagong (Nos. 708 
to 722, and 1951 to 1965) would have been of great interest had not the main series 
arrived too late. But the chief collections received were sent by Messrs. Johnston and 
Manson and the late Mr. Bonham Carter from the Darjeeling Hills and Terai, 
numbering 170 pieces (Nos, 351 to 385, 433 to 436, 473 to 500, 573 to 601, 618 to 
627, and 641 to 707), and including several very valuable and interesting kinds of 
timber. Besides these, a small collection of 14 specimens (Nos. 964 to 976) was ob- 
tained by Dr. Schlich from the valley of Chumbi, to the north of Sikkim ; which, though 
to the south of the main Himalayan range, is actually in Thibet territory ; and which 
had not hitherto been explored. 

" The collections from Assam sent by Mr. Gustav Mann, the Deputy Conservator, 
and by the Deputy Commissioners of Cachar and Sylhet, included many fine and well- 
seasoned pieces. These were numbered from 628 to 641, 783 to 799, 1228 to 1234, 
1254 to 1277, 1285 to 1300 the last numbers arriving too late for the Exhibition. 

1 Besides the numbers here given as indicating the specimens received from the Pun- 
jab and other provinces, there are a few scattered numbers which it has not been thouerht 
necessary to quote. 



IV INTRODUCTION. 

" From the Central Provinces, the Conservator, Captain Doveton, sent a coll?ction 
of well-seasoned pieces, numbering 1101 to 1186, procured by Mr. Eichard Thompson 
from the Chanda forests. 

" From Berar Mr. Drysdale, the Deputy Conservator, sent fine pieces of timber, 
numbered 820 to 844, and a valuable series of fibres, numbered 977 to 989. 

" The contributions from the Bombay Presidency comprised a few pieces from Guzerat, 
Poona, and Ahmednagar, too small for cutting up, and a number of large pieces sent 
by Lieutenant-Colonel Peyton, the Conservator, and Mr. Barrett, the Deputy Conser- 
vator, from North Kanara, numbered 992, 993, 1217 to 1227 : the latter, as well as 
the Sind specimens already referred to, and numbered 1379 to 1384, unfortunately 
arriving too late for the Exhibition. 

"The collections sent from Madras were very full and complete. Those from the 
eastern side of the Presidency were sent by Colonel Beddome, the Conservator, and 
numbered from 1051 to 1100. Besides this collection a few logs and specimens of 
minor produce came from Gumsur the logs too late for cutting up. From the AVest 
Coast were received a large number of specimens, Nos. 723 to 769, 845 to 869, pre- 
pared by Mr. Cherry in South Kanara. From Malabar Mr. Ferguson, the officer in 
charge, sent a most interesting series of sections of young trees, illustrating the rapid 
growth of teak in the magnificent Conolly plantations at Nilambur. 

"The pieces received from Burma were not very numerous, though they comprised 
the most useful kinds of trees. Many of them were of very large size. The logs sent 
by Major Seaton, the Conservator at Moulmein, were numbered 545 to 554 and 11)11 
to 1950 ; while those from Mr. Kibbentrop, the Conservator at Rangoon, were from 
555 to 572 and from 801 to 819. 

"A most important collection was sent from the Andaman Islands by Major Generrl 
Barwell, the Chief Commissioner. It consisted of 26 large logs (Nos. 501 to 526;, 
besides numerous canes and bamboos. " 

It must not be supposed that because specimens were too late for the 
Exhibition that they were not utilized for the other distributed collec- 
tions and for the descriptions given herein ; on the contrary, they proved, 
several of them, most valuable for description, and especially those from 
Oudh, Sind, Gumsur and Chittagong 1 . 

After the Exhibition collections had been despatched, by the kindness 
of the Superintendent of the Royal Botanic Gardens, a series of 100 
Andaman Islands woods made iu 1866 by Lieutenant Colonel Ford, 
M.S.C., at that time Superintendent of Port Blair, and which were accom- 
panied by a carefully prepared bound catalogue, giving all the available 
information regarding quality and uses, was made available. This col- 
lection had been received in 1867, and, for better custody, had at that 
time been deposited in the Calcutta Gardens. Naturally, after ten years' 
storage in the moist climate of Calcutta, many of the specimens were 
found to be considerably damaged by decay or by the ravages of white- 
ants, but it was remarkable that so many species were found to be 
sound and to have sulliciently resisted those destructive agencies to bo 
capable of furnishing good .specimens for description and distribution. 
They are numbered 13 2201 to B 2300, and an exam i nation of the lUt 



INTRODUCTION. V 

appended to this work will show what species in particular were fit 
for use. A small hand collection was also received from the Salem Dis- 
trict, Madras ; and a small collection of Ceylon woods was available from 
the Inspector General's Office. These were separately numbered and 
have been separately quoted. 

The chief contributors of further specimens for purposes of description 
were Colonel Beddome, Captain Bailey, R.E., Messrs. Ribbentrop, Thomp- 
son, Dodsworth, Smythies, Vincent, Johnston, Elliot, Oliver, Manson, 
Fuchs, Wilmot, all Forest Officers; as well as Dr. G. King and Mr. J. 
F. Duthie, the Superintendents of the Botanic Gardens at Calcutta and 
Saharunpur. 

Taking all these sources together, the number of specimens named, 
numbered, and described reaches 2,530, belonging to 906 species and 432 
genera. All the wood specimens described in this work bear a letter and 
a number, the numbers having been given in the order of receipt, and 
each number refers to the particular specimen or series of specimens cut 
out of one log or piece. In this way there can be no mistake, any number- 
ed specimen can be at once compared with its description in the book by 
means of its number, the index of numbers, and the list of specimens at 
the end of the description of each species. It will be noticed that 
some of the serial numbers from 1 to 3636 are not represented in 
this work. The reason is that when the Paris Exhibition collections 
were numbered the specimens of dyes, fibres, manufactured articles, etc., 
were also included; these, or most of them, have now been omitted, 
as well as such, of the wood specimens as were in too bad a condition 
for description, or regarding the correct names of which any doubt 
was felt. 

The letter represents the region from which the specimen came. 
For this purpose eight regions have been established, on the principle 
that the forests comprised in one region should possess a similar climate 
and a similar flora. 

The regions so established and the letters by which they are desig- 
nated are 

H. The North- West Himalaya, comprising the mountains of that range above an 

elevation of 3,000 feet, between the Indus and the Sardah river on the Nepal 

frontier. 
P. Tlie dry and arid region of the plains and lower hills of the Punjab, Eajpu- 

taua, andSind. 
0. The plains and Sub-Himalayan tract of the North- West Provinces, Oudh and 

Gorakhpur, ascending to 3,000 feet. 
C. Central India, the hilly country lying south of the Jumna and north of the 

Godavery Biver, and including the Vindhia and Satpura Hills, as well as Orissa. 



VI INTRODUCTION. 

E. The North-East comprising the Himalaya from the Nepal frontier eastwards, 
the Khasia Hills, Assam, Oachar, Chittagong and the Sundarbans. 

D. The Dekkan, comprising the country to the south of the Godavery, and chiefly 
included in Madras and Mysore. 

W. The west coast of the peninsula, comprising the Western Ghats and the coun- 
try lying between them and the sea. 

B. British Burma, including the Andaman Islands. 

Exception might, perhaps, be taken to some points in this classifica- 
tion. The flora of Chittagong is, in reality, quite as closely allied to that of 
Burma as to that of Northern Bengal and Assam ; while that of Orissa 
and Gaujam (Northern Circars) might, perhaps, have more correctly been 
classed with the flora of the Caroatic than with that of Central India, 
But the classification adopted is a convenient one, and was established by 
Dr. Brandis after very careful consideration and discussion. And it will 
be seen by a reference to the accompanying map, kindly furnished by 
Mr. H. F. Stanford, F.R.S., Meteorological Reporter to the Government 
of India, that the regions which we have designated by the eight letters, 
whose meaning we have just described, are really the regions which re- 
present the different zones of comparative rainfall. The map, it will be 
seen, is coloured in four shades from white to dark blue, represent- 
ing : 

1. The Arid Zone with a rainfall less than 15 inches. 

2. Dry Zone of between 15 and 30 inches. 

3. Intermediate Zone 30 and 70 inches. 

4. Moist Zone of over 70 inches. 

The first or Arid Zone covers only the north-western plains of the 
Punjab, Sind, and Rajputana ; this, with a portion of the Dry Zone, to 
the north and east of it, constitute the region marked by the letter ' P '. 

The Dry Zone has also two further areas in South India, that is in 
India south of the latitude of 21; these areas, together with the portion 
of the Intermediate Zone on the east coast of the Peninsula south of the 
River Godavery and a narrow strip along the east of the range of the 
Western Ghats, form the region which we have designated by the letter 
1 D \ It may, however, be remarked that Berar, from the similarity of 
its flora to that of the Central Provinces, is classed, though strictly 
speaking within the Dry Zone, under region ' C '. 

The rest of the Intermediate Zone, forming quite half of the whole 
country, occupies a band stretching right across the liead of the Penin- 
sula, as well as a strip along the foot of the Great Himalayan Range. 
Though, comparatively speaking, this large area possesses a flora showing 
a general common likeness and similarity, yet wo can easily divide 
it into two by considering the great sl belt between the foot of the Hima- 



INTRODUCTION. Vll 

laya and the Gauges as one section ; and the great main belt of sal passing 
into teak between that river and a southern boundary approximately re- 
presented by the river Godavery, as a second. These two sections 
correspond to the regions represented respectively by the letters ' O. ' 
and < C '. 

The Moist Zone, shown in the map in dark blue, occupies two main 
areas ijirst, the great belt of the mountain ranges of northern and north- 
east India from Kashmir, through Nepal, Sikkim and Assam, to Chitta- 
gong and Burma; and, second, the narrow belt along the western coast. 
This latter corresponds to the region we have marked ' W ', while the 
former is divided into 3 sections, each having its characteristic flora : 
These are 

1. The Himalayan region, from Kashmir to the boundary of Nepal at the Sarda 

river, in longitude about 81. 

2. The Himalayan region, from the Nepal boundary at the Mechi river, in longi- 

tude nearly 88, the Assam Valley, Khasia Hills, Cachar, and Chittagong, 
together with the Delta of the Ganges. 

3. Burma, including the Andaman Islands. 

and are respectively represented by the letters c H ', ' E ' and f B '. 

So that, with trifling exceptions, the zones of rainfall and the regions 
represented by the letters prefixed to the numbers of the specimens agree 
with each other. 

As far as it was published, Bentham and Hooker's " Genera Plantarum" 
furnished the order in which the families were arranged, as well as 
the general nomenclature of genera and species. At the time that 
most of the work was written (1878) the " Genera Plantarum" had only 
been published as far as the end of Qamopetala. Since then the Apetala 
have been completed, while the Monocotyledons may be expected to be 
published before long. In almost all cases the names given in the 
" Flora Indica" have been taken, though there are a few exceptions in 
some of the genera in which it was considered best to use better known 
names, quoting always the names given in the "Flora Indica" as 
synonyms. The "Flora Indica" is quoted as far as the end of the 
second volume, that is, to the end of Cornacea. The third volume 
of the ' Genera Plantarum' and the third volume of the ' Flora Indica/ 
now in course of publication, have very considerably altered the genera 
and specific names of many of the plants whose woods are here 
described. To have inserted these alterations either during the course 
of the printing, or as 'Corrigenda'* would have caused considerable 
delay; and so the text remains as it was written. But when a new 
edition is published very great alterations will have to be made and 



Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

especially in some of the large orders like ' Lauraceae/ which will have 
to be entirely remodelled. Generally speaking, the only books regularly 
quoted, are 

1. Hooker's Flora Indica. 

2. Roxburgh's Flora Indica. 

3. Brandis' Forest Flora of North-West and Central India. 

4. Beddome's Flora Sylvatica of the Madras Presidency. 

5. Kurz's Forest Flora of British Burma. 

6. Gamble's Trees, Shrubs and Large Climbers of the Darjeeling District. 

The last-mentioned work being referred to merely as indicating that 
the tree in question is found in the North-East Himalaya, in the same 
way as Brandis' Forest Flora shows that the tree is found in North-West 
and Central India ; Beddome's Flora that it occurs in Madras ; Kurz's 
Forest Flora that it is a native of Burma. 

A list of other works from which information has been drawn is 
appended to this introduction, and it must always be borne in mind 
that, excepting the actual descriptions of the woods, very little of 
what is here given is new, but has been compiled from all available 
sources of information. In this way the chief points of information 
here recorded under each species are 

1. The scientific name with synonyms, so far as the six books referred to above 

are concerned. 

2. The vernacular names selected with as much care as possible and with the 

spelling given according to the most ordinary system and the pronunciation 
of the word. 

3. The description of the wood. 

4. The geographical distribution, as shortly as possible. 

5. The record of all available information regarding rate of growth. 

6. The results of all experiments on weight and strength that it was possible to 

quote. 

7. The uses to which the wood and other products of the tree are generally put. 

8. The list of specimens used in identification and description. 

To have added also a botanical description of the plant, as is done in 
Mathieu's " Flore Forestiere " would have doubtless increased the value of 
the work, but it would have at least doubled its size; and, in the present 
state of our knowledge of the Indian Flora, would have been almost 
impossible. Besides, as has been already explained, the number of species 
of which the woods have been described is only a small proportion in 
reality of the total number of species of woody plants inhabiting India. 
But some attempt has been made to notice even the species which have 
not been described. In some important genera, a list of known species 
and their geographical habitat has been given, in other genera other 
species oi note huvu been mentioned, and, whenever possible, notes regard- 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

ing the uses and qualities of the wood and the other products of the trees 
so referred to have been added. One great object in having thus men- 
tioned other species has been kept in view; viz., to show Forest Officers 
and others who may have the opportunity, what we have not got, and so 
persuade them to help, by sending to the writer or to the Forest School 
Museum, specimens that can be described and help at some future time in 
the publication of a more correct and complete description of the Indian, 
woods than can now be attempted. In a few cases where most of the 
species are well known, as, for instance, the Maples, an attempt at an 
analytical key by which the species may be roughly determined in the 
forests has been given. In the French Forest Flora this has been done 
for all species, and the different Indian Forest Floras have similar 
analyses, but they are all dependent on more or less difficult botanical 
characters, while what we chiefly require is a series of keys which shall 
enable a non-botanical Forest Officer to ascertain the species of the tree 
he meets with, by means of the more conspicuous differences in habit, 
bark, and leaf. 

It is now necessary to explain how the descriptions of the woods were 
made. During the progress of the work of preparation of specimens in 
Calcutta, and afterwards at more leisure in Simla, the examination of the 
different woods and their description was made by a committee which 
consisted of 

1. Dr. D. Brandis, F.R.S., C .I.E., Inspector General of Forests. 

2. Mr. J. S. Gamble, M.A., Assistant to the Inspector General of Forests. 

3. Mr. A. Smythies, B. A., Assistant Conservator of Forests, Central Provinces. 

The descriptions were usually dictated by Dr. Brandis, and written 
down by one of the others, generally Mr. Smythies, but the wood struc- 
ture was examined by all three officers and discussed before the descrip- 
tion was finally passed. The whole was gone over three or four times, 
and in the later examinations, when the Committee was more accus- 
tomed to the differences of structure, the generic and family characters 
were discussed and drawn up. Some of the later received specimens, as 
well as those given in ' Addenda/ were described by the writer, but on 
the same plan and principle as was originally adopted by the Committee. 

In the description of the woods the chief characters of which note 
has been given are : 

1. Size of tree. 

2. Evergreen or deciduous. 

3. Description of bark 

a. Colour. 

b. Thickness. 

c. Appearance and lissuros, exfoliation. 



X INTRODUCTION. 

4. Description of wood (sapwood and heartwood) * 

a. Colour. 

b. Hardness. 

c. Grain. 

5. Annual rings. 

6. Pores. 

7. Medullary rays. 

8. Other characters, such as the presence or absence of concentric markings. 
and these characters require a short explanation. 

1. Size. The plants are usually described as " shrubs "," large shrubs", 
" small trees ", " trees", " large trees", and " very large trees", according 
to general size; or as " climbing" or "straggling plants". 

2. Evergreen or Deciduous. These characters are given as far as our 
knowledge of the trees extends, and are easily understood. 

3. Bark. Is described according to its colour, which usually presents 
some shade of grey or brown, varying into white, or red, or black ; its thick- 
ness represented by the fractions of the inch ; its roughness or smoothness, 
and the fissures and cbf ts into which it is cut externally ; its texture whe- 
ther hard or soft, papery or corky ; and the way in which it exfoliates. 

4. Woo d.- The wood is described whenever possible according to 
both sapwood and heartwood. The colour is given as nearly as possible 
according to the shades, usually of white or brown, but varying into red, 
grey, yellow, purple ? nd black. The hardness is given according to the 
different categories as 'extremely soft", "very soft", " soft", ' l moderately 
hard", " hard", "very hard", and " extremely hard", and in order to give 
an idea of thes& different categories we may instance the following among 
well-known trees : 

Extremely soft . . Cochlospermum Gossypium. 

Very soft . . . Sterculia villosa ; Bombnx malabaricum. 

Soft . . . Cedrela Toona ; Albizzia stipulata. 

Moderately hard . . Ficus bengalensis ; Tectona grandis. 

Hard . . . Shorea robusta ; Terminalia tomentosa. 

Very hard . . . Dalbergia Sissoo ; Quercus semecar pi folia. 

Extremely hard . . Pterocarpus santalimis ; Hardivickia binata. 

The grain is usually recorded as being " close ", " even ", (( open ", 
" rough ", " cross", &c., &c., and the relative roughness or smoothness is 
generally given. 

5. Annual rings. In the description of the wood these are only 
referred to as regards their presence or absence, their being more or less 
well marked, and the marks which so distinguish them. 

6. Pores. As in the case of the hardness, so, too, the pores air de- 
scribed according to a scale of size which varies in those trees which 
possess them, as " extremely small ", " very small ", " small ", " moderate 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

sized ", " large ", " very large ", and " extremely large ". As examples 
of these categories may be given 

Extremely small . . . Buxus sempervirens. 

Very small . . . Acer pictum. 

Small . . . Adina cordifolia. 

Moderate-sized . . . Bassia latifolia. 

Large . . Albizzia Lebbek. 

Very large . . . Erythrina subero&a. 

Extremely large . . Many climbers, 

7. Medullary rays. The classification of the medullary rays has been 
made upon a similar plan, and they have been divided into tl extremely 
fine", " very fine", " fine", " moderately broad", broad", " very broad", 
and " extremely broad ", examples of which categories are- 
Extremely fine . . . Euonymus lacerus. 

Very fine . . . Diospyros Melanoxylon. 

Fine . . . Albizzia Lebbek. 

Moderately broad . . Dillenia pentagyna. 

Broad . . . Platanus orientalis. 

Very broad . . . Quercus incana. 

Extremely broad . . /Samara robusta. 

In addition, the distance between the medullary rays is usually given 
and is compared with the diameter of the pores. The medullary rays are 
said to be distant when they are further apart than twice the diameter 
of the pores, and in some species they are closer together than that 
diameter, often bending round the pores which come between them. 

8. Other characters. The most noticeable of these are the presence or 
absence of concentric bars across the rays; and of patches of white tissue 
and the way they are disposed. These other characters are often 
valuable accessaries in determining the genera, and even the family to 
which a wood belongs. The woods of different species of ANONACE^: are 
all characterised by regular ladder-like transverse bars, and so far as the 
experience gained in the preparation of this work goes, the character 
affords an unmistakeable sign for recognizing the trees of that order. 

In SAPOTACEJE again, the wavy concentric lines and the arrangement 
of the pores in short wavy lines affords a character which is almost cer- 
tain; and if any doubt could arise it would be between that order and 
its neighbour the EBENACEJE, which, however, almost always differs in 
having the wood of a white, grey or black colour, while that of 
SAPOTACE.E is generally some shade of red. 

Concentric lines of soft texture occur in many families and genera. 
They are very common in the LEGUMINOS^E, as may be seen from the 
description of the seven groups which the woods of that family form, as 
described at pages 115, 116. They occur also in Garcinia and Mesua 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

among GurriFER^ ; in Maodendron, Celastrus, and Lophopetalum among 
CELASTRINE^} ; in Heynea, Amoora } and Wahura among MELIACE^ ; Cordia 
in BORAGINE^J, and in other genera. The wood of the trees of the great 
and important order of CONIFERS is always recognizable, at any rate, by 
the constant character of the absence of pores ; that of the CUPULIFER^S 
by the arrangement of the pores in wavy, radial lines, and a particular 
texture; somewhat broad medullary rays often indicate the orders 
DILLENIACE^E, E-HizopHoiiE^E, and MYRSiNE^B ; a close and even-grained 
wood, most species of the great order of RUBIACEJR ; while the large 
genus Ficus has its woods extremely uniform in character and recognized 
by alternate layers of soft and firm tissue. 

In this way a little practice enables a very near guess to be made at 
the scientific name of the tree which gave any wood which it may be 
necessary to determine, and it may be hoped that, with a rather wider 
acquaintance with the woods of India, we may be in a position to draw up 
an analytical table for the woods which are most chiefly in use in India, 
similar to that given at the end of the French Forest Flora. 

Mention has been made of some families and genera which have woods 
of similar character and structure, but it is also necessary to point out 
that there is no regular rule for determining orders and genera by means 
of the wood, for in some cases the structure of the different component 
genera or species presents characters of a very dissimilar type. In the 
genus Dalbergia, for instance, there is a very great dissimilarity, so that 
while three species (see p. 12-1<) have hard dark-coloured heavy woods, 
others have white, often soft, woods without heartwood, and one species 
has the peculiarity of a wood divided into concentric rings, which are often 
separable, of alternate layers of wood and bark-like tissue. 

But, in general, it may be said that in the same genus the wood 
structure is usually constant, and in this way the character may often 
serve as a valuable aid in botanic investigation, as it has constantly done 
in palaeontology. 

It is not always easy to give in words an explanation of the reasons 
which lead one who is tolerably conversant with the structure of woods to 
pronounce an opinion ; there arc often characters of appearance, touch, 
colour, odour, &c., which afford clues, as well as the arrangement and 
relative size of the pores and medullary rays, and the presence or absemv 
of annual rings; so that it is really only experience and habit that can 
teach us to recognize, from a mere inspection of a wood, the place which 
it ought to occupy in the natural system. 

As an instance of how the btruclure oi' a wood may bear out an opinion 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

on generic distinction the following may be given. When describing 
the woods of the different species of Olive, one kind was met with which 
presented a structure entirely dissimilar from the rest. This was our 
No. E 379 which was sent, accompanied by leaf specimens, from the 
higher forests of Sikkim. Wishing to ascertain the name, Dr. Brandis 
took the specimens to the Calcutta Herbarium, and after careful examina- 
tion pronounced them to belouir to a species of (Mmtntkus, a genus 
closely allied to Olea, and it is as Osmanthus, nov. sp., that the 
wood is described at p. 257. A few days ago, in the forest near 
Darjeeling, the writer found trees of the well known Osmanthus fragram, 
and on examining the wood, found that it agreed in structure with 
No. E. 379, having the pretty network of anastomosing bands of pores, 
and not the more regular and uniform arrangement presented by Olea. 
So that the correctness of Dr. Brandis' determination is borne out 
by the structure of the wood at any rate. 

The examination of specimens to determine the rate of growth was 
chiefly made by Mr. Smythies, assisted at one time by Dr. Warth ; and, 
in writing the account of rate of growth, reference has been made to all 
the information published, or otherwise obtainable, on the subject. For 
the principal woods some data have been procured which will doubtless 
be very valuable ; while even the record of the countings made on our 
email specimens is, though not absolutely reliable, at any rate useful as 
a commencement. Whenever possible, countings were made on the log, 
on the whole diameter of the section, but time and leisure were not 
always available for this during the work in Calcutta, so that many of 
the results given are merely calculated from an inspection of such pieces 
as were available, and are necessarily, therefore, not completely reliable. 
This explanation is necessary, in order that it may be well understood, 
that our record is not always a record of the results of a series of care- 
fully conducted experiments and examinations, but in many cases is only 
given as a beginning and as being the best information available. 

The discussion of the rate of growth of teak was based on a memo- 
randum which was published by Dr. Brandis on the subject and circu- 
lated ; that of siil was chiefly drawn up by Mr. Smythies, and ap- 
peared first in Vol. IV, page 324, of the Indian Forester ; the rest were 
drawn up by the writer. Information regarding the rate of growth of 
our forest trees is one of the greatest of our desiderata, as such informa- 
tion is essential to the determination of the rotation of forests and the 
construction of working plans, so that no possible opportunity should be 
lust of collecting inlbrmatiou 011 the subject. 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

The rate of growth is recorded as " slow ", " moderate ", or " fast ", 
according as the number of rings per inch is greater than 12, between 12 
and 6, and less than 6. These correspond to ages at 6 feet in girth of 
134 years, 67 to 134, and 67 years respectively. 

Weight. As already stated in reference to the annual rings, the ex- 
periments made with our specimens in ascertaining the specific gravity 
of different kinds of woods, are also merely given as being often the only 
information available. Most of the specimens weighed were of small size, 
and they were, perhaps, not always cut so as to be capable of very exact 
measurement, but, nevertheless, the information obtained is of value and 
can serve until it is supplemented or superseded by more accurate experi- 
ments made with a large choice of specimens. 

The weighings were done by Mr. Smythies and Dr. H. Warth, and 
the result is given in the form of the number of pounds per cubic foot, as 
being a more easily utilized form of information than the figures repre- 
senting the specific gravity, compared with that of water taken as 1. 
The weight here recorded is always, unless otherwise stated, that of sea- 
soned timber, and it is given as " light", ".moderately heavy", " heavy '% 
and i{ very heavy " according as the woods give :- 

Light, less than 301bs. per cubic foot. 

Moderately heavy, from 301bs. to SOlbs. per cubic foot. 

Heavy, from 501bs. to 701bs. per cubic foot. 

Very heavy, over 701bs. per cubic foot. 

As in the Forest Flora of North- West and Central India, only the in- 
formation regarding the transverse strength of timber is recorded, though 
in a few cases the modulus of elasticity is also given. 

In regard to transverse strength, the value of P is the result obtained 

by the formula 

w x L 

B x D a 

where 

W=The breaking weight, or the weight which when placed ou the middle of the 

bar causes it to break. 

L=the length of the bar between supports, in feet. 
B=the breadth of the bar, in inches. 
D=its thickness, in inches. 

A great number of recorded experiments have been brought together, 
chiefly from those made by Baker, Skinner, Benson, Bennett, Dundas, 
and others, while in these pages are for the first time published the re- 
sults of the valuable and careful experiment* made in Calcutta by Dr. 
Brandis in 1864. 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

In writing- tlio remarks on Mm products of en< h free, tho uses for 
which its wood is valuable, and the various economic purposes to which 
the hark, fibre, gum, fruit, leaves, &c., are put, information has been 
extracted from a very large series of books and papers, official documents 
and notes furnished by the officers who contributed to the Paris Exhibi- 
tion. In fact, almost all available sources of information have been con- 
sulted in order to make the remarks as complete as possible. But there 
is still much to be done, every day adds some new fact to the stores of 
our information regarding 1 Indian trees : and the Departmental Reports, 
the Indian Forester, and the various publications of Government on 
the different subjects of economic interest, the dyes, fibres, gums, oils, 
&c., are constantly still increasing this information, so that before long 
even the more recently added items will become old in their turn. 
As our knowledge of Indian trees and their uses and capabilities extends, 
and as specimens are obtained and wood structures described, so it is 
hoped that facts may be collected which will enable some future Forest 
Officer to revise and republish this work, bringing it up to date and 
making more wide the area of our knowledge of the wonderful 
productions of the very varied forest flora of India. It may be 
called ambitious to attempt a description, even iu the shape of a f Pro- 
dromus/ of the woods of such a wide field as that of British India; but 
the difficulty would always be, in attempting to restrict the area, that 
the various floras of the different regions run so much into one another, 
and so often contain the same or similar species ; so that it may be hoped 
that the publication of this work, which, except as regards the wood struc- 
ture alone, is only after all a compilation, will be looked upon chiefly as 
an attempt to describe the principal woods of India, and in a less degree 
as a convenient book of reference for the native names and economic uses 
of Indian trees. 

The Addenda-Corrigenda sheets are rather lengthy, but the num- 
ber of corrected mistakes is not very great, the chief reason for length 
heing the addition of descriptions of woods lately obtained and of native 
names not before published. The K61 names for instance, it is believed, 
are herein published for the first time : these, as well as a few Oraon, 
Bhumij and Kharwar names, were collected by the writer in the winter of 
1880-81; and he has also added a number of Uriya names obtained 
in the forests of Khurda, and Magh and Bengali names obtained in 
Chittagong. The Meclii and Garo names attached to Mr. Shakespear's 
collections in the Bengal Forest Herbarium have also been added, as 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

well as the Mysore names published recently by Major VanSomeren. 
Some further information regarding the rate of growth has also been 
given. 



J. S. GAMBLE. 



DAEJEELING : 
November, 188 L 



XVII 



LIST OF BOOKS AND PUBLISHED PAPKllS UEMKKMI) TO. 

Anderson. An Enumeration of the Palms of Sikkim. Journal of the Lin: 
{Society of London, 1868. 

. An Enumeration of the Indian Species of Acanthaceso. Journal of tin- 

Linnean Society of London, 1866. 

Atkinson. Economic Products of the North- Western Provinces. * Gums and Gum- 
resins,' Allahabad, 1876. 

Baden-Powell. Hand-book of the Economic Products of the Punjab, Roorkee, 
1868. 

Baker. Experiments on the Elasticity and Strength of Different Kinds of Timber. 
Gleanings in Science, 1829. 

Balfour. Timber Trees of India, Madras, 1870. 

Beddome. Flora Sylvatica of the Madras Presidency, Madras, 1869-73. 
. Report on the Nilambur Teak Plantations, Madras, 1878. 

Bennett. Experiments on Andaman woods. Professional Papers on Indian En- 
gineering, Roorkee. 

Bentham and Hooker. Genera Plantarum, Vols. I and II. 

Bidie. Report on Neilgherry Loranthaceous Plants, Madras, 1874. 

Brandis. Forest Flora of North-West and Central India, London, 1 874. 

. List of Specimens of the Woods of British Burma sent to England for the 

International Exhibition of 1862, Calcutta. 1878. 

Catalogue of Specimens sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1878, Calcutta, 



1878. 

Brandis and others. Report on the Deodar Forests of Bussahir, 1865. 

. Working Plan for the Bias Forests, 1871. 

. Working Plan for the Deoban Working Circle, 1875. 

. Preliminary Working Plan of the Sutlej Working Circle. 
1875. 

. Suggestions regarding the Demarcation and Management of 
the Forests of Kulu, 1877. 

Brandis. Suggestions regarding Forest Administration in the Central Provinces, 
1876. 

. Suggestions regarding Forest Administration in the Hyderabad Assi-n i 
Districts, 3877. 

. Suggestions regarding Forest Administration in Assam, 1879. 
-. Suggestions regarding Forest Administration in A j mere and Merwara, 

-LO/ i/. 

Cathcart and Hooker. Illustrations of Himalayan Plants, London, 1855. 
Clarke. Composite Indicse, Calcutta, 1876. 

. A Revision of the Ferns of Northern India. Transactions of the Linneui 
Society, 1880. 

Cleghorn. The Forests and Gardens of South India, London, 1861. 

Clifford. Memorandum on the Timber of Bengal, Calcutta, 1862. 

Collins. Hi-port on the Caoutchouc of Commerce. London, 1872. 

Cooke. Report on the Guui*, Resins, Ac., iu the India Museum, London, 187-1. 



XV111 LIST OF BOOKS AND PUBLISHED PAPERS REFERRED TO. 

Cooke. Report on the Oilseeds and Oils in the India Museum, London, 1874. 

Cunningham. On Stone and Timber of the Gwalior Territory, Roorkee Professional 
Papers, 1854. 

De-Candolle. Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis, Paris, 1824- 1 873. 

. Monographic Phanerogamarum, Vol. I, Meliaceae, Paris, 1878. 
Don. Prodromus Florae Nepalensis, London, 1825. 
Drury. The Useful Plants of India, Madras, 1858. 

Dundas. Experiments made at Lucknow on the Strength of Sal and Teak Timber. 
Professional Papers on Indian Engineering, 1879. 

Fernandez and Smythies. Report on the Bijeragogarh Reserved Forests, Nag- 
pore, 1875. 

Firminger. A Manual of Gardening for India, Calcutta, 1869. 
Fliickiger and Hanbury. Pharmacographia, London, 1874. 
Forsyth. Highlands of Central India, London, 1871. 

Gamble. List of the Trees, Shrubs, and Large Climbers of the Durjeeling District, 
Calcutta, 1878. 

Griffith. The Palms of British East India, Calcutta, 1850. 

Heifer. The Provinces of Ye, Tavoy, and Mergui on the Tenasserim Coast, Calcutta, 
1839. 

Hiern. Monograph of the Ebenacese. Cambridge Phil. Soc. Transactions, 1873. 
Hill and Vincent. Plan of Operations for the Simla Municipal Forests, 1876. 

Holtzapffel. Descriptive Catalogue of the Woods commonly employed in the Me- 
chanical and Ornamental Arts, London, 1852. 

Home. Report on the Vegetation of the Andaman Islands, Calcutta, 1S74. 
Hooker. Flora of British India, Vols. I & II. 
. Himalayan Journals, London, 1854. 

. The Rhododendrons of the Sikkim Himalaya, London, 1849. 

and Baker. Synopsis Filicum, London, 1874. 

Hunter. Statistical Account of Bengal, London, 1877. 

Keay. Scantlings of Timber for Flat Roofs, Roorkee, 1872. 

King and Dey. A Glossary of Indian Plants, Calcutta, 1879. 

Kurz. Report on the Vegetation of the Andaman Islands, Calcutta, 1870. 

. Preliminary Forest Report of Pegu, Calcutta, 1875. 

. Forest Flora of British Burma, Calcutta, 1877. 

Lang. Indian Timber Trees. Professional Papers on Indian Engineering. 
Laslett. Timber and Timber Trees, London, 1875. 
Lewin. The Hill Tracts of Chittagong, Calcutta, 1869. 
Lindley and Moore. Treasury of Botany, London, 1873. 
Mathieu. Flore Forestiore, Paris, 1877. 

Molesworth. Graphic Diagrams for the Strength of Teak Beams. Professional 
Papers on Indian Engineering, Roorkee. 

Munro. A Monograph of the Bainbusaceae. Transactions of the Linnean Sorii-iv. 

1868. 

Mueller. Select Plants for Industrial Culture, Melbourne, 1876. 
Newbery. Descriptive Catalogue of the Economic Woods of Victoria, Melbourne, 

1877. 
Ribbentrop. Hints on Arboriculture in the Panjab, Calcutta, 1874. 

Working Plan ofthu Kalatop Forest. Is73. 
Koxburgh. Flora Indica, Calcutta, 1832, ivpriut 17-1. 



LIST OF BOOKS AND PUBLISHED PAPERS REFERRED TO. XIX 

Royle. Illustrations of the Botany of the Himalayan Mountains, London, 1839. 

. The Fibrous Plants of India, London, 1855. 

Schlich. Keport on the Pyinkado Forests of Arakan, Rangoon, 1870. 
Sebort. Notice sur les Bois de la Nouvelle Caledonie, Paris. 
Skinner. Description and Strength of some Indian Timbers, Madras, 1862. 
Stewart. Punjab Plants, Lahore, 1869. 

Strettell. Note on Caoutchouc obtained from Chavannesia esculenta, Rangoon, 
1874. 

Thompson. Keport on Insects Destructive to Woods and Forests, Allahabad, 1868. 
Thwaites. Enumeratio Plantarum Zeylaniae, London, 1864. 
Van Someren. List of the Forest Trees of Mysore and Coorg. 
Wallich. PlantsB Asiatics Kariores, London, 1830. 

. List of Indian Woods collected by . By A. Aikin. Transactions of 
the Society of Arts, 1839. 

Waring. Pharmacopoeia of India, London, 1868. 
Watson. List of Indian Products, London, 1872. 

. Index to Names of Eastern Plants and Products, London, 1868. 
Wight. Icones Plantarum Indise Orientalis, Madras, 1840-1853. 
. Illustrations of Indian Botany, Madras, 1838 53. 

Also numerous papers in the Indian Agriculturist, Statistical Reporter, Indian 
Forester and other periodicals. 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA. 



Page 1, last line but 6. For " H 2850. " read " II 2820." 

2, line 7. After " Andamans." add "It has a red bark, peeling off in hard (lakes ; 
lii^ht brown, moderately hard wood, with large round pores and 
broad medullary rays (E 3370. Kasalong Reserve, Chittagong.)" 

,, 2, Dillenia indica. To vernacular names add " Ramphal, Nep. ; Panpui, 
(Jaro; Betta kanagala, kad kanagala, Kan.; Chilta, Monghyr ; 
Oao, Uriya ; " 

2, line 6 from the bottom, after ' radius.' add " A round (E 2310) in the Bengal 
Forest Museum shews 62 rings for a mean radius of 6| inches, or 
nearly 9 rings per inch." 

3, line 4. Add " The leaves are said by Mr. Brownlow of Cachar to be used for 
feeding the silkworm Attacus Atlas" 

3, D. pentagyna. To vernacular names add " Pashkouli, Rajbanshi ; Ajar, 
Monghyr ; Uchki, Garo ; Korkot, Oraon ; Korkotta, Kdl ; Kaltega, 
lead kanagala, Kan. ; " 

,, 3, D. pentagyna. To numbers add 

"C3571. Khurdha Forests, Orissa .... 49 Ibs." 

5, Talauma Hodgsoni. To vernacular names add " Laigongron, Mechi ; 
Pankakro, Garo ;" 

,, 5 Magnolia Campbellii. Before vernacular names add " Red Magnolia." and 
to vernacular names add " Patagari, Bhutia ; " 

6, Michelia Cathcartii. To numbers add 

" E 3321. Darjeeling, 6,500 ft." 
6, M. excelsa. To vernacular names add " Pendre, Lepcha ;" 

7, line 2. After " specimens." add " Young specimens cut in the Park, Dar- 
jeeling, shew 4 to 7 rings per inch of radius ; while a large round 
(E 3631) in the Bengal Forest Museum, having a girth of 91 inches, 
shows 7 rings per inch mean growth." 

7, M. excelsa. To numbers add 

" E 3586. Darjeeling, 7,000 ft." 

7, line 18. After " growth moderate " add " 6 rings per inch of radius." 
7, M, lanuginosa. To numbers add 

" E 3331. Darjeeling, 6,000 ft 36 Ibs." 

9, PalyaltUla cerasoides. To vernacular names add " San hessare, Kan ; " 

9. After POLTALTHIA add " C 3483, from the Kolli.au Forests, Singbhiim, 
Chota Nagpore, is probably P. suberosa, Koxb. Vern. Saudi ome, 
K61. Bark thick, brown. Wood olive grey, hard, close-grained, 
resembling that of P. cerasoides." 

10, Saccopetalum tomentosum. To vernacular names add " Ome, hake Tiumv, 
K61 ; llessare, Kan. ; " 



Page 10, S. tomentosum. To numbers add 

" C 3471. Saranda Forests, Chota Nagpore." 

10. After SACCOPETALUM above the 12th line from the bottom of the 
page, add 

"C 3536, from the Khurdha Forests, Orissa. Vern. Patmossu, 
Uriya, resembles the wood of Saccopetalum tomentosum, but is whiter. 
Weight, 51 Ibs. per cubic foot." 

"E 3368, from the Kasalong Eeserve, Chittagong, is Unona 
longiflora, Eoxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 668; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 61; Kurz i. 
35, a small tree of Assam, the Khasia Hills, and Chittagong. Bark 
greenish-grey, thin, smooth. Wood yellowish white, moderately 
hard, close-grained. Pores small, scattered, scanty. Medullary rays 
moderately broad, joined by numerous white transverse bars. 

" B 3380, from the hills to the east of Toungoo, British Burma, 
is Mitrephora vandceflora, Kurz i. 45, a tree of the forests of 
Chittagong and Pegu, but chiefly found in the Martaban Hills. 
The wood is grey, moderately hard. Pores small to moderate-sized, 
not numerous. Medullary rays moderately broad, joined by numerous, 
regular, white transverse bars. 

" E 3300, from Chunbati, Darjeeling, 2,000 ft., is Goniothalamus 
sesguipedalis, Hook, f.^ and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 73 ; Kurz i. 41 ; 
Gamble 3. Vern. /Sane, Nep. ; Singnok, Lepcha, a small shrub of 
the Eastern Himalaya down to Burma. Bark black. Wood dark 
grey, soft. Pores extremely small. Medullary rays fine to moder- 
ately broad, wavy. Transverse bars very numerous, very fine." 

11, line 5. After " B 273." add " B 276." 

13, 26, .Fbr"521bs."rawZ551bs." 

13, 29. For " Naghanda " raicZ " Nagkanda" 

1 5. After " 2. C, aphylla " add 

" 3. C. horrida, Linn, f . ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 178 ; Brandis 15 ; 
Kurz i. 62. C. zeylanica, Hoxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 567. Vern. His, karvila, 
Pb. ; Karralura, Oudh ; Adonda, Tel.; Eaterni, Gondi; Giforan, 
Ajmere ; Bagnai, Monghyr ; Atanday, Tam. ; Oserwa, Uriya. 

" A climbing thorny shrub. Bark inch thick, brown, rough. 
Wood yellowish white, moderately hard. Pores small to moderate- 
sized, scanty. Medullary rays moderately broad, not numerous, 
short. Faint, wavy, concentric lines of soft tissue. 

"Most parts of India and Burma. 

"P3244. Ajmere 47 Ibs. 

" 4. C. multiflora, Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 178 ; 
Kurz i. 61 ; Gamble 5. Vern. Suntri, Nep. 

" A climbing thorny shrub. Bark smooth, dark. Wood white, 
moderately hard. Pores small, scanty. Medullary rays short, fine, 
Faint concentric lines of softer texture. 

" Eastern Himalaya, Upper Burma. 

" E 3349. Nagri, Darjeeling, 4,000 ft. 

" 6. C. olacifolia, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 178 ; Gam- 
ble 5. Vern. Naski, hais, Nop. ; Jhenok, Lepcha. 

" A thorny shrub. Bark { inch thick, brown, rough, corky. Wood 
white, hard. Pores small, often subdivided, or in radial lines. Medul- 
lary rays fine, very numerous. 

"Sub-Himalayan tract from Nepal to Assam, chiefly in the 
undergrowth of Sissu forests, along rivers. 

"E3297. Bulasun, Darjcelin- Tcrai . . . 44 Ibs. 



Ill 

"6. C. sepiaria, Linn.; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 177 ; Brandis 15; 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 568; Kurz i. 66. Vern. Hiun garna, Pb. ; 
Kanti Jcapali, Uriya. 

"A shrub. Bark brown, |th inch thick. Wood white, hard. 
Pores moderate-sized, scanty. Medullary rays short, fine. Faint, 
white, concentric bands. 

" Dry places in India and Burma. 

"P3242. Ajmere. 

"C 3580, from Khurdha, Orissa, is thi species. The wood 
resembles that of the Ajmere specimen, but the medullary rays are 
moderately broad and longer." 

15, Cratceva religiosa. To vernacular names add " Tailadu, bunboronda, 

Mechi ; Nirujani, Coorg ; " 

16, line 22. For "moderately fine " read "moderately broad " 
16, 32. After " Latkan" add " natkdnd," 

16, 33. After " Kuppa-manhala," add " rangamali" 

16, 13 from the bottom. Add after "Nilgiris" " Sanna solti, Hassan ;" 

16, 7 from the bottom. Before " Flacourtia " add "Bixa" 

16, last line but one. For " Kuntto." read " Kunth." 

17, Cochlospermum Gossypium. To vernacular names add " Hupu, K61 ; 

Betta tovare, Kan. ; Konto palds, Uriya ;" 

17, line 17. After "Burghers," add " Dodda jepalu, Kan." 

18, Flacourtia Ramontchi. To vernacular names add " Serali, merlo, K61; 

Katail, Palamow ; Bali baincho, Uriya ;" and to numbers add 
" C 3453. Saidope Reserve, Palamow, Chota Nagpore," and " C 3488. 
Kolhan Forests, Singbhum, Chota Nagpore," 

18, at the end of FLA.COTJRTIA after line 18 add "C 3519, from the 
Khurdha Forests, Orissa, is Flacourtia sepiaria, Roxb. Vern. 
Baincha, bainch koli, Uriya. Bark yellowish -red, thin. Wood light 
red, hard, close and even-grained. Pores very small, in radial lines 
between the very fine, uniform, closely-packed, wavy medullary rays." 

18, line 31. For " H 2947." read " H 2949." 

18, line 32. After " Assam " add " Chota Nagpore " 

18, at the bottom of the page, add " E 3401 from Julpigori, Bengal, is the wood 

of Bixa Oreliana, Linn. Bark brown, inch thick. Wood pinkish 
white, soft, even-grained. Pores moderate-sized, in radial strings of 
3 to 6, prominent on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine, closely 
packed, bent round the pores or groups of pores, so that the distance 
between the rays is less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 
Annual rings marked by a line without pores. Growth moderate : 
5 rings per inch of radius." 

19, Order XL POLYGALE^J. At the end add " No. E 3393 is Polygala 

arillata, Ham., from Jalapahar, Darjeeling, 7,500 ft. It has a 
thin grey bark, and white, soft wood. Pores small, arranged in 
radial, or sometimes oblique, lines or patches. Medullary rays fine, 
scanty. Annual rings distinct." 

20, heading. For " Tamaria " read " Tamarix " 

21, line 11 from the bottom. After " Kirballi" add " ballaffl," 

23, 22. After " Mataw, Burm." add " Divarige, Kan. ; " 

24, Garcinia Cambogia. To vernacular names add " Manthulli, Kan. " 
24, G. Morella. To vernacular names add " Kankutake, Kan. ; " 

24. After " 4. G. Morella, " above line 8 from the bottom, add 

"5. G. stipulate, T. And.; Hook. Fl. lud. i. 207; Gamble 7. 
Vern. Sanakadan, Lepcha. 



IV 

"A tree with brown bark. Wood light orange-yellow, moderately 
hard, close-grained. Pores moderate-sized, sometimes subdivided. 
Medullary rays moderately broad, numerous. Numerous wavy con- 
centric bands of soft texture, and of colour lighter than the rest of the 
wood, across the rays, and often anastomosing. 

"Sikkim and Bhutan in damp forests up to 4,000 ft. 

" The fruit is yellow and sometimes eaten by Lepchas. It gives 
a yellow gum, chiefly from the fruit, but it does not seem to be used. 

" E 3352. Kalimpung, Bhutan, 4,000 ft. 



" E 3365 is a specimen of the wood of a Garcinia from Burkhal, 
Chittagong Hill Tracts. Bark thin, brown. Wood reddish white, 
moderately hard. Pores large, scanty, often subdivided. Medullary 
rays fine to broad. Numerous, wavy, concentric bands of soft tissue 
across the rays." 

Page 25, line 16. For " are found " read " they are found " 

25, Calophyllum inopliyllum. To vernacular names add " Pinekai, Kan.; 
JPoonang, Uriya ; " 

25, line 10 from the bottom. Add " Sebert in ' Les Bois de la Nouvelle Caledonie ' 
says it is a magnificent wood for cabinet-maker's work, and that it 
gives a yellowish green, pleasantly scented resin. He gives the mean 
specific gravity as 0*924, equivalent to nearly 59 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
In Orissa it is much cultivated, and an oil extracted from the seeds 
is used for burning." 

26, (7. tomentosum. To vernacular names add " Kuve, bobbi, Kan. ; " 

26, line 15. After " per cubic foot." add " Molesworth in ' Graphic Diagrams 
for Strength of Teak Beams' gives: Weight, 37 Ibs., P = 640, 
E = 3,500." 

27, Mesuaferrea. To vernacular names add " Nahsher, Mechi ; Kesara, Kan. ;" 

27, line 9. After " evergreen tree." add " Bark inch thick, reddish brown, 
peeling off in flat thin flakes, leaving a slightly roughened surface." 

27, line 26. After " cubic foot in weight. " add " Molesworth in ' Graphic Dia- 
grams for Strength of Teak Beams' gives : Weight, 7 1 Ibs., P = 1,010, 
E = 6,000." 

27, at the end of MESUA, add " C 3513 and C 3524 (55 Ibs.), from Kohori, Khur- 
dha, Orissa, where the tree was planted on an area of about 12 acres 
by a former Raja of Khurdha, are Ochrocarpus longifolius, Bth. and 
Hook, f . Vern. Chhuriana, Uriya. Bark reddish brown, inch thick, 
exuding a red gum. Wood red, hard, close- and even-grained. Pores 
moderate-sized. Medullary rays moderately broad, very numerous, 
the distance between them equal to, or less than, the diameter of the 
pores. Annual rings marked by a darker line, Lines of soft texture 
numerous, but indistinct. Numerous resin-ducts in radial long cells, 
which appear as shining lines on a horizontal, and black points on a 
vertical transverse section. Growth moderate. 8 rings per inch of 
radius. Weight, 55 Ibs. per cubic foot." 

28, line 25. For " Bhutan Himalaya." read " Sikkim and Bhutan Himalaya." 

28, line 10 from the bottom. Add " Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of 
radius." 

29, line 15. After " Ouli gogen, Nep. ; " add " Laidonto, Moclii ; " 

29, at the end of 1. S. napaulonsis, add 

" 2. S. Koxburghii, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 287 ; Kurz i. 103 ; 
Gamble 8. Ternstrb'mia scrmta, l!o\l>. Kl. I ml. ii. -VJ1. Vern. 
Dahip, Sylhet; Ouli gnijcn, Nq>. ; Dani/aip/iu, Lcpcha ; Laidunto, 

Meohi, 



" A small tree. Bark thin, reddish brown. Wood reddish 
brown, soft, with large central pit[i. Pores small, Very numerous. 
Medullary rays line, very numerous and closely set. 

"Eastern Suh- Himalayan tract, Khasia Hills, Eastern Bengal 
and Burma. 

"E 3271. Lorojhar Beserve, Western Diiars . 421bs." 

Page 29, Schima Wallichii. To vernacular names add "Singbrang, Lepcha ; 
Gitgera, Gtiro ; Gogra, phulgogra, Mechi ; Sangraban, Magh ; 
Sambaw, Arr;ic;ui ;" 

30, S. Wallichii. To numbers add 

"E3602. Sivoke Forests, Darjeeling Terai . . 41 Ibs." 

30, line 9. After "demand" add, "Hooker in Himalayan Journals i. 157, 
says that it is much prized for ploughshares and other purposes need- 
ing a hard wood." 

30, lines 16 and 17 from the bottom. For " Bark thin " read " Bark very 
tlrin" andfor "Wood grey, soft, even-grained" read "Wood pink, 
moderately hard, close- and even-grained." 

30, Camellia drupifera. To list of numbers add 

" E 3358. Sivoke Hills, Darjeeling, 1,500 ft. . 60 Ibs." 
30, last line. For " 3142 " read " 3143" 
32, line 28. After " Guga," add " walivara," 

,, 32, last line but one. After " No. 63," add " (marked D. alatus, which how- 
ever is not the ' Eng ' tree, as this is)." 

34, line 13. For " Medullary rays fine, broad " read " Medullary rays fine to 
broad." 

34, Shorea robusta. To vernacular names add " Sarjum, K61 ; Sargi, Bhumij ; 
Sakwa, Kharwar ; Sekiva, Oraon ; Shal, Beug ; " 

36, above line 12 from the bottom, insert " Recent countings made in the 
forests of Chota Nagpore shew that the rate of growth in Saranda may 
be taken at 7 to 9 rings per inch for trees growing in good soil in 
sheltered localities, and 12 to 15 rings for trees in more exposed 
conditions. (Indian Forester, Vol. VI., p. 318.) Small trees counted 
in Orissa gave the very good rate of 3 rings per inch. Countings of 
rings on rounds in the Bengal Forest Museum, cut in the Dulka Jhar 
Reserve, shew as follows : 



No. 


Rings. 


Radius. 


E3626 


47 


8'5 inches. 


E3627 


42 


8-0 


E 3628 


53 


8-5 


E3629 


70 


9-0 


E3630 


57 


8'0 



or an average of 6'2 rings per inch of radius, No. E 3617 from 
Sivoke and E 3616 from Bamunpokri, both rounds, give : the first 7, 
the second 5'7 rings per inch, so that the Sikkirn Terai sal seems to 
have a similar rate of growth to that of Oudh." 

36, last line but one. After " being 790 " add " Molesworth in ' Graphic Dia- 

grams for Strength of Teak Beams ' gives : Weight, 60 Ibs., P = 
926, E = 4,800." 

37, in schedule of experiments. After " Cunningham " last line but two, add 



" Dundas 
Tbornhill 



1877 
1846 



Oudh 

Terai of N.-W.' 
P. arid Oudh. 



10'x4"xG" 
2'xl"xl" 
Various 



651 E=2,500 

864 

710" 



38, line 13. After " now available," add " (A tree, measured in the Valley of 
the Great Rangit, Darjtvling. gave : girth at 4 ft. from the ground 
128 inches; height 161 feet; height to first branch, 86 feet.)" 



VI 

Page 38, in list of numbers. For " 388" read " 386, 387, 388, 390." 
38, After C1235 add 

" C 3434. Kumandi Reserve, Palamow. 
" C 3440. Neturhat, Palamuw. 
"03441. Chanpi 
" C 3444. Henar 

"C 3473 !^ on ' Saranda, Singbhiim. 
'03478*. ) ( 2,700 feet. 

'03479. Unkua Hill, Saranda ] 2,000 
'03480.) (.1,800 

'' C 3490. Kolhan Forests, Singbhum. 
' C 3556. Khurdha Forests, Orissa ... 48 Ibs. 
; 03516. 
' E 3385. Berhampore Forest, Rungpore, Bengal 80 Ibs. 

and after " E 2322 " add 

" E 3616, 3618. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling, 1,000 ft. 

" E 3624 to E 3630. Dulka Jhar, Darjeeling Terai 57 Ibs. (E3625) 

"E3589. Sivoke Forests, Darjeeling Terai . . 47 Ibs. 

"E3617. 

" E 3390. Dhupguri, W. Duars." 

39, at tbe end of 6. S. siamensis, add 

"7. S. assamica, Dyer; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 307. Vern. Makai, 

Ass. 

" A large tree. Wood brown, moderately hard. Pores large, 
sometimes surrounded by a ring of lighter tissue. Medullary ray s 
fine to moderately broad, short, the distance between them equal to 
the diameter of the pores. 

" Upp er Assam. 

" The wood, according to Mr. Mann, is used for planking and for 
making canoes. 

" E 3369. Makum, Assam." 

40, line 27. For " Bennett in 1872, No. 5, Andaman Wood, gave 58 Ibs., P = 

737" read " Bennett in 1872, No. 5, three experiments with Andaman 
wood 3'xH"xU" gave 58 Ibs., P = 711." 
42, 17 from the bottom. After " Beng. ;" add " Mdoh, Garo ; " 

42, 10 from the bottom. After" Juwa, oru, Beng. ;" add " Daswala, Kan. ;" 

43, 2. Add " Sebert in ( Les Bois de la Nouvelle Caledouie' says it is used 

at Tahiti for planking and building light boats." 

43. After line 4 add " E 3289, from the Rinkheong Reserve, Chittagong, is the 
wood of If. macrophyllus, Roxb. A small tree. Bark \ in. thick, 
light brown, fibrous, rather smooth. Sapwood white, heartwood light, 
purplish brown, soft, even-grained. Pores large, somewhat scanty, 
often subdivided. Medullary rays fine but clearly marked, unequally 
distributed, short. Annual rings marked by fewer pores in the 
autumn wood. Growth fast, 3 rings per inch of radius." 

43, line 8. After " (Wallich) ; " add " Eeke, K61 ; " 

43, Thespesia populnea. To vernacular names add " Asha, hurvashi, Ivan.; 
Uugari, Hassan ; " 

43, line 23. Add "Sebert in 'Les Bois de la Nouvelle Cale'donie' gives tlu> 
weight at 42 Ibs. per cubic ft." 

1:5, Xydia calycina. To vernacular names add " JfoMtttMOft, Meohi ; Hitlni 
<l<>nyer, K61 ; Derhi, Kharxvar; Kunji, Goiuli ; Itdidt-iiani, Kan.; " 

11, livmbax mal abaricum . To vernacular names add 

i, Garo ; Dt'f. K'l ; />'",,/, Kan.;" 



Vll 

Page 44, B. malabaricum. To numbers add 

"E 3606. Sivokr Fun-sis, T)ai;jvling Terai." 

44, line 16 from bottom. After "cuttings." add "C978 is a fine specimen 

of the fibre sent from Berar and capable of being used for rough 
paper." 

45, last line but one. After " Dodeli, Kan.; " add " Sara laiphanzeh, Meclii ; " 
46, Sterculia urens. To vernacular names add " Keonge, Maubhum ; Teley. 

K61 ; Mogul, karaunji, Monghyr;" and to numbers add 

" C 3436. Kumandi Reserve, Palamow, Chota Nagpore." 

46, S. villosa. To vernacular names add "Sisi, walkom, K61 ; Pironja, Mun- 

dari ; Sisir, Oraon ; " 

,, 47, S. colorata. To vernacular names add " Sisi, K61 ; Lersima, Kharwar;" 
49, Helicteres Isora. To vernacular names add " AintJiia dhamin, Monghyr ; 

Renta, sakomsing, K61 ; Aiteni, Kharwar ; Muri-muri, Uriya ; " 
49, Pterospermum acerifolium. To vernacular names add " Laider, Mechi ;" 

and change " Mus, Beng." to " Mus, Beng." 

49, P. acerifolium. To numbers add 

" E 3596. Sivoke Forests, Darjeeling Terai . . 46 Ibs." 

50. P.suberifolium. To vernacular names add "Giringa, Uriya;" and to 
numbers add " C 3523, C 3534. Khurdha Forests, Orissa." 

50. Erioloena Hookeriana. To vernacular names add " ^undun, oit bulung, 
K61 ; Ponra, Oraon ; " 

51, Hne 8. For " C 3791" read "C 3191," and after it add tf C 3437. Kumandi 
Reserve, Palamow, Chota Nagpore." 

52, 7. After " Choivra," add " kadu-bende," 

52, 31. After " markets." add ' It is also cut up into thin planking and 
exported to Assam to make tea-boxes. 

52, Pentace burmanica. To numbers add " B 2915. Burma." 

53. In strength schedule, column ' Year,' last line but one, after " A. Mendis, 
No. 33" add " 1855" 

53, first line after schedule. After " probably this." add " Molesworth gives : 
Weight 50 Ibs., P = 844, E = 3,000." 

,, 53, Berrya Ammonilla. To list of numbers add 

" No. 33. Ceylon collection 48 Ibs." 

54, first line. After " Tel. ;" add " Bolmengo, Garo ; KoMrsida, Mechi ; " 
,, 54, Greivia tilicefolia. To vernacular names add " Tarada, Madura; " 
55, G. salvifolia. To vernacular names add " JBursu, sita pelu, K61 " and to 
numbers add " C 3457. Barasand Reserve, Palamow, Chota Nagpore." 
55, G. vestita. To vernacular names add " Pershuajelah, Mechi ; " 
56, G. pilosa. To vernacular names add ' Bhorkund, Monghyr ;' Gursikri, 

Kharwar ; 

56, at the end of G. pilosa. After line 14 add " E 3318 is the wood of a small 
tree from Pankabari, Darjeeling, 3,000 ft, In structure it resembles 
the wood of G. oppositifolia, but has not the unpleasant odour of the 
latter. It is probably G.polygama, Roxb." 

56, 18. After " Banj, Nep. ;" add " Saimuladdi, Mechi;" 
57, 16. After " Rudrak, Hind.;" add " Dandla, Mysore ; " 
58, Erythroxyion monogynum. To vernacular names add " Devaddrum, Kan.;" 
58, line 22. After " boats." add " Dr. Bidie says that ' During the Madras 
famine the leaves were largely eaten by the starving poor, and as 
there is _ nothing in them structurally likely to satisfy the pangs of 
hunger, it seems probable that they contain some principle uketkaf 
of E. Coca.' ' 



Vlll 

Page 58, line 21 from the bottom. After " Beng. ;" add " Boromali, [Jriya ; " 
58, 9 from the bottom. After " Beng. ;" add " Kiranelli, Kan. ; " 
59, 5. For " Bonninghau senia " read " Bonninqhausenia " 

59, 7. For " Xanthoxylece " read " Zanthoxylea" and for " Xanthoxy- 
lum" read " Zanthoxylum " 

,, 59, 19. After " Loajam" add ' holholi " 

59, 20. After " Burma." add " Kyd gives : Weight 36 Ibs., P= 267." 

59, 22. After "Hind. ;" add "Chouldua, Uriya ; Laker-konta, Monghyr ; " 

59, 38. After " Kawat, Mar. ; " add " Naibela, Kan. ; " 

59, 46. After " Suntala, Nep. ; " add " Shoungpang, Magh ; " 

60, 28. For " pael " read " pale " 

Pages 60, 61. For the whole of 2. XANTHOXYLUM, Linn, substitute the following : 

"2. ZANTHOXYLUM, Linn. 

"Contains 10 small, rarely large trees or climbing shrubs, 
usually armed with strong prickles. Besides the species here described 
Zi. tomentellum, Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 493, is a small tree of the 
Eastern Himalaya. 2. Khasianum, Hook, f., of the Khasia Hills 
and Z. tetraspermum, W. & A. of the Western Ghats, are prickly 
climbing shrubs. Z. Rhetsa, DC.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 495; Bed- 
dome xli (Fagara Rhetsa, Eoxb. Fl. Ind. i. 417) Vern. Rhetsa, 
man, Tel. ; Tessal, Mar. ; Rattu kina, Cingh., is a large tree of 
Southern India. Z. Andamanicum, Kurz. i. 181, is a straggling 
shrub of the Andaman Islands. 

" 1. Z. alatum, Eoxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 768 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 493 ; 
Beddome xlii.; Brandis 47 ; Gamble 14. Yern. Timbur, timur, 
tezmal, durmur, Hind. ; Balay timur, Nep. ; Gaira, Monghyr ; 
Sungru, Lepcha, 

"A shrub or small tree. Bark corky, young stems with thick 
conical prickles from a corky base. Wood close-grained, yellow, 
Pores small, often in radial lines, not uniformly distributed; belts with 
numerous pores often alternating with belts with scanty pores. Me- 
dullary rays fine, short, very numerous. 

" Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan, ascending to 7,000 
ft.; Khasia Hills. 

'* The wood is used for walking-sticks, the branches for making 
tooth-brushes. The fruit is a remedy for toothache and is also used 
to purify water and as a condiment. The whole plant has a strong 
unpleasant aromatic smell. 

" H 107. Bhajji, Simla, 4,000 ft. ... 46 Ibs. 

"E2329. Tuk'dah, Darjeeling, 5,000 ft. . 34,, 

" 2. Z. acanthopodium, DC. ; Hook. Fl, Ind. i. 493 ; Kurz i. 
181 ; Gamble 14. Vern. Bogay timur > Nep. 

"A small tree. Bark ^ inch thick, greyish brown, shining, 
studded with the large conical corky bases of the prickles which fall oil 
as the tree grows. Wood yellowish white, soft. Pores small, often in 
short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

" Outer Himalaya from Kuinaun toSikkiin, and the Khasia Hills, 
up to 7,000 ft. 

" A common small tree in second growth forest. Growth fast, our 
specimen (a round) shews 11 ring.} on a mean radius of 2g inches, or 
4*4 rings per incii of radius. 

" E 3415. The Park, Darjcrlin-, 6,500 ft. 

" :J. Z. oxyphyllum, Edgew. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 191 ; Gamble 
14. \'<TII. Tiiiiur, Nep, 



IX 

" A climbing shrub. Bark greyisli brown, covered with large 
corky lenticels, and armed with recurved thorns on a conical corky 
base, often f inch high. Wood yellowish white, soft, porous. Pores 
large, usually many times subdivided radially. Medullary rays moder- 
ately broad, bent where they pass the pores. Annual rings marked 
by a white line. 

"Himalaya from Garhwal to Bhutan, from 6,000 to 8,000ft.; 
Khasia Hills, 4,000 to 6,000 ft. 

" E 3375. Darjeeling, 6,500 ft. 

" 4. Z. Hamiltonianum, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 494 ; Kurz 
i. 181 ; Gamble 14. Vern. Purpuray timur, Nep. 

" A climbing thorny shrub. Bark dark grey with white lenti- 
cels, armed with short recurved prickles on a thick, nearly cylindrical 
corky base, often inch high. Wood yellowish white, soft. Pores 
fine, not numerous. Medullary rays fine to moderately broad, nu- 
merous, nearly equidistant. 

" Sikkim and Assam. 

" E 3416. The Park, Darjeeling, 6,500 ft. 

" 5. Z. Budrunga, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 495 ; Kurz i. 182 ; 

Vern. Brojonali, Ass. ; Mayaning, Burm. 

" A tree with greyish-brown bark ; young stems covered with 
thick conical prickles from a corky base. Wood moderately hard, close- 
grained, white. Pores small, uniformly distributed, often in short 
radial lines. Medullary rays fine, short, numerous. 

" Eastern Himalaya, Khasia Hills, Eastern Bengal and Burma. 

" E 3324. Pankabari, Darjeeling, 2,000 ft. 

"6. Z. ovalifolium, Wight ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 492 ; Beddome 
xlii.; Gamble 13. 

" A shrub. Bark thin, grey -brown, with white vertical streaks. 
Wood light yellowish-white, very hard, close-grained. Pores very 
small, rather scanty, evenly distributed. Medullary rays fine, very 
numerous. Numerous sharp, white, concentric lines, as in Murraya 
exotica, which it much resembles in structure. 

"Eastern Himalaya, Khasia Hills, Assam and the Western 
Ghats. 

" E 3353. Sivoke Hills, Darjeeling, 1,500 ft. . 54 Ibs." 

Page 61, Heading. For " Xanthoxylum " read " Zanthoxylum ; " 
61, Toddalia aculeata. To vernacular names add " Tundupara, Uriya;" 
61, Skimmia Laureola. To numbers add " E 3293. Mahalderam, Darieelin- 

7,000 ft." 
61, line 14 from the bottom. For " 6 " read " 5 " 

61, lines 13 to 7 from the bottom. Strike out and add at the end of M. exotica 
on page 62 the following : 

" 2. M. Konigii, Spr. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 503 ; Beddome xliv. ; 
Brandis 48 ; Kurz i. 190 ; Gamble 14. Bergera Konigii, Linn. ; 
Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 375. Vern. Gandla, gandi, bowala, Pb. ; Harri ' 
fcatnim, Hind. ; Barsanga, Beng. ; Chanangi, Hyderabad ; Gant , 
Banda ; Humwah, Mechi ; Xarsepak, kari-vepa, Tel. ; Kamwepila 
Tarn. ; Kari-beou, Kan. 

" A small tree. Bark grey with shallow netted fissures. Wood 
greyish white, hard. Pores small, sometimes subdivided or arranged 
in short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, very numerous. Concentric 
white lines less strongly marked than in M. exotica. 

" Outer Himalaya from the Ravi to Assam, Bengal, South India 
and Burma. The wood is durable and is used for agricultural imple- 
ments. The leaves are used to flavour curries. 

" 3265. Saharanpur 43 Ibs." 



Page 62, Murraya exotica. To numbers add "C 3495. Kolhan Forests, Singbhum, 
Chota Nag pore." 

62, line 12. For " 5 " read " 6 " 

62, Atalantia monophylla. To vernacular names add " Narguni, Uri ja ; " 
and to numbers add "C 3515. Khurdha Forests, Orissa." 

62, Feronia ElepJiantum. To vernacular names add " Vellam, Madura ; " 
63, JEgle Marmelos. To vernacular names add " Maika, Gondi ; Lohagasi, 
Kdl ; Auretpang, Magh ; " 

63. At the end of 8. Aegle. After " soft tissue." add 

" E 3295 is Paramignya monopnylla, Wight, from Babookhola, 
Darjeeling, 4,000 ft. Bark white, corky, vertically cleft. Wood white, 
hard, close-grained. Pores very small to moderate-sized. Medullary 
rays very fine, extremely numerous. Prominent, sharp, white, 
concentric lines at unequal distances and often joining each other. 

" E 3371 is the Orange, Citrus Aurantium, Linn, from Raja- 
bhatkhawa, W. Duars. Bark thin, greenish grey. Wood yellowish 
white, moderately hard, close and even-grained. Pores small, scanty, 
joined by concentric patches of white colour, which occasionally join, 
forming concentric circles. Medullary rays fine, very numerous, equi- 
distant. 

"E 3348 is the Lime, Citrus medica, L., from Darjeeling. 
Bark yellowish white, thin. Wood white, moderately hard. Pores 
small, numerous, often subdivided or in short radial lines. Medullary 
rays fine, very numerous. Concentric white lines distant. Pores 
often joined by white concentric patches. 

" E 3284 is Glycosmis pentaphylla, Correa, from Chittagong. 
Bark light greyish-yellow. Wood white, hard, close-grained. Pores 
small, sometimes subdivided or arranged in radial lines. Medullary 
rays fine, wavy, very numerous. Sharp concentric white lines, often 
running into each other, very prominent. 

" E 3355 is Micromelum pubescens, Bl., from the Teesta Valley, 
Darjeeling. Bark thin, white. Wood yellowish white, hard, close- 
grained. Pores small, scanty, often subdivided. Medullary rays 
tine, sharply marked. Sharp white concentric lines, often running 
into each other, prominent. 

"E 3354 is Clausena excavata, Burm., from Sivoke, Darjeeling 
Terai. Bark thin, smooth, dark brown. Wood white. Pores small, 
scanty. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. White concentric 
lines often interrupted, but very closely packed radially. 

"C 3530 and C 3570 are Limonia acidissima, Linn. Vern. 
Ehenta, Uriya,from the Khurdha Forests, Orissa. It has a thin, light- 
brown bark, and very hard, yellowish-white wood. The pores are 
small, surrounded by white tissue, solitary or arranged in oblique 
strings. Medullary rays very fine, numerous, uniform and equidistant. 
Annual rings marked by a white line. Growth moderate, 8 rings per 
inch of radius. Weight, 59 Ibs. per cubic foot." 

64, Ailanthuslmalabarica. To vernacular names add " Mandadupa, Hassan; " 

64, A. excelsa. To vernacular names add " Ma/ianim, TJriya ; Ghorkaram, 

Palamow ;" and to numbers add, " C 3449. Betlah Reserve, Palamow, 

Chota Nagpore." 

64, line 24. After " tree." add " Bark light greyish-brown, fibrous, rough." 
05, line 12 from the bottom. For " omari " read " jLoniari, " and at line 5 

from the bottom add 

" C 3541. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . 40 Ibs." 

67, line 3. For ' Knkar ' read ' Kankar ' 
07, Garuga pinnata. To vernacular names add " Ni<i jowa, K61 ; 

Khurwur ; Karur, Bhumij ; Or //am', Uondi ; " 



XI 

(57, (1. ftiunata. To numbers add 

"E 3604. Sukna Forest, Darjeeling Terai." 

68, line 3. After "Burma." add "found by Mr. R.Thompson in Bustar an< 
the hills of Panabunis." 

68, Canarium bengalense. To numbers add 

"E 3592. Sukna Forest, Darjeeling." 

70. After line 12 add " Molesworth gives in ' Graphic Diagrams for the 

Strength of Teak Beams ' : Weight 50 Ibs., P = 736, E = 2,900." 

71. After line 19, to numbers add 

" E 3357. Kalirnpung, Darjeeling, 4,000 ft. 
" E 3360. Raugirum, Darjeeling, 5,000 ft." 

71, at the end of MELIA add " E 3499 is Cipadessa fruticosa, Bl., from 

the Khurdha Forests, Orissa, where it is a common shrub or small live 
of the dry stony hills and laterite plateaux, and used for fuel. It has 
a thin reddish-brown bark and a red, moderately hard wood, 
which has a faint odour resembling that of the Toon wood. Pores very 
fine, numerous, usually in lines between the very numerous close and 
fine medullary rays. These latter are slightly wavy and short, and 
bend where they meet the pores. The pores are prominent as red 
lines on a vertical section. Annual rings marked by a white line. 
Growth of our specimen 5 to 6 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 
about 50 Ibs. per cubic foot." 

72, Dysoxylum procerum. To numbers a dd 

" E 3595. Eungdung Forest, Darjeeling Terai." 

72, line 4. Before " Assam " add i( Sikkim and the Western Duars," 

73, Amoora RoJiituTca. To vernacular names add " Sikru, Kdl ; " 

73, at the end of "3. A. spectabilis " add 

" 4. A. decandra, Hiern ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 562; Gamble 
16. Vern. Tangaruk, Lepcha. 

" A tree, with thin grey bark. Wood pinkish white, hard. Pores 
small, scanty, joined by wavy, occasionally concentric, bands of soft 
tissue. Medullary rays fine, numerous." 

" Eastern Himalaya, from 2,000 to 6,000 ft. 

" E 3392. Lebong, Darjeeling, 5,500 ft." 

74, at the end of " WALSURI" add " C 3459, from Bandgaon, Singbhiim, 2,000 ft., 

is Heynea trijuga, Roxb. It has a thin, rough, reddish-brown bark 
and yellowish-white, moderately hard wood. Pores small, often 
subdivided, in groups or in short radial strings, surrounded with 
white tissue and arranged in wavy concentric lines. Medullary rays 
fine, short, numerous." 

74, Carapa moluccensis. To vernacular names add " Pussur, Beng. ; " 

74, line 22. After " the hair. " add " Capt Baker in May 1829 in ' Gleanings 

in Science ' spoke of Fussur or PussooaJi as being a jungle wood of 
a deep purple colour, extremely brittle and liable to warp. He said 
that native boats made of the best species last about 3 years, and that 
the wood, if of good quality, stands brackish water better than sal. 
" The following were Captain Baker's experiments : 

\\Yiu-ht. P= 

49, 52. Large tree 1825 . 6'X1|"X2" ol'o 472 

47, 48. Small 1826 . 44 4s j. 

95, 101. Large 1826 . 46 5(52 

104. Small 1826 . 47 5S6 

334,335. Large . 33"xU"Xl" ... .->:>" 

75, line 31. After " wood 546." add " Molesworth gives for Honduras wood : 

Weight 35 Ibs., P = 615, E = 3,100." 



Xll 

Page 76, Soymida felrifuga. To vernacular names add " Suam, Uriya;" 

76. To numbers add 

"C3566. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . . 71 Ibs." 

77, Chloroxylon Sicietenia. To vernacular names add " Sengel sail, K61 
Bharhul, Kharwar ; Bhira, Gondi ; Bhirwa, Baigas ;" 

77. Below line 31 add " Molesworth in ' Graphic Diagrams for the Strength of 
Teak Beams ' gives : Weight 60 Ibs., P = 950, E = 5,200." 

77, C. Swietenia. To numbers add Ibs. 

" C 3443. Seemah Reserve, Fallow ...... 

C 3572. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . .57 
D2926. Madras ......... " 

78, Cedrela Toona. To vernacular names add " Kujya, Tippera ; Somso, 

Bhutia; JZatangai, K61 ; Madagiri vembu, Madura;" 
79, C. Toona. To numbers add Ibs. 

"C 3476. Saran da Forests, Chota Nagpore ..... 
" C 3545. Khurdha Forests, Orissa ... 31 
"E 3599. Sukna Forests, Darjeeling ... 39 
" E 3619, Latpanchor, Darjeeling Hills, 4,000 ft ..... 
" E 3623, Kalingpung, Darjeeling, 2,000 ft. . 35 
(The last shews 11 rings on 7 inches radius or 1*6 rings per inch, 
while No. E 3619 has 31 rings on a radius of 7|, or about 4 per inch, 
and E 3599 shews 3| rings per inch.) " 

79. After the end of C. serrata, above the 6th line from the bottom of the 
page, add 

" In the Monograph of the Meliacese published in 1878 by 
Casimir de Candolle, the species of Cedrela formerly grouped under the 
one head of Cedrela Toona, Roxb., have been separately described. 
They are thus distinguished : 
" Ovary glabrous 

" Leaflets petioled . . C. serrata, Eoyle. 

" Leaflets subsessile . . . C. glabrtt, C. de Cand. 

" Ovary hairy 

" Leaflets acute at the base . C. Toona, Roxb. 

" Leaflets round at the base . C. microcarpa, C. de Cand. 

" In the ' Trees, Shrubs and Climbers of the Darjeeling District," 
three varieties were spoken of and separated as follows : 

" ' No. 1. Deciduous ; flowering March ; fruiting June ; bark grey- 
brown, smooth, exfoliating; found in the plains on low land. 

" 'No. 2. Evergreen ; flowering October-November ; fruiting Feb- 
ruary and March ; bark dark brown, rough, not exfoliating ; found 
in the lower hills up to 4,000 ft. 

" ' No. 3, Evergreen ; flowering June ; fruiting November-Decem- 
ber ; bark light reddish-brown, exfoliating in long flakes ; found 
in the upper hills from 5,000 to 7,000 ft. and of great size.' 

" No, 1 is C. Toona, Roxb. ; No. 2 probably <?. microcarpa, C. 
de Cand. ; No. 3, probably C. glabra, C. de Cand. It would, how- 
ever, have probably been better to describe No. 1 as 'deciduous in 
the cold season' and Nos. 2 and 3 as 'deciduous in the rains.' 
There is perhaps a fifth species. 

" They may also be distinguished as follows by the capsule : 



Caps.e s m ooth 

Capsule covered with corky tubercles . C. glabni. 
"Of the Northern Bonsai specimens which wo liavc 
E 360 and E 2333 will be C.fflabra, while E 655, E 2332, E35D9, 



Xlll 

E 3619, and E 3623 will be C. microcarpa. Some of the Assam, 
Chitlagcng and Burma specimens are probably ('. wicrwarpa. 

"No. B 337cS iVnm tin; Salwevn, 8,000 feet, is probably C. 
multijuga, Kurz i. 229. Yern. Tmtiijidama. Burm. ; Nee, Karen. 
lianie, like the other Toon-woods, Thitlcado.) It has a light, soft, 
pink wood, with the usual characteristic scent strongly perceptible, 
and structure resembling that of the other species of Toon, the pores 
being perhaps more scantily distributed. Weight, 35 5 Ibs. per 
cubic foot." 

At the foot of the page add 

" E 3341, from the north-eastern part of Sibsagar, Assam, called 
. aJc, is a soft, reddish wood, resembling tbat of Melia. It is 
evidently a useful wood for the same purposes as Toon is used ; it 
splits well and is used for shingles. Pores moderate-sized to large, 
often subdivided. Medullary rays moderately broad, short, tapering 
gradually at the ends. Annual rings distinct, about 7 per inch of 
radius. Weight, 27 Ibs. per cubic foot." 

Page 80, line 19. Omit " Daphniphyllopsis." 

81, Olax scandens. To vernacular names add " Arthil, Monghyr ; Rimmel, 
K61 ; Bodobodoria, Uriya;" To numbers add "C 3467. Bandgaon, 
Singbhum, Chota Nagpore. a nd C 3494. Kolhan Forests, Singbhum, 
Chota Nagpore. 

81, 2. Daphniphyllopsis, Kurz, &c., should be transferred to p. 213 
under CORN ACE-3S. Nyssa sessiliflora, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 
747. 

81, Daphniphyllopsis capitata. To numbers add 
" E 3608. Darjeeling, 6,000 ft," 

83, line 8. After " Weight, 40 Ibs. " insert " Growth : a small tree (E 3407) 
felled in the Park, Darjeeling, shewed 14 rings with a girth of 
18| inches, or 4'7 rings per inch of radius." 

85. After " 5. E. thesefolius" insert 

" 6. E, frigidus, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 611 ; Gamble 18. 
A straggling shrub. WDod yellowish white, moderately hard, 
compact, with extremely small pores, extremely fine medullary rays 
and annual rings marked by the darker colour of the autumn wood. 
" Himalaya, from Kumaun to Bhutan,from 8,000 to 12,000 feet. 
" E 3406. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet." 

86, Celastrus paniculata. To vernacular names add " Kujiiri, K61 ; " 

86. After line 5 f rom the bottom 'add "C 3448, from the Barns and Reserve, 
Palamow, Chota Nagpore, is the same species as E 2334, but it differs 
in having no corky bark, but a brown thin bark. In the wood the 
difference is slight and consists merely in smaller pores, and a closer- 
grained wood. The difference may be only due to climate." 

87, Celastrus spinosus. To numbers add " H 2950, Sutlej Valley, Punjab, 
3,500 ft." 

87. After "3. C. senega] en sis " insert 

" 4. C. acuminatus, Wall. ; Kurz i. 252. Gymnosporia acu- 
minata, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 619. G. Thomsoni, Kurz ; 
Gamble 19, Vern. Phugong, Lepcha. 

"A large thorny shrub. Bark thin, greyish white. Wood white, 
hard, close-grained, with numerous white concentric bands, in struc- 
ture resembling that of C. spinosus* 

"Sikkim Himalaya, and Khasia Hills, up to 5,000 feet. 

" E 3391. Lebong, Darjeeling, 5,500 feet, 



XIV 

"5. C. emarginatus, Willd.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 620; Beddome, 
Ixvi. ; Grymnosporia emaryinata, Roth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 621. Vern, 
Salt bhains, Uriya. 

" A thorny shrub. Bark grey, thin ; wood white, hard, in structure 
resembling that of C. spinosus. 

" Orissa, South India and Ceylon, common shrub on dry laterite 
soils. 

" C 3521. Khurdha, Orissa." 

Page 87, Elvodendron Roxburgliii. To vernacular names add " Miri, K61 ; " 
88. Above the first line add " P 460. Ajmere." 

88. After line 7, at the end of CELASTKINE.E add " No. E 3345, from Lebong,'Dar- 
jeeling, is the wood of Microtropis discolor, Wall. Bark very thin, 
greenish grey. Wood white, soft. Pores very small, rather unevenly 
distributed in long radial broken strings. Medullary rays very fine, 
rery numerous. Faint, concentric white lines across the rays. Weight, 
35 Ibs. per cubic foot." 

88, Zizyphus Jujuba. To vernacular names add " Yellantha, Madura ; 
Janumjan, K61; Einga, Gondi ; Bor, Baigas ; Bogri, Kajhaushi ; 
Jibang, Magh ;" 

89, Z. (Enoplia. To vernacular names add " Mahlcoa, Monghyr ;" 

90, Z. rugosa. To vernacular names add " Tshirka, K61 ; Kataila, Kharwar '> 
Bogri, Rajbanshi ;" 

90, Z. xylopyra. To vernacular names add " EarJcata, K61 ; Goit, Bhumij ; 
Kankor, Kharwar; Got, gotoboro, kanta bohul, Uriya j Ghattol, 
ghotia, Gondi ;" 
90, Z. xylopyra. To numbers add Ibs. 

"C3508. Sonakalla, Khurdha, Orissa 

" C 3559. Khurdha Forests, Orissa ... 53 
"C 3433. Latihar, Palamow, Chota Nagpore ..... 

91, line 6. After " Kumaun ;" add " Bonga sarjum, K61 ; Kyonti, Kharwar ; " 
91. After line 19 add 

"C 3484, from the Saranda Forests, Chota Nagpore, is V. calycu- 
lata. It has a similar bark and structure of wood to the pre- 
ceding, but the wood is somewhat closer grained." 

92, after "4. K. procumbens " insert 

" 5. B. nepalensis, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 640 ; Gamble 
19. Vern. Achal, Nep. 

" A large shrub. Bark dark bro\vn, rough. Wood brownish grey, 
moderately hard. Pores very small to small, arranged in obliqu- 
anastomosing bands, and sometimes in softer whitish tissue. Medul- 
lary rays fine and moderately broad, short. 

" Eastern Himalaya, ascending to 6,000 ft.; Sub-Himalayan tract ; 
Khasia Hills. 

"E 3346. Kalimpung, Darjeeling, 4,000 ft. 

" E 3364. Dhupguri, W. Diiars." 

93. After line 10, at the end of SAGEBETIA, add"^. 3430 is Gouania /</>{<>. 

stachya, DC. from Davjceling, 6,500 ft. It has :i rough brown l>;irk, 

incli thick. Wood soft, with very numerous large pores and broad 

medullary rays." 

93, AMPELIDE^, line 5. After " V. lanata, Roxb. " add " (E 484. Dar]\rling 

Tend.)" 
}> y;3 f , line (5. After "V rc/ninJa, W. and A." add " (K I s "' 



XV 

1)3, AMPELIDIUE, line 9. Before " II 21)13" Insert " II I I.' 

<j;j ? , lino 10. After " flattened stems," <M " E 486, from the 

Darjecling Terai, is I 7 ", elongate" 
9U } , Hne 10. After " L. samlmcina, Willil." a<W "(E880. 

Darjeeling Terai)." 
93, , lino 20. After " W. Duars " arf^ " Vern. AxhraJi, Mochi." 

95, line 12 from the bottom of the page. Mir " from the Sutlej eastwards," 
xtibsfitttte "from the Sutlej eastwards to Nepal," 

9G, Sc'hh -iclifrti trijuga. To vernacular names add " Baru, K61 ;" and to 
numbers <&/ 

" C 3533. Khurdha Forests, Orissa ... 65 Ibs." 
97, Sapindus attenuates. To vernacular names add " Tigroht, Mechi." 

97. After line 14 insert " E 3373, from Kaptai, Chittagong Hill Tracts, is 

S. Danura, Voigt. The wood is white, moderately hard, with scanty 
moderate-sized pores, very fine, numerous medullary rays, and thin 
white concentric bands, of soft tissue, intervening between dark bands 
of firmer texture." 

98, line 19. After " Kumaun." add " The common European Maple is 

A. campestre, Linn. ; the Sycamore is A. pseudoplatanus, Linn. ; 
the Norway Maple is A. platanoides, Linn. ; and the Sugar Maple of 
America is "A. saccharinum, Linn." 

100, Acer caudatum. To vernacular names add " ChetoJcwa, Bhutia ;" 

100, A. Camplellii. To vernacular names add " Kilolc, Bhutia ;" 

101, A.pictum. To vernacular names add " Mandar, Chenab;" 

102, line 9. After " Nagpat, Nep. ;" add " Bundibru, Mechi ;" 

103, Meliosma simplicifoUa. To vernacular names add " Laigongron, Mechi." 
103, line 30. After "inch of radius." add " It is, however, often fast grown, 

especially if from coppice shoots : a tree in the Park, Darjeeling, 
shewed a girth of 22 inches and a height of 32 feet at an age of 22 
years, giving thus 6| rings per inch of radius. Specimens of still 
faster growth are not uncommon." 

107, Mangifera indica. To vernacular names add " Bocho, Garo ; Uli, 
K61 ; Ama, Baigas ; Tsaratpang, Magh ;" 

107, line 30. After " P = 471." add " Molesworth gives : Weight 42 Ibs. 

P = 592, E = 3,400." 

108, M. sylvatica. To vernacular names add " Bagnal, Mechi ;" 

108, line 30. After " are eaten." add " The leaves are used in Assam to feed the 

silkworm Cricula trifenestrata" 

109, line 20. For " D 1066 " read " D 1065" 

109, Buchanania latifolia. To vernacular names add " Tarum, K61 : Pial, 

Bhumij ; Peea, Kharvvar ;" 

110 After line 5, add 

" C 3532. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . . 34 Ibs." 

110, Odina Wodier. To vernacular names add " Jir, jial, Monghyr ; DowJca, 

K61 ; DowTca gia, Bhumij ; Moi, Uri}'a." 

111, After line 7 add "If this is No. 11 (Nabkay) of Bennett's experi- 

ments with Andaman woods in 1872 the weight was found to be 
59 Ibs., and P = 483, in three experiments, with bars 3' X U" X IV'. 

111. After line 24, lelow " C 1103." add 

" C 3529. Khurdha Forests, Orissa ... 66 Ibs." 

111, Semecarpus Anacardium. To vernacular mimes add " Soso, K61 ; Bkilwct, 
Baigas ;" 



XVI 

Page 113, Spondias mangifera. To vernacular names add " Adai, Garo ;" 

113, last line but three. After "about Simla." add "The silkworm Actias 

Silene is fed upon its leaves." 

,, 114, Moringa pterygosperma. To vernacular names add " Mulgia, K61 ;" 
,. 117, line 1. For " Wood white." read "Wood white, with an irregular grey 

heartwood." 
117, line 2. For " edge " read " edges " 

117, line 7. After " in Europe." add " Our Darjeeling specimen shews 12 
rings per inch of radius." 

117- After line 8 add 

" E 3405. Sandukpho, Darjeeling, 11,000 ft." 

117, line 10. After "and Burma." add "It has a smooth yellowish bark' 
white wood and pores rather scanty, solitary or in radial lines between 
the fine medullary rays. (E 3311. Pankabari, Darjeeiing, 3,000ft.)" 

117, at foot of page, add 

" 8. Indigofera stachyodes, Ldl. ; Gamble 25. I. Dosua, 
Ham., var. tomentosa, Baker; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii, 102. Vern. 
Chiringi jhar, Nep. 

" A small tree with thin brown bark. Wood hard, white, with an 
irregular dark-coloured heartwood. Pores small to moderate-sized, 
enclosed in patches of white tissue, forming irregular, sometimes con- 
centric, bands. Medullary rays fine, numerous, equidistant. 

" Inner Eastern Himalaya, Khasia Hills, Sylhet. 

" E 3359. Rhenokh, Sikkim, 3,000 ft. 

"C 3447 from Barasand Reserve, P alamo w, Chota Nagpore, is 
I. pulchella, Eoxb. Vern. Uterr, K61 ; Jirhul, Kharwar. The wood 
has a structure similar to that of I. Jieterantha." 

118, line 17. After "Kumaun ;" insert " Hel, K61 ; Gurar, Kharwar ;" 

118, line 18. For " No. 3479 " read^ No. E 479. " 

118, line 19 from the bottom. After "Kumaun;" add " Balashoe, Mechi;" 

118, line 8 from the bottom. After "fish." add " E 3636 from Bamunpokri, 
Darjeeling Terai, is this species. It has a thin brown bark and white 
wood with an irregular dark heartwood. Pores moderate-sized, often 
subdivided, enclosed in, and often joined by, round concentric rings of 
white tissue. Medullary rays short, fine to very fine, numerous." 

119, Ougeinia dalbergioides. To vernacular names add " Tinsai, Gondi ; Ruta, 
K61;" and (p. 120) to numbers add "C3477. Saranda Forests, 
Chota Nagpore." 

121. After line 8 add " C 3432 is Desmodium pulchellum, Roxb., from 
Amjheria, Lohardugga, Chota Nagpore, with a yellowish- white, hard 
wood, annual rings marked by a white line, small pores, and fine 
white medullary rays ;" 

121, line 10. At the end add " Karzani, Monghyr; KaincJio, Uriya ; " 

121, Erythrina suberosa. To vernacular names add " Farhud, Kharwar ; " 

122, E. indica. To vernacular names add " Paldua, Uriya; Pharad, 
Monghyr ;" 

122, line 12 from the bottom. For " F 3106 " read " E 3106 ;" and to numbers 

add " E 3330. Darjeeling, 7,000 ft." 

122, line 5 from the bottom, after " Nep. ;" insert " Hloru, miirrd, K61 ; Bandit, 
durang, Kharwar ; " 

123, liue 3. After "Uoudi;" add " Baduri, Siiigrampui 1 ; ChlhiinL Mon- 
gnyr ; " 



XVII 



Page 123, Butea frondosa. To vernacular names add " Palashu, Mechi ; Murut, 
Kol ; Pharsa, Ifciigas ; Paras, far as, Behar ;" 



123, line 26 from bottom. After " slow matches. " add " C 979 is a fine speci- 

men of the fibre sent from Berar." 
123, last line but three. After " Lepcha," add " Dangskukop, Mechi." 

123, last line. Add " F. Chappar, Ham. and F. strolttifera,, R. Br., are 

common shrubs of forest undergrowth. Vern. Ulu, K61." 

124, line 40. Fur " 4. Dalbergia Sissoo, " read " 4. D. Sissoo," 

126, After the schedule add " Molesworth gives: Weight, 52 Ibs., P. = 760, 

E. = 3,800," and to numbers " E 3588 Darjeeling Terai." 

127, Dalbergia latifolia. To vernacular names add " Rute, Kol ; Ruzerap 

Mechi ;" and to numbers add j^g 

" C 3456. Saidope Reserve, Palamow . . 

" C 3522. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . .61 

" D 1476. Anamalai Hills, Madras ...... " 

128, line 4. For " W 720. " read " W 729." 

128. D. lanceolaria. To vernacular names add " Piri, Kol ; " 

129. X). paniculata. To vernacular names add " Surteli, passi, Baigas ;" 

130. At the end of DALBERGIA add " C 3450 is Dalbergia volubilis, Roxb., 

from Ramundag Reserve, Palamow. Bark thin, brown, peeling off 
in flakes. Wood light brown, hard. Pores small to very large, 
scanty. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. Occasional faint 
concentric bands." 

130, In Schedule, last line. For 

" Bennett, No. 1 1872 49'5 ... 827" 

read 

"Bennett, No. 1 1872 49'5 3Xl|xl| 830" 

131, line 12. For " B 584 " read " B 548." 

132, Pterocarpus Marsupium. To vernacular names add " Hitun, hid, Kol ; 

Beeya, persar, Kharwar ; Bijo, Goiidi ; Piasdl, Urya ;" 

133, P. Marsupium. To numbers add 

" C 3542. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . .54 Ibs." 

133, Pongamia glabra. To vernacular names add " Khawari, karmuj, 
Sirguja ;" 

133. line 10 from the bottom. After " Beng. ; " add " Nds-bel, C. P. ; " and for 

i( golari" read " Golari" 

134. After line 8 add "No. E 3356, from the Sivoke Hills, Darjeeling, 

1,500 ft., is probably Ormosia glauca, Wall. ; Hook. PI. Ind. ii. 253. 
Vern. Chulclein, Lepcha, a large tree of the Central Himalaya. 
It has a grey bark, and greyish white, moderately hard wood. The 
pores are large, scanty, sometimes subdivide^ they are joined by 
irregular, wavy, somewhat anastomosing patches of white, soft tissue. 
The medullary rays are fine to moderately broad, wavy. The tree 
bears a woody pod, filled with bright scarlet seeds, which are used by 
the Lepchas as a bait to catch jungle fowl." 

135. At the end of C^ESALPINIA add "C 3460, from Saranda, Chota 

Nagpore, is Casalpinia sepiaria, Roxb. Vern. Uchay, Kol ; Gilo, 
Uriya. It has a yellowish-white corky bark, with large corky excres- 
cences, bearing strong thorns. The wood is light brown, moderately 
hard, with masses of reddish-brown harder wood near the centre. 
The pores are large, often subdivided or in groups, surrounded and 
connected by anastomosing bands of white tissue. The medullary 
rays are fine, very numerous, the distance between them much less 
than the transverse diameter of the pores." 

C 



XV111 

Page 136, line 13, for " Manson " read ' Mr. Manson " and line 15, after " end." add 
"A large tree measured by the Inspector General at Dalingkote 
was found to have a girth of 121 inches, a height of 181 feet and 110 
feet to the first branch." 

,, 136, Cassia Fistula. To vernacular names add " Hari, K61 ; Dunrds, 
Kharwar ; Jagarua, Gondi : Raella, Baigas." and omit "persar, 
Palamcw.", and (p. 137) to numbers add 

" C 3544. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . .58 Ibs." 

139, line 8. For " Paur, bela, Gondi ; " read " Paur-bela, Gondi ;" aud then 
add " Lamma, rung, K61 ; Maulan, Kharwar ; " 

139, line 17. After " Terai." add " C 977 is a fine specimen of the fibre sent 
from Berar. It was examined in 1879 by Mr. Routledge, who 
reported it to be an excellent, strong fibre, hemp character, and 
tough, (Kew Gardens Report, 1879.)" 

,, 139, B&uhinia malabarica. To vernacular names add " Laba, K61 ; " 

139, J?. racemosa. To vernacular names add " Kaimu, K61 ; Ghatonli, Oraon ; 
Katmauli, Kharwar ;" 

140, J5. purpurea. To vernacular names add " Buruju, K61 ;" 

140, J3. variegata. To vernacular names add " Kurmang, Mechi ; Singya, K61 ; 
Kundol, Bhumij ; " and at the end of the list of numbers (p. 141) 
insert " H 105 from Bhajji, Punjab, 3,000 ft., is also probably this 
species." 

141,5. retusa. To vernacular names add " Laba, K61; Tewar, Oraon; 
Katman, Kharwar ; Thaur, Gondi." 

,, 142, Tamarindus indica. To vernacular names add " Jojo, K61; Chita,' 
Gondi ;" 

143, line .15 from the bottom. After "line." add "At the Dehri workshops 
on the Sone Eiver, it has been used instead of brass for bear- 
ings for machinery, and found to wear well. In the Sone river piles 
of anjan have been found after twenty years as sound as when first 
put in." 

146, lines 12, 11, and 9 from the bottom. Omit the words " two of the species 
now being grown, viz.," and "P. pallida of" 

146. Omit the last two lines. 
147. Omit lines 1, 2, 17 to 21. 

147, Prosopis spicigera. To vernacular names add " Somi, Monghyr; 

Perambai, Madura;" 

148, line 6. After " small tree." add "Bark brown, fibrous, deeply fissured 

vertically." 

148, Mimosa vubieaulis. To vernacular names add " Dandu deta, K61 ; Aral, 

Kharwar ; " 
148, Xylia dolabriformis. To vernacular names add " Kongora, Uriya ; " 

and (p. 149) to numbers add 

"03514,3546. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . 54 Ibs." 
149, line 3. After " District," add " Orissa," 

149, after the schedule add " Molesworth gives : Weight 58 Ibs., P = 836, 

E = 4,300." 

151, line 34. After the words " Skinner gives 884." add " Molesworth gives 

Weight 54 Ibs., P = 880, and E = 4,150." 

152, Acacia leucopMa-a. To vernacular names add " .Rt i''.,ij<t, rinja, Gondi; 

Goira, Uriya ; " and to numbers add " 35UG. Khurdha For. 
Orissa." 
154. Above line 19 from the bottom insert 

" C 3526. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . 62 Ibs." 



154, line 19 from the bottom. For * E 0(J3 " read " E 665." 
154, 7 For " locolly " read " locally." 
154, 6 For "F 2355" Warf " E 2355." 

154. Below line 4 from the bottom add " No. 3420 is a piece of bard, dark-red 

wood, resembling this hist form in appi-annice and structure. It was 
obtained from tin; excavations made at Prince's Dock, Bombay (see 
Indian Forester, Vol. VI, p 108.)" 

155. A. Int&ia. To vernacular names add " Kundaru % K61 ; " 
155, line 15. For " E 2379 " read "E 2359. " 

155. After line 15 add " C 3468, from Bandgaon, Singbhiim, Chota Nagpore, 
is this species, but the wood is harder and, though recognizable, the 
angular form of the stem is not so prominent as in the Darjeeling 
specimens." 

155, A.pennata. To vernacular names add " Kundaru, K61 ; Arar, Kharwar ;" 

156, Albizzia Leblelc. To vernacular names add " Tinia, Uriya." and (p. 157 ) 

to numbers add 

" C 3560, C 3567. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . 49, 59 Ibs." 

158, A. procera. To vernacular names add "Tinia, Uriya; Pandrai, 

K61 ; Garso, Kharwar ; Laokri, Mechi ; " 

159, line 2. For " between A. LebbeJc and the woods of A. procera " read 

"between the woods of A. Lelbek and A. procera" 

159, line 10. For " P = 884 " read " P = 695." 

160, A. stipulata. To vernacular names add " Chapun, Tcera serum, K61 ; 

Bunsobri, Mechi ; " 

160, A. amara. To vernacular names add " Wusel, Madura ; '' 
164, line 12. Add " Vern. Lali, Nep." 
164, line 13. After " reddish brown " add "with a pretty wavy lustre on a 

radial section." 

164, after line 17, add " E 3422. Kangirum, Darjeeling, 6,500 ft." 

165, line 10 from the bottom. After "Himalaya." add "It has a brown 

thick, soft bark and porous wood, with large pores and broad medul- 
lary rays. (E 3361, Darjeeling, 6,500 ft.)" 

166, Eubus lineatus. To list of numbers add " E 3383. Senchul, Darjeeling, 

8,000 feet." 
166, line 17 from the bottom. After " Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 513," add " Vern. 

Jud, Beng." 
168. After line 6 add " E 3335. Eangiriim, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet." 

168, at the end of EEIOBOTETA. After line 6 add " E 3411, from Darjeeling, is 

Docynia indica, Dene. The wood closely resembles that of Pyrus. 
Bark % inch thick, greyish brown, shining, splitting off in irregular 
flakes and leaving a rough under-surface. Wood light brown with an 
irregular purple-brown heartwood, hard, close, and even-grained. 
Pores very small, more numerous in the spring wood. Medullary rays 
fine, very numerous. Annual rings marked by a line. Our specimen 
is a round with a mean diameter of 12 inches, and shewing 36 well- 
marked rings ; the growth, therefore, is 6 rings per inch of radius." 

169, last line but two. Add " E 3404. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet (has 

well-marked medullary patches)." 

170, After line 7 at the end of PYEUS add 

"E 3403, from Tonglo, Darjeeling, 9,000 feet, is P. 
rhamnoides, Dene.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 377. Vern. Kumlul, 
Lepcha ; Kangedoc, Bhutia, a small, often epiphytic tree of the 
upper forests of the Sikkim Himalaya. It his a hard, yellowish- 



XX 

brown wood, with numerous small, evenly distributed pores and very 
numerous fine medullary rays. The annual rings are marked by a 
darker line. 

" E 3633, from Goompahar, Darjeeling, 7,000 ft,, is P. Wallichii, 
Hook. f. It has a greyish-brown bark ; and brown, moderately hard 
wood. Poies numerous, small to moderate-sized, fewer in the autumn 
wood and thus marking the annual rings. Medullary rays very fine, 
very numerous, indistinct. Medullary patches few." * 

" E 3400, from Darjeeling, 7,000 feet, is Photinia integrifolia, 
Ldl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 381 ; Gamble 37. Vern. Shumbul, Lepcha, 
a small tree of the Eastern Himalaya. Bark thin, greyish brown. 
Wood brown, moderately hard, close-grained. Pores small, uniformly 
distributed. Medullary rays fine, very numerous, the distance be- 
tween them about equal to the transverse diameter of the pores. 
Annual rings marked by a sharp line." 

Page 173, line 15 from the bottom. For " H 3038." read " H 3028." 
174, line 8. Omit ' H 2912. " 

177, Carallia integerrima. To vernacular names add " Jur, K61 ; " and to 
numbers add " C 3482. Saranda Forests, Chota Nagpore." 

179, line 6. After " Lepcha ; " add " Palandu, Jcoldungi, K61 ; Eundol, 
Bhumij ; Buria, raterr, Kharwar; Atundi, Uriya;" 

179, Terminalia belenca. To vernacular names add " Lupung, lihung, K61 ; " 

180, T. Chebula. To vernacular names add " Sola, K61 ; Hadra, Oraon ; " 
and (p. 181) to numbers add 
"C3531. Khurdha Forests, Orissa .... 59 Ibs." 

182, T. tomentosa. To vernacular names add ' Hatana, K61 ; ' and to numbers 
" E 3590. Darjeeling Terai." 

184, T. Arjuna. To vernacular names add " Gara katana, K61 ; " and (p. 185) 
to numbers add 
" C 3461. Saranda Forests, Chota Nagpore . . 69 Ibs." 

1S5, Anogeissus latifolia. To vernacular names add "Hesel, K61;" and 
(p. 186) to numbers add 

" C 3562. Khurdha Forests, Orissa .... 62 Ibs." 

186, A. acuminata. To vernacular names add "Gara hesel, pandri, pansi 
K61;"and (p. 187) to numbers add "C3462. Saranda Forests, 
Chota Nagpore." 

187, line 23. After "A deciduous tree." add "Bark thin, greyish white, 
smooth." 

187, Gyrocarpus Jacquini. To numbers add " C 3517. Sonakalla, Khurdha, 
Orissa." 

190, line 26. For " 1095-7 " read " 1095-8" and for " 2, 3, 4 " read " 2, 3, 4, 
5." 

190, Psidium Guava. To vernacular names add " Gaya, Magh ;" 

193, Eugenia formosa. To vernacular names add " Panchidung, Garo ;" 

194, E. operculata. To vernacular names add " Topa, K61; " 

194, E. Jambolana. To vernacular names add " Juda, K61 ; Jambnn, 
Oraon ;" and to numbers ' E 3598, Darjeeling Terai.' 

195. E. Heyneana. To vernacular names add " Gara kuda, K61 ; Jamti, 

Kharwar;" 

195. At the bottom of the pago, add "E34M, from the Ramundag Reserve. 
I'al.'imow, Chota Na^pnre, is tliis species. The white concentric bands 
an; more prominent ami em-lose Hie pores." 

1'JfI, after line 5, add "No. C :J")SL>. IVom ll.e Khunlha Forests, Orissa, is pro- 
bably R. zc-iilttnifif, Wi.^lil. Vern. Kui/.n-n/mfmi, Triya. It; is a 
niyitlc-like t-lirub ol' tie' -nub l'<ne--(^ Dark brown. Woodliard, 



XXI 

close-grained, grey. Pores small and extremely small, joined by 
concentric bands of white tissue, which are closely packed. Medullary 
rays very fine, very numerous. 

Page 196, Barringtonia acutangula. To vernacular names add " Ijar, Monghyr; 
Saprung, K61 ; Hinjara, Uriya." To numbers add " C 3470, Saranda 
Forests, Chota Nagpore." 

197. Careya arlorea. To vernacular names add " Asunda, K61; um, 
Bhumij ; " 

197, in schedule, line 8 from the bottom, column 5, omit the word " Various." 
197, in schedule, line 4 from the bottom, column 5, for " 2 X XI" read 
" 2 X 1 X 1." 

198, line 9. After "astringent." add "C 980 is a fine specimen of the fibre 
sent from Berar." 

199. At the end of MELASTOMA add 

"E3419, from Lebons:, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet, is Oxyspora 
paniculata, DC. Bark reddish brown, thin. Wood light reddish- 
grey, moderately hard, with dark-brown medullary patches. Pores 
small to moderate-sized, scanty, often in short radial lines. Medul- 
lary rays fine, short, numerous, not straight. Concentric bands of 
soft tissue, often interrupted, prominent. 

" C 3561, from the Khurdha Forests, Orissa, is Memerylon eduJe, 
Roxb. Vern. Nirdsa, Uriya. Wood light brown, very hard, consisting 
of alternate concentric layers of dark tissue without pores, and lighter 
tissue in which small but distinct pores are visible. These layers may 
represent annual ri ngs. Medullary rays of two kinds, the larger fine 
and short, the smaller extremely fine. Weight, 60 Ibs. per cubic foot." 

199, line 13 from the bottom. For " Atlacus " read " Attacus ;" 

200, Woodfordia florilunda. To vernacular names add " Icha, K61; Dadki, 
Bhumij ; Harwari, Uriya." 

200, Lagerstromia parviflora. To vernacular names add " Saikre, K61 ; Sidha 
Behar;" and (p. 201) to numbers add 

"C 3547. Khurdha Forests, Orissa ... 58 Ibs." 
,, 202. L Regince. To vernacular names add " Gara saiJcre, K61 ; " 

202, line 10 from the bottom. After " Eatnagiri. " add " Saranda forests in 
Chota Nagpore." 

203, L. Regince. List of Numbers. For " E 620 " read " E 630 " and after 
" E 2188. Nowgong, Assam " add " E 1433. Assam." 

204, Duabanga sonneratioides. To vernacular names add " Achung, Garo;" 
and to numbers "E 3622. Kalimpiing, Darjeeling, 2,000 ft." 

204, line 20 from bottom. After " radius." add " Our specimen No. E 3622 
shews only 2 rings per inch." 

205. Sonneratia acida. To numbers add 

" B 3379, from Kyoukphyoo, Arracan ... 42 Ibs." 

206, Casearia tomentosa. To vernacular names add " Rorc, K61 ; 1> 
Kharwar ; " and to numbers add 

" C 3527. Khurdha Forests, Orissa .... 43 Ibs." 
206, line 23. For " 1393 " read " 1363." 

206, C.graveolens. To vernacular names add " Reri, K61; Beri, Kharwar ; " 
208, line 7. For "Bark grey-brown, wrinkled." read "Bark givvish white, 
one inch thick, spongy, marked with horizontal wrinkles and small 
vertical lines of lenticels : peels off in thin papery layers." 

209 line 2. After " Cachar ; " add " Arcngi banu, K61 ; " 



XX11 

Page 209, line 6. After " H. f and Th. ; " add " Hook. Fl. lud. ii. 740." 

209, line 7. For " eastern slopes of the Arracan Yoma." read " Khasia Hills 
and the Eastern, &c." 

209, at the end of HEPTAPLEUBUM add "C 3412, from Neturhat, Palamow, 
3,000 feet, is Heptapleurum venulosum, Seera. Vern. Sukriruin, 
K61. Bark grey, shining. Wood light brown, soft. Pores small. 
Medullary rays fine to moderately broad." 

"E 3635 from Goompahar Forest, Darjeeling, 7,500 ft., is H. 
impressum, C. B. Clarke. Bark brown, thick, exuding a copious gum. 
Wood grey, soft. Pores very small, evenly distributed. Medullary 
rays prominent, moderately broad. Conspicuous concentric white 
lines which run into each other. Annual rings doubtful. 

210. At the end of BRASSAIOPSIS add " E 3409, from Darjeeling, 6,700 feet, 
is Brassaiopsis speciosa, Dene, and Plch. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 737 
(B. floribunda, Seem.; Gamble 44), a moderate-sized tree, with thin 
grey bark, and soft white wood, in structure resembling that of 
B. mitis. Growth fast, 5 rings per inch of radius." 

210, line 10. After "Miq. ;" add " Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 738." 

210, line 11. For " Martaban Hills above 5,000 feet " add " Eastern Hima- 
laya, Khasia and Martaban, &c." 

210, line 12. Aft&r "Seem. ;" add "Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 738." 
210, line 24. After " Linn.;" add " Hook. Fl. Ind. ii, 739." 
210, at the end of HEDEBA add 

"E3402, from Tonglo, Darjeeling, 9,000 feet, is G-amblea 
ciliata, C. B. Clarke ; Hook. Fl. lud. ii. 740. Vern. Rama, Bhutia, 
a large tree of the forests of the Senchul and Singalila Ranges above 
8,000 feet. Bark grey, smooth. Wood white, shining, moderately 
hard. Pores extremely small, except on the outer edges of the 
annual rings, which are very distinctly marked by Hues of moderate- 
sized pores. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, white, 
shining, irregularly distributed. 



" E 3576, from Darjeeling, 6,000 feet, is Pentapanax racemosum, 
Seem. A large climbing or straggling shrub. Bark silvery grey, 
thin, peeling off in thin flakes. Wood greyish white, soft. Annual 
rings very prominently marked by a line of large pores : the pores 
in the rest of the wood small, scanty. Medullary rays moderately 
broad." 

211, line 2. After " Torricellia tiliafoUa, DC. ; " add " Hook. Fl. Ind. 

ii. 748 ;" < 

211, line 4. After "Khasia Hills." add "(See p. 81, Daphniphyllopsis capi- 

tata)." 

211, line 11. After " Thwaites ; " add " Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 741 ; " 
211. Alangium Lamarckii. To vernacular names add " AnJcol, K61 ; Ankula, 

dolanku, Uriya ;" and to numbers add j| )St 

" C 3466. Saranda Forests, Chota Nagpore 

"C3564. Khurdha Forests, Orissa .... 12" 

211, line 33. After " Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 261 ; " add " Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 743 ; " 

212, line 5. After " Linn. ; " add " Hook. Fl. lud. ii. 744 ; " 
212, line 9. After " Wall. ; " add " Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 744 ; " 
212, line 24, After " Wall. ; " add " Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 744 ; " 

212, line 36. After " Wall. ; " add " Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 745 ; " 

213, line 11. After " Hook. f. and Th. ; " add " Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 747 ; " 



XX111 

Page 215, Viburnum erubescens. To vernacular names add " Asari, Nep. ; Nakouli, 
Bhutia ;" 

217, last line but 8. For " E 2866." read "E 2856." 

,, 219, Anthocephalus Cadamba. To vernacular names add " Sanko, K61 ;" 

220. Adina cordifolia. To vernacular names add " Kuruniba, Eomba, K61; " 

220, last line but 2. For " Hnanbeng " read " Hnaubeng " 

221, A. cordifolia. To numbers, add 

" C 3543. Khurdha Forests, Orissa ... 43 Ibs." 
222, in page number. For " 22d " read " 222 " 

., 2*22. Stephegyne parvifolia. To vernacular names add " Gui, komba, K61 ; 
G&ri, guri karam, Kharwar ;" and to list of numbers add 

" C 824. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar." 

224. Hymenodictyon excelsum. To vernacular names add " Sali, K61 ; 
Burkunda, Bhuinij ; Konso, Uriya ; " 

225. After line 7, add 

"C3565. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . . 29 Ibs." 

226, Welera asiatica. To numbers add "C 3579, C 3520. Khurdha Forests, 
Orissa. Vern. Jhaujhauka" 

226. Randia uliginosa. To vernacular names add " Kumkum, K61 ; " 

227, -B. dumetorum. To vernacular names add " Portoho, K61; Jkfohna, 
Kharwar ; " 

227. At the bottom of the page add " E 3363, from Dhupguri, W. Duars, 
is It. rigida, DC. The wood resembles in structure that of R. uli- 
ginosa." 

228, Gardenia turgida. To vernacular names add " Dudnri, K61 ; KharJiar, 
Oraon ; " and to numbers add " C 3435. Kumandi Eeserve, Pala- 
mow." 

228. After G. LUCIDA, at the bottom of the page, add : " C 3465, from 
Bandgaon, Singbhum, Chota Nagpore, is G. gummifera, Linn. Vern. 
ururi, burui, K61 ; Bruru, Bhuinij. Bark brown, nearly % inch 
thick. Wood yellowish white, hard, close-grained. Annual rings 
indistinct. Pores very small. Medullary rays very fine, very 
numerous. This wood might serve as a substitute for boxwood." 

229. G.latifolia. To vernacular names add " Papra, papadar, K61 ; Popra, 
Kharwar ;" 

229, lines 17, 18. For " B " read " C " 

229. At the end of GARDENIA add " E 3286, from the Einkheong Reserve, 
Chittagong, is Hyptianthera stricta, W. and A. Bark brown, 
somewhat corky, thin, cleft in long continuous furrows about 2 
lines apart. Wood brown, moderately hard, close-grained. Pores 
small, evenly distributed. Medullary rays of two classes : small 
ones very fine, very numerous ; larger ones few, fine. Our specimen 
weighs 56 Ibs. per cubic foot." 

230, Plectronia didyma. To vernacular names add " Jor, K61 ;" 

230, line 11. For "grey" read "light brown;" 

230, P didyma. To numbers add " C 3481. Saranda Forests, Chota Nagpore." 

230, Ixora parviflora. To vernacular names add " Pete, K61 ;" and to numbers 
add 

" C 3464. Saranda Forests, Chota Nagpore." 

231, Pavetta tomentosa. To vernacular names add " Sikriba, sikerhp, K61; 
urhi, Kharwar ;" 

231, line 22. After " Gamble 49." insert " The Coffee plant." 



XXIV 

Page 232, Morinda exserta. To numbers add 

"C3535. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . . 40 Ibs." 

232. At the end of MOEINDA add " C 3431 from Amjheria, Lohardugga, is 
Hamiltonia suaveolens, Roxb. Vern. Eudia, Kharwar. It has a grey, 
shining bark, which peels off in short papery flakes. The wood is dark 
grey, soft, porous, with few small pores often subdivided, and moder- 
ately broad to broad medullary rays." 

233, line 13. For " Weight, 31'5 Ibs." read " Weight, our specimen gives 

233, last line but one. For " Thibandia " read " Thibaudia " 
235, line 25. For " E 3328 " read " E 3325" 
237, line 9. After " Kegu," add " kalma," 

238. At the end of RHODODENDRON add " No. E 3394, GaultJieria Griffith- 
iana, Wight, from Jalapahar, Darjeeling, 7,500 feet, has a moderate- 
ly hard, greyish-white wood, with numerous brown medullary spots. 
Pores extremely small and numerous. Medullary rays fine, scanty. 
The bark is light brown, peeling off in papery layers." 

240. After line 25, add " C 3438 from Ramundag Reserve, Palamow, and C 3528 
from the Khurdha Forests, Orissa, are this species, but the bark is 
thinner, and the wood differs by having the medullary rays only 
' broad ' instead of ' extremely broad.' " 

241. At the end of AEDISIA add " E 3350, from the Sivoke Hills, Darjeeling, 
1,500 feet, is A. involucrata, Kurz ; Gamble 53. Vern. 2}enyok, 
Lepcha. It has a yellow corky bark and pinkish- white wood; 
with small, scanty pores, and broad, white, wavy medullary rays. 

"E 3367, from the Kasalong Reserve, Chittagong, is A. pani- 
culata, Roxb. PI. Ind. i. 580 ; Beddome cxxxviii. ; Kurz ii. 107, a 
small tree of Chittagong with handsome pink flowers. The bark is 
thin, greyish brown ; and the wood pinkish white, with small pores 
radially disposed between the short, broad, wavy medullary rays. 

" C 3463, from Bandgaon Ghat, Singbhiim, Chota Nagpore, 
2,000 feet, is a species of Ardisia, probably A. solanacea, Willd. 
Bark brown, smooth. Wood grey, moderately hard. Pores small 
and very small, often in short radial lines between the broad, wavy, 
porous medullary rays." 

242. At the end of SAECOSPEEMA add " C 3504, from the Khurdha Forests, 
Orissa, is Sideroxylon tomentosum, Roxb. Vern. Kanta bohul, 
Uriya. Bark light reddish-brown, thin. Wood light reddish-white, 
hard. Pores fine to moderate-sized, in short concentric or sometimes 
oblique lines. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous, equidistant. 
Concentric bands of rather darker colour having the appearance of 
annual rings." 

243, Bassia latifolia. To vernacular names add " Mandulcum, K61 ; Mohul, 
Bhumij ;" 

246, Mimusops indica. To numbers add 

" C 3551. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . . 72 Ibs." 
249. Diospyros Melanoxylon. To vernacular names add " Tiril, K61 ; " 

249, D. Melanoxylon. To numbers add " C 3493. Kolhan Forests, Siugbhum, 
Chota Nagpore." 

250, last line but 5. For " No. 62 " read " No. 61 " 

251, D. Ebenum. To numbers add " W 1207. South Kanara (saplings)." 

252, line IS. For " white " read " grey " 



XXV 

Page 252, D. Emltryopteri*. To numbers add " C 317 1. Saranda Forests, Chota 

Nagpore." 

253. After Yu\e 9, sit tin- end of EBENACK.I:, add "0 3502, from the Khurdh. 
Forests, Orissa, is Maba buxifolia, Pers. Vern. Guakoli, Uriya. 
Bark greyish black, thin. Wood greyish white, moderately hard, 
Pores small, scanty, in short radial lines. Medullary rays very 
fine, numerous and equidistant. Concentric lines of white tissue, thin, 
very numerous and regular. In Orissu it is a very common bush 
on poor soils." 

253, After line 24 add "E 3372, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet, has a similar structure, 

but the white bands are much less marked. It is probably & serru- 
latum" 
254, at the end of SYMPLOCOS add 

"E 3347, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet, is Symplocos glpmerata, King. 
It has a thin brown bark and white wood resembling in structure 
that of 8. lucida." 

" C 3491, from the Kolhan Forests, Singbhiim, Chota Nagpore, 
is S. racemosa, .Roxb. Vern, Ludum, K61 ; Lodh, Oraon. Bark 
yellow, rough, spongy, | inch thick. Wood white, soft. Pores 
small, often in radial lines. Medullary rays short, broad, numerous." 

254, last line. After " Beng. ; " add " Samsihar, Kharwar ; Saparung, K61 ;" 

255, Schrebera swietenioides. To vernacular names add " Jarjo, sandapsing, 

K61; Ghato, Oraon ; Ghanto, Kharwar; " 

256, S. swietenioides. To numbers add " C 3454. Ramundag Reserve, Pala- 

mow, Chota Nagpore." 

256, line 35. After " Shang, Afg. ; " add " Banafsh, Kandahar ; " 
256, line 40. After " good fuel." add " Experiments, made at Kandahar by 

Captain Call, R.E., with pieces 1' X 1" X 1", gave for the average 

weight 32'2 Ibs. and 641 for the value of P. (Indian Forester, Vol. V, 

p. 480.)" 

259, after line 17, add 

"C 3486 from the Kolhan Forests, Singbhiim, Chota Nagpore, is 
probably L.dichotoma, DC. (Ghionanthus divhotoma, Roxb. Fl. Ind- 
i. 108). Vern. Deorkuda, K61. Bark inch thick, light yellowish- 
brown. Wood moderately hard, close-grained, white. Pores moderate- 
sized, often in pairs or threes, scanty. Medullary rays fine, numerous, 
equidistant, the distance between them equal to, or less than, the 
diameter of the pores. Fine concentric lines of white tissue, which 
may be annual rings." 

259, at the end of LINOCIEEA add 

"C 3412 from Hazaribagh, and C 3492 from Kolhau, 
Singbhiim, Chota Nagpore, are Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis, Linn. 
Bark inch thick, light brown, rough. Wood yellowish-brown, 
moderately hard, close-grained. Pores small, grouped in short 
radial lines, but arranged more or le?s in concentric rings, the 
annual rings apparent!}* marked by a dark line and a more complete 
ring of pores. Medullary rays very fine to fine, very numerous, the 
distance between them equal to the transverse diameter of the pores." 

261, Carissa diffusa. To vernacular names add " Kanuwdn, Oraon ; Anlca 
koli, Uriya ;" and to numbers add " C 3518. Khurdha Forests, 
Orissa." 

26], at the bottom add " C 3511 and C 3569, from the Khurdha Forests, Orissa, 
are Carissa Carandas, Linn., Vern. Kendakeri, kerendo kuli, Uriva. 
Bark yellowish brown, pooling off in square flakes. Wood white, 
hard, smooth, close-grained. Pores moderate-sized or small, irregularly 
distributed. Medullary rays fine, short, numerous." 



XXVI 

Page 262, Alstonia scholaris. To vernacular names add " Chatin, bomudu, Kol ; 
Ckhatiana, Uriya ; " 

263, Tabernamontana coronaria. To vernacular names add " Chameli, 
Monghyr ; " 

263, Holarrhena antidysenterica. To vernacular names add " KorJcoria, 
Oraon ; IZurcki, Bhumij ; Towa, kuti, Kol ; Kuria, Kharwar ; 
Pita Jcorwa, Uriya;" and to numbers add 

"C3558. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . . 391bs." 

264, WrigJitia tomentosa. To vernacular names add " Sandikuya, Kol ; 
Dudh-koraiya, Monghyr ; " 

265. After line 2 add " C 3496, from Chaibassa, Chota Nagpore, is Thevetia 
neriifolia, Juss. Bark thin, greyish brown, shining. Wood grey, 
moderately hard. Pores very small and small, numerous. Medullary 
rays very fine, very numerous, the distance between them less than 
the transverse diameter of the pores." 

265, line 29. After " Auk, Nep. ;" add " Akhwan, Kharwar; Palati, Kol; 
Uruk, Uriya :" 

265, at line 17 from the bottom. After " purposes." add " C 3446, from the 
Barasand Reserve, Palamow ; and C 3512, from Burkool, Khurdha, 
Orissa, are Calotropis gigantea. The bark is light yellowish-white, 
consisting chiefly of cork, and deeply cleft vertically. Wood white, 
soft. Pores small to moderate-sized, often subdivided, scanty. 
Medullary rays extremely fine and numerous." 

268, line 20. For " Burman " read " Burm., an " 

268, line 35. .For " Bark -5^ inch thick scales" read "Bark to f 

inch thick, black or brownish black, corky, very deeply and narrowly 
cleft vertically, so as to form thin ridges which easily break off." 

269, Strychnos potatorum. To numbers add " C 3500. Khurdha Forests, 
Orissa." 

,, 269, S. Nux-vomica. To vernacular names add <e Kuchila, Uriya ;" and to 
numbers, add "C 3537 (63 Ibs.), C 3538 (54 Ibs.). Khurdha Forests, 
Orissa." 

269. At the end of line 11 from the bottom add " C3475, fiom the Koel River, 
Saranda, Chota Nagpore, is Bhabdia viminea, Dalzell. It has a soft 
white wood, with scanty pores, often subdivided or in short radial lines. 
Medullary rays extremely fine, very indistinct." 

,, 270, Cordia Myxa. To vernacular names add " JEmbrum, Kol ; * 

271, C. Macleodii. To vernacular names add " Renta, porponda, Kol ; 
Bharwar, belaunan, Kharwar ; and to numbers add " C 3455. Betlah 
Reserve, Palamow." 

273. After line 13 add "C 3497, from Ghatsila, Dhalbhum, is Erycibe pa- 
niculata, Roxb. Vern. (Jrumin, Kol, a climber, with the peculiar 
structure of climbers : soft porous wood, large pores and moderately 
broad medullary rays. The woody portions are arranged in wavy 
concentric masses, separated by lines of cellular tissue. The bark is 
brown with corky lenticels." 

275, Oroxylum indicum. To vernacular names add " Sona, Hazaribagh ; 
Sanpatti, Monghyr; Arengi banu, Kol; Sonepatta, Kharwar; 
Phuriphuna, Uriya ;" 

275, line 31. For "E 2396." read " E 2395." 

277, line 3. After " Ceylon Collection " add " (marked Spathodea longifolia. 
Vern. Daanga, Cingh.)" 

,, 278, Stereospermum chclonoides. To vernacular names add " Kandior, Kol ; " 
278, S. suaveolens. To vernacular names add " Kandior, Kol; Pmnlri, Khar- 
war;" and (p. 27U) to numbers add "0 1378. Gonda, Oudh." 



XXVll 

Page 279, line 10 from the bottom. For " B 2355 " read " B 2235. " 

280, line 6 from the bottom. For " Ban marua " read " ban marua " 

280, foot-note. For " Linn. ; Soc." read " Linn. Soc." 

281, Adhatoda Vasica. To vernacular names add " Basung, Uriya ;" 

282, Callicarpa arborea. To vernacular names add " Bundun, K61 ; Bogodi, 
ffoffdi, Kharwar ; Boropairi, Uriya ;" and to numbers add " C 3445. 
Seemah Eeserve, Palamow, Chota Nagpore." 

292. Before line 5 from the bottom insert '< C 1204. Khandwa, Central Pro- 
vinces." 

295. At the end " of PBEMNA add "C 3578, from the Khurdha Forests, Orissa. 
Vein. Agabathu, Uriya, is a species of Premna, near P. latifolia, which 
it resembles in structure. Bark light yellowish-brown, thin." 

295, Gmelina arborea. To vernacular names add " Sasamar, K61;" and 
(p. 296) to numbers add 

" C 3549. Khurdha Forests, Orissa ... 37 Ibs. 
" E 3605, E 3620. Darjeeling Terai." 

297, Vitex Negundo. To vernacular names add " Ehuri, K61 ; Sindwar, Khar- 
war ; Samdlu, Monghyr ;" 

,, 297, V. altissima. To vernacular names add " Simyanga, gua, Kdl ;" 

297, V. pubescens. To vernacular names add " Muria, Uriya ;" and to num- 
bers (page 298) add 

" C 3550. Khurdha Forests, Orissa ... 52 Ibs." 
299, line 3. After " Mechi ;" add " Kvla marsal, K61 ; Anguti, Uriya ;" 
302, NTCTAGINE.E. At end add " C3507, from the Khurdha Forests, Orissa, is 
Pisonia aculeata, Linn. Vern. Ifati-ankusa, Uriya. It has a very 
peculiar structure, consisting of regularly arranged, very large, single 
or subdivided pores or groups of pores, with 2 or 3 moderate-sized pores 
radially arranged on the inside of each. The medullary rays are very 
fine, very numerous, and often pass through and subdivide the pores. 
Bark light brown, thin." 

309, Machilus odoratissima. To numbers add " E 3634. Darjeeling, 7,000 ft.'' 

310, line 25. For " 1378," read " 1373 " 

,, 310, TetrantTiera monopetala. To vernacular names add " Pojo, hajam, K61 ;" 

,, 311. After line 18 insert "C3581, from the Burnai Forest, Khurdha, Orissa, is 
Actinodaptine any us li folia, Nees. Vern. Jkarchampa, Uriya. Bark 
light brown, smooth; wood light brown, moderately hard, even-grained. 
Pores numerous, moderate-sized, evenly distributed or roughly 
arranged in oblique lines, often subdivided. Annual rings marked by 
more numerous pores. Medullary rays uniform, moderatelv broad." 

313, line 11. After " 42 Ibs. " add " This species is not a Daphnidium, but 
Lindera heterophylla, Meissn." 

325, line 23. For " E 3377 " read " E 3317." 

327, Streblus asper. To vernacular names add " Hara saijung, K61 ;" and to 
numbers add "C 3577. Khurdha Forests, Orissa." 

327, Plecospermum spinosum. To vernacular names add " Banabana, Uriya;" 
329, line 16. For " E 3376 " read " E 3396." 

329, Artocarpus integrifolia. To vernacular names add " Poros, K61 ;" 
330, A. Lakooclia. To vernacular names add " Dao, K61 ;" 

, 331, line 7 from bottom. For " W 755 " read " W 758 " and after line 7 from 
the bottom insert " W 1208. South Kanara (saplings)." 

,. 332, line 30. Omit "and W 729 from South Kaiiara ;" and for "resemble " 
read " resembles " 



XXV111 

Page 333, Ficus bengalensis. To vernacular names add " Bai, Kol ;" 
334, F. infectoria. To vernacular names add " Baswesa, Kol ;" 
335, F. religiosa. To vernacular names add " Hesar, Kol ; Jari, Uriya ;" 
336, F. retusa. To vernacular names add " Butisa, Kol ;" 
338. F. virgata. To numbers add " H 148. Sainj, Simla, 3,000 feet." 

339, F. Cunia. To vernacular names add " Riu, ain, Kol ; Poro dumer, Khar- 
war ;" 

339, F. glomerata. To vernacular names add " Loa, Kol ; Dumer, Kharwar ;" 

340, F. Roxburghii. To vernacular names add " Xotang, Kol ;" 

340, F. hispida. To vernacular names add " Kotang, sosokera, Kol ;" 

341, at the end of Ficus add 

" E 3334 from Darjeeling, 7,000 ft., is F. Fleldingii, Miq., a 
common tree of the Hill forests of the N. E. Himalaya, whose leaves 
are much used for fodder. It has a thin, grey bark ; wood white, 
close-grained, soft. Pores moderate-sized, very scanty. Alternating 
wavy bands of soft and firmer tissue prominent. Medullary rays 
short, moderately broad. 

" E 3612 from Chenga Forest, Darjeeling, 1,500 ft., is F. clavata, 
Wall. It has a very thin, smooth, greenish-grey bark. Wood white, 
moderately hard, close-grained, lustrous. Pores moderate-sized, 
scanty, often subdivided and enclosed in a ring of white tissue. 
Alternating layers of white, soft, and firmer dark tissue, very regular. 
Medullary rays fine to moderately broad, very short, white." 

341, line 12. For " 2075" read " 2975." 

342, Ulmus integrifolia. To vernacular names add " Daurango, Uriya ;" 

344, Sponia orienlalis. To vernacular names add " Rarunga, Kol ; " 

347, line 18 from the bottom,^ after " Beng. ; " add "Hara sejum, Kol ; Sikat, 

Kharwar ; MahJcoa, Monghyr ; " 

348, line 27, after " Vern. " insert " Simul aloo, simul turul, Beng. ; " 
349, Antidesma Ghcesembilla. To vernacular names add " Mata sure, Kol ; " 

352, Phyllanthus Emblica. To vernacular names add " Meral, Kol ; " and 
to numbers add 

"C3539. Khurdha Forests, Orissa . . . 58 Ibs." 

353. At the end of " PHTLLANTHUS," add " C 3485, from the Kolhan Forests, 
Singbhum, Chota Nagpore, and C 3501 and C 3553, from the Khur- 
dha Forests, Orissa, are Phyllanthus lanceolarius, Mull. Arg. Vern. 
Marang mata, Kol; Kalchua, Uriya. Eark brown, longitudinally 
cleft, soft. Wood reddish brown, moderately hard. Pores small 
and moderate-sized, scanty, in radial lines between the fine medullary 
rays. The distance between the rays is equal to, or less than, the 
transverse diameter of the pores. Weight, our specimen ' C 3553 ' 
gives 56 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

" C 3451, from the Betlah Reserve, Palamow, is Brei/niu 
rhamnoides, Mull. Arg. Bark greyish brown, fibrous. Wood reddish 
brown, hard, close-grained. Pores small, in radial lines between the 
numerous, fine medullary rays." 

353, last line. For " E 5469" read " E 2469." 

356, Briedelia retusa. To vernacular names add " Kharaka, kaka, Kol ; 
iLarika, Bhurnij ; 7i'</;{/, /v///, Kluirwar; h'<(j, Monghjr; " 

357, line 8. After ''Ceylon Collection" add "(marked B. spinosa. Vern. 
Ketiekale, Cingh.) " 

357. Briedeliatomcntosa. To numbers add "C 3498. Dhalbhum, Chota Nag- 
pore." 



XXIX 

Page 357. At the end of BBIEDELIA add "C 3503 from the Khurdha Forests, Orissa, 
is Briedelia stipularis, Bl. Vern. Gour kassi, Uriya. Bark brown. 
Wood greyish brown, moderately hard. JPores scanty, often subdivided 
or in short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, numerous, uniformly 
distributed, the distance between them less than the transverse dia- 
meter of the pores. Numerous very fine, concentric, transverse bars 
across the rays." 

,, 358, Lebedieropsis orbicularis. To vernacular names add " Parasu, pas, K61 ; 
Kergaili, Kharwar ; " to numbers add " C 3452. Betlah Reserve, 
Palarnow, Chota Nagpore ; " and in line 18 after " poisonous," add 
" and in Singbhum is so used by the Ho Kols, as also the root, mixed 
with salt." 

369, line 9, after " Nep. ;" add " Kuril, Iconya, kuli, K61 ; Putila, Bhumij ; 
Putri, Kharwar ; Puter, Monghyr ; " 

,, 359, Croton caudatus. To vernacular names add, " Wiista, Uriya ;" 

359, line 5 from bottom. After " smaller." add " C 3458, from Chandwa, Tori, 
Chota Nagpore, is this. It has a yellow wood, pores moderate-sized, 
scanty, single or subdivided, or in groups of 3 to 4; and medullary 
raj's fine and very fine, very numerous. Wavy concentric bands of 
white tissue." 

,, 359, Trewia nudiflora. To vernacular names add " Kurong, Nep. ; Gara 
lohadaru, K61 ; Gamhdr, Monghyr; Honda, Uriya." 

363. Ricinus communis. To vernacular names add " Hindi, Kdl ; " 

365, Jatropha Curcas. To vernacular names add " Xulcjera, totJca bendi, 
K61 ; " 

366. After CH^TOCARPUS insert " C 3548, from the Khurdha Forests, Orissa, 
is Gelonium lanceolatum, W T illd. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 831 ; Beddome 
ccxiv. Vern. KaJcra, Uriya ; Suragada, Tel. It is a pretty evergreen 
tree of the Eastern Circars and Orissa, and has a yellow, smooth, 
close and even-grained wood, which weighs 50 Ibs. per cubic foot and 
has a peculiar waxy smell. The pores are moderate-sized, scanty, 
sometimes subdivided. The medullary rays are very fine, very nu- 
merous, and are joined by very faint, fine, white lines. Growth moder- 
ate, 6 rings per inch of radius." 

369. After line 3 insert "C 3509, from Khurdha Forests, Orissa, is Euphorbia 
Tirucalli,lArm. Vern. Seju. Bark brown or greenish brown. Wood 
white or grey, moderately hard. Pores small, single or subdiuided, 
scanty. Medullary rays extremely fine and numerous." 

369, line 5. After " Baillon." add " The Box Tree." 

372, line 17 from the bottom. Ajter " roofing houses." add " (H 130, Rotangr 
Pass, Kulu, 9,000ft.)" 

372, line 10 from the bottom. For " E 2404." read " E 2403." 

373, line 6. For " E 2914." read " E 2904." ; and line 7, for " E 2405." read 
" E 2404." 

374, line 13. For " E 2406." read " E 2405." 

375, line 12. For " S. serphyllum" read " S. strpyllum."' 

375, Salix tetrasperma. To vernacular names add " Nachal, K61; Cheur, 
Kharwar ; " 

379, line 18. For " H 3138." read " H 3188." 

380, line 8. For " Vulgaris" read " vulgaris " and line 9, for " Castanea 
Vesca" read " Castanea vulgaris." 

384, Quercus dilatata. To numbers add " H 777. Kalatop Forest, Punjab, 
7,000 ft," 

386, Q. acuminata. To numbers add " E 3384, Darjeeling, 6,500 ft." 



XXX 

Page 392, Juglans regia. To numbers add " H 7. Theog, Simla, 5,000 ft." 
392, line 3 from the bottom. For " H 41 " read " H 35." 
393, after line 4 add " E 3587, E 3632, Darjeeling, 7,000 ft. The latter is 
from a planted tree and shews 15 rings to a radius of 4 inches, or 
3 rings per inch of radius." 

408, line 8. For " H 2898. " read " H 2896." 

409, after line 26, add "Our No. E 2437 shewed, on the round, a mean 
diameter of 22 inches corresponding to 134 years or 13 rings per 
inch of radius. This agrees with several other measurements made 
in the Singalila Forests in Darjeeling, though at a lower elevation the 
growth is faster. Twelve rings per inch may be, therefore, taken as 
an average rate of growth for the Sikkim Silver Fir forests." 

410 line 16. After "above Ghat." add " C. Lawsoniana, Murray, is cultivated 
and grows well at and around Darjeeliug." 

410, line 6 from the bottom. After "Gamble 83." add " The Funereal Cypress." 

411, line 10. At the beginning add " E 3615 from Rangirum, Darjeeling, 
7,000 ft., and " and/or *' is " write " are " 

411, line 20. After " Wood soft, " add " white, with a brown, often almost 
black, heartwood," 

412, last line. For " H 127." read " H 129." 

,. 41a, line 8, after " Cuttack," add "Eengua, Uriya." and in line 10, for "Mid." 
read " Miq." 

418, line 11. For " talll " read " tall " 

419, line 6. After " Hind, ; " insert " Keeta, K61 ; " 

421, line 14 from the bottom. For " ENTINCKlA " read " BENTINCKIA " 

423, Calamus tennis. To vernacular names add f( Jali, Cachar ; " and to 
numbers add " (E 1298. Cachar)." 

424, C. Mastersianus. As number add " (E 1299. Cachar)." 

424, C. Jenkinsianus. To vernacular names add " Galla k, Cachar; " and to 
numbers " (E 1300. Cachar.)'' 

,. 426, line 16 from the bottom. For " E 1354," read "E J351, 1354," 

427, line 24 from the bottom. After " Beng, ; " insert " Pepesiman, Kol ; " 
and for " E 1329 " read " E 1328." 

428, line 12. After " Hind. ; " insert " Katanga, Kol ; " 

428, line 16 from the bottom. After " E 3428 " add " E 1327 ;" and line 15' 
for "E1314 " read " E1312 " 

430, line 10. After " Beng. ; " insert " MatJian, saring, burn mat, Kol ; 
Bukhar, Palamow (the clump) ; " 

430, line 17. After " basket work." add " (B 1322, Burma. P 1352, Hoshiar- 
pur, Punjab.)" 

430, line 12 from the bottom. After " E 1341 " add " E 1466." 
431, line 28. For " CRYPTOGAMIS." read " CRYPTOGAMS." 
432, line 21. For " Braineai nsignis " read " .Brainea insignis " 
Under their proper places add E 3593, tteilschmiedia Roxburghiana ; E 3597, Ehrelia 
Wallichiana ; E 3600, Terminalia belerica ; E 3603, Stereospermvm chelonoides ; 
E 3607, Quercus pachyphylla ; E 3609, Quercus annulata ; E 3610, Echinocarpus 
dasycarpus ; and E 3611, Lagerstromia parvt/lora, all from Darjeeliug. 



MANUAL OF INDIAN TIMBERS. 



I. DICOTYLEDONS. 
ORDER I. RANUNCULACE2. 

A family which contains chiefly herbaceous plants. Besides Clematis and Nara- 
velia, which are genera of climbing shrubs, Pceonia Emodi, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind i. 
30. Vern. Mamekk, Pb. is an erect undershrub of the Western Himalaya, whose root 
is said by Stewart to be used in native medicine, and young shoots as a vegetable in 
Kumauu. 

1. CLEMATIS, Linn. 

Of this and the neighbouring genus, Naravelia, 22 species occur in India. They 
are distributed almost all over India : 11 are found in the North- West Himalaya, 14 
in the Eastern Himalaya and Khasia Hills, 2 in Central India, 4 in the Dekkan, 4 on 
the Western Coast and 10 in British Burma. 

The commonest kinds in the North-West Himalaya are C. grata, Wall., C. nutans, 
Eoyle, and C. oriental^, Linn., with white or yellowish-white panicles of flowers ; 
C. montana, Ham., with large white star-shaped flowers, and C. barbellata, Edgw., 
with dull purple ones, common in the hill forests ; while C. Buckananiana, DC., 
is conspicuous for its woolly leaves and large soft tomentose bell-shaped flowers. In 
the Eastern Himalaya this latter species is the most common, with C. grewiceflora, 
DC., covered all over with golden pubescence, and the beautiful pink-flowered C. smilaci- 
folia, Wall. C. gouriana, Roxb. and Naravelia zeylanica, DC., are common in 
Bengal, Central India, the Dekkan, and in Burma, where the second species of Nara- 
vclia (N. laurifolia, Wall.) is also found. 

These climbers are all very ornamental, but they have little or no value, though 
Kurz says that the " stems of the species from Burma while fresh are often used for 
ropes and are very strong." Mathieu Fl. For. p. 9 gives the weight at 24 to 361bs. 
per cubic foot for C. Vitalba, Linn, the European Clematis, or Traveller's Joy. 

1. C. montana, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 2 ; Gamble 1. Vern. Ghantidli, Hind. 

H 2851. Mahasu, Simla, 8,000 ft. 

2. C. barbellata, Edgw. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 3. 

H 2852. Mahasu, Simla, 8,000 ft. 

H 3156. Theog, Simla, 7,000 ft 40 Ibs. 

3. C. grata, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 3. Vern. Ghantidli, Hind. 

H 2850. Simla, 6,000 ft. 

4. C. Buchananiana, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 6 ; Kurz i. 17 ; Gamble 1. 

H 2838. Simla, 6,000 ft. 

Woody climbers, with a fibrous bark arid a porous yellowish-white 
wood, with broad or very broad medullary rays and pores which vary 
from small to very large. 



[ Dillenra. 



ORDER II. DILLENIACEJE. 



An order of three Indian genera, belonging to two tribes, mz. t 

Tribe I. DeJimeae ...... Delima and Tetracera. 

II. Dilleniese ...... Dillenia and Wbrmia. 

Delima sarmentosa, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 31 ; Kurz i. 22 ; Gamble 2 (Tetra- 
eera sarmentosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 645) Vern. MonJcyourik, Lepcha, is an evergreen 
rough-leaved climber of Northern and Eastern Bengal, Burma and the Andamans. 
Tetracera includes two species : T. Icevis, Vahl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 31 (T. trir/yna, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. C45), a climber of the forests of Malabar; and T. Assa, DC.; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 31 ; Kurz i. 22, a scandent shrub of Chittagong. Wbrmia is found 
in Ceylon. 

1. DILLENIA, Linn. 

Eight species. D. bractcata, Wight ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 37 (D. repanda, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 652. Wormia bracteata, Beddome t. 115) is a handsome tree of South 
India. D. pulcherrima, Kurz i. 19; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 37. Vern. yoo, Burin., is a 
handsome deciduous tree of Pegu and Martaban, chiefly in the Eng forests, which Kurz 
evidently identifies with No. 2 of Brandis' Burma List of 1862 (Bjooleri) : weight 
69 Ibs., wood hard and strong, and used for rice-mills. D. scabrella, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 653; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 38; Kurz i. 21. Vern. ATcachi, Garo, is a deciduous tree 
of Assam, Eastern Bengal and Chittagong. D. parviflora, Griff. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 
38 ; Kurz i. 21. Vern. Lingyau, Burrn., is a deciduous tree of the mixed forests of 
Burma up to 2,000 feet. 

Wood characterized by prominent' medullary rays which appear as 
high, shining plates on a vertical section, giving the wood a remarkably 
mottled appearance. The rays are generally of two sizes and the pores 
are small, the distance between the rays being greater than the diameter 
of the pores. 

1. D. indica, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 36 ; Brandis 1 j'Kurz i. 19 ; 
Gamble 1. D. speciosa^lninb. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 650 ; Beddome t. 103. 
Vern. Chalta, Hind.; Chalta, hargesa, Beng. ; Pkamsi&ol, Lepcha; 
Olengak, Ass. ; Rai, Uriya ; Uva, Tarn. ; Uva, pedda-kalinga, Tel. ; 
Syalita, Mai. ; Mota karmal, Mar. ; Hondapara, Cingh. ; T/tapru, chaura- 
lesi, Magh ; Tbabyoo, Burm. ; Carliow, Talcing. 

A large evergreen tree. Bark red, peeling off in small hard flakes. 
"Wood red with white specks, close-grained, moderately hard. Pores 
moderate-sized, numerous, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays of 
two classes, broad and extremely fine, a large number of fine ones 
between two broad ones. Two or more lines of pores between each pair 
<.f broad rays. The medullary rays are visible on a radial section, giving 
Hie wood a mottled appearance, but not to the same extent as in 2). 
pentagyna. 

Bengal, Central and South India, Burma; often planted for ornament. 
Growth moderate, our specimen! shew seven vin^s per inch of radius. The weight 
and transverse strength have been determined by the following experiment!: 

\\YiKht. P 

Skinner, No. 58, in 1862, in South India . found 45 Ibs., 71't 

Kvd in 1831 with Assam wood, bars 2'x l"x 1* 45 LM3 (doubtful) 

Unindis, in 18f>2, Burma List, No. 11 . . 41 

Sinythies, in 1878, with our four specimens . U'5 



Dlllenia. ] DILLENIACE.E. 8 

The wood is used to make helves and guustocks, aud in construction ; and is said to 
be durable under water. It makes good firewood and charcoal. The large fruit is 
surrounded by the fleshy accrescent calyx which is eaten either raw or cooked. The 
rough old leaves are used to polish ivory. 

RM. 
E 596. Khooklooog Forest, Darjeeling Terai ..... 4') 

E 2310. Sivoke Foivsls, Darjeeling Terai ..... 41 

E 1395. Chittngoiig .......... 48 

B 2501. Burma ........... 49 

2. D. pentagyna, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 602 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 38 ; 
Beddome t. 10 i ; Brandis 2; Kurz i. 21 ; Gamble 2. D. augusta, Roxb. 
I.e. Verii. Aggai, Oudh; Kallai, C.P. ; Karkotta, Beng. ; Suha-ruk , 
Bori, C.P. ; Tatri, Nep.; Shukni, Lepcha; Akshi, Ass., Mechi ; Akachi, 
Garo ; Rai, Uriya; Rai t pinnai } nai-tek, Tarn.; Rawadan,c/iinnakaUnga } 
Tel.; Kanagalu, Mar. ; Mirclil, Baigas ; Kallei, Goadi; Male geru, Kurg; 
Machil, Kan.; Zambrun, Magh. ; Zimbyiin, Burm. 

A deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, grey or pale-brown, smooth, 
inner substance red. Wood rough, moderately hard, reddish grey ; apt 
to split, warp and crack ; strong, heavy, durable, handsomely marked on 
a vertical section by the darker-coloured medullary rays which appear 
as broad plates. Pores small and moderate-sized, many of them filled 
with a white substance, which is visible both on the horizontal and 
vertical sections, and is one of the characteristics of the wood. Medul- 
lary rays numerous, moderately broad, with a few intermediate, very 
fine rays. Annual rings marked by a narrow belt in the outer edge 
(autumn wood) without pores ; this is particularly distinct in the wood 
from Oudh, less so in the specimens from Burma. 

Oudh, Bengal, Central and South India, Burma. 

Growth moderately fast, our specimens give five to six rings per inch of radius. 
Saplings grow up very fast, with straight, thick-barked stems, crowned by very large 
leaves. The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments : 

Weight. P = 

Skinner, in 1862, in South India, No. 57 . . found 70 Ibs. 907 
Benson, in Burma, with bars 3' Xl'4' / xr4' / . . 58 , 960 

Kyd, in 1831, with Assam wood, in bars 2' X I" X 1" . 45 , 593 

Brandis, in 1862, Burma List, No. 1 . 48 

,, in 1864, with Burma wood (4 experiments) 
bars3'xl"xl" ........ 45 , 740 

Smythies, in 1878, with our six specimens . . 47'5 , 

The wood is used for construction, ship-building, rice-mills, and for charcoal. which 
is of good quality. The leaves are very large, often 2 feet long ; they are used for 
plates. The fruit is eaten when green, as also are the flower-buds. The tree is often 
found with sal. 

O 348. Gorakhpur (1868) ..... , . .64 

E 658. Kakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai ...... 45 

E 2311. Si voke, Darjeeling Terai ....... 54 



......... 47 

B 557. Prome, Burma ......... 38 

3. D. aurea, Smith; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 37; Brandis 2; Kurz i. 20. 
D. ornata, Wall. Vern. Chamaggai, Oudh ; DJieugr, Nep. ; _B^00<?#, Burm. 

A large tree. Bark \ inch thick, reddish grey. Wood grey, beauti- 
uflly mottled and wainscoted, hard, close-graiuod. Pores small and 



4 DILLENIACEJB. [ Dillenia. 

very small, often in short radial lines. Medullary rays broad, with a 
few intermediate veiy fine rays. Annual rings very indistinct. The 
wood differs from that of D. indica and D. pentagyna by smaller pores 
and narrower medullary rays. 

Nepal, Bengal, Burma and Andaman Islands. 

Weight : according to Benson, 44 Ibs. ; Brandis, 45 Ibs. ; our specimens give 48 to 
49 Ibs. Benson gives P = 834. Wood not used. 

Ibs. 

B 2502. Burma (1862) 2 49 

B 2253. Andaman Islands (1866) 48 

4. D. retusa, Thunb.; Thwaites Enum. 5; Hook. FL Ind. i. 37. 
Vern. Qodapara, Cingh. 

A tree. Wood resembling that of the other species. 

Ceylon, up to 2,000 ft. 

Weight according to A. Mendis, 51 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used for building. 

Ibs. 
No. 29, Ceylon collection 51 



Two specimens, B 2245 (52 Ibs.) and B 2275 (44 Ibs.), sent by Major Ford from the 
Andaman Islands in 1866 under name of Linffyau, have a structure similar to that of 
D. aurea, but the wood is purplish grey and may possibly belong to D. pilosa, Roxb. 
(Kurz i. 20) which, according to Kurz, is a large tree of the Andamans. 

2. WOKMIA, Rottb. 

1. W. triqnetra, Rottb. ; Thwaites Enum. 4 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 35. 
Vern. Diyapara, Cingh. 

Wood reddish, in structure resembling that of Dillenia. 

Ceylon, up to 2,000 ft.^ 

Weight 44 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used for building ; the nut gives an oil. 

Ibs. 

No. 22, Ceylon collection 44 



OEDEE III. MAGNOLIACE^. 

Contains 8 genera of Indian trees, shrubs or climbers, which are chiefly found in the 
Eastern Himalaya and the Eastern moist zone. The order is divided ino 4 tribes, 

viz., 

Tribe I. Trochodendrese Euptelea. 

II. Wintereae Illicium. 

III. Magnoliese Talauma, Magnolia, Man- 

glietia and Micliella. 
IV. Schizandrese ..... Schizandra and Eadsura. 

Four of these genera contain only shrubs or woody climbers : JEuptelea pleiosperma, 
Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 39, is a shrub of the higher Mishmi Hills ; ItJivium 
contains two shrubs ; I. Griffithii, Hook. f. and Th. of the Khasia Hills, and I. maj/is, 
Hook. f. and Th. ; Kurz i. 23, of the Thoungyeen Hills in Tenasserini ; ScJtizanth'n, -1 
climbing species of the Eastern Himalaya, of which <S. (jrtnttlijloru. Hook. f. and Th. ; 
Hook. Kl. Ind. i. 44: Brundis 571; ilaiuMo 3. Vern. -Klatufru . kalji mint-, Simla; 
Sillangti, Kumaim; frhi</l/{<t, AfX.-.v/r// 1 //-, Lrprlia, with rdil.lr fruits, extends ;( s far 
west as Simla (H. 3,029, Na^kan<la, iUMX) ft., with a porous wood and strong resinous 
^iin-11); and Kadsura, two clnuhcrs of Assam and ^lalahar rrsjicct ivrly. Of the remain- 
ing geii'-iM. three are here described, the last, Mtuii/liifiit, containing two large t- 



.GNOLIACEJE. 5 

M. insignis, Bl. ; ITook. PI. Tnd. i. 42; Kurz. i. 25, of the Eastern Himalaya, Khasia 
Hills mid Pern, above 6,000 feet j and M. Carca.m. Uncik. f. and Th. of the Khasia 

Hills. Nearly all tin- family arc slu.wy plants, with handsome I'dliii^,- and -itcd, 

lartje llcwvrs. ' Many spccirs con.' l'r.,m America and an- grown in gardens in Europe; 
simong such an- Liriodendron Iti/Ipifcrum, the well known Tulip Tree and several 

handsome Magnolias. 

Wood soft, generally rough. Pores generally small, uniformly 
distributed. Medullary rays sharply marked, fine. The annual rings 
are generally marked by a clearly defined line, or narrow belt o soft 
texture. The structure of the different species of this order is so uniform 
that no attempt has been made to give generic characters. 

1. TALAUMA, Juss. 

T. Rdbaniana, Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 40 ; Kurz i. 24 Vern. Sappa, 
Ass., is a large tree of the Khasia Hills and Burma, whose wood is sometimes used in 
Assam for furniture and planking; nod T. mutalrilis, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 40 
(T. Candollei, Bl. ; Knrz. i. 21). a shrub of Tenasserim and Tavoy. Most of the species 
are remarkable for their large fragrant flowers. 

1. T. Hodgsoni, Hook, f.and T.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 40; Gamble 3. 
Vern. Siffoo, Lepcha; Harre, Nep. 

An evergreen tree. Bark grey, ^ inch thick, smooth. Wood grey, 
very soft, even-grained. Annual rings distinct. Pores small. Medullary 
rays fine and very fine. 

Sikkim Himalaya from the Terai up to 6,000 ft. ; Khasia Hills. 

Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight 21 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 
E 3100. Darjeeling 5,000 ft. ..... , . . 21 

2. MAGNOLIA, Linn. 

Besides the species given below, M. globosa, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 41; Gamble 2, is a small tree of the inner ranges of the Sikkim Himalaya; 
^T. Griffitkii, Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 41, an evergreen ^tree of the forests 
of Upper Assam ; and M. sphenocarpa, Roxb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 41 ; Kurz i. 24. 
(Liriodendron grandifioruin,'Stoxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 653.) Vern. Eurramturi, Ass. ; Dull 
cJiampa, Sylhet. is a large evergreen tree of the tropical forests of the base of the 
Eastern Himalaya, Assam and Eastern Bengal down to Chittagong. 

1. M. Campbellii, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 41 ; Gamble 2. 
Vern. Lai champ, Nep. ; Sigumgrip, Lepcha; Pendder, Bhutia. 

A large, tall, deciduous tree. Bark dark coloured, that of the 
branches black. Wood white, very soft. Annual rings distinctly marked 
by prominent white lines. Pores small. Medullary rays moderate-sized, 
prominent. 

Sikkim and Bhutan from 7,000 to 10,000 feet. Growth moderate, 11^ rings per 
inch of radius. Weight 25 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood occasionally used for planking, 
but now scarce. Chiefly remarkable for its magnificent large pink or white flowers, 
which appear in April. 

Ibs. 

E 365. Eangyrum Forest. Darjeeling, 7,500 feet 25 

3. MICHELIA, Linn. 

Besides the 5 species described below, M. Klsopa, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 43. 
Vern. Banckampa, Knniann ; Champ, chols'i. Nep., is a tall live of Xi-pal. A. Aikin, in 
his Catalogue of Indian woods collected by Wallich, says the wood is yellowish, is used 
in Nepal for light works, and has 8 to 11 rings per inch of radius. M. punduuna, Hook. 



6 MAGNOLiACEiE. [ MicMia. 

f. and Th. ; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 43, is found in the Khasia Hills ; and M. nilagirica Zenk ; 
Hook. PL Ind. i. 44; Beddome t. 62. Vern. Pila champa, Hind., Mar.; Shcmlugha, 
Tarn. ; Walsapu, Cingh., with a strong, fine-grained wood, used for building, beams 
and rafters, in the higher forests of the Western Ghats and Ceylon. 

1. M. Cathcartii, Hook. f. and Th.; Hook. Fl. lud. i. 42 ; Gamble 
2. Veru. Kala champ, Nep. ; Atokd&ng, Lepcha. 

A large tree, with dark-coloured bark. Sapwood large, white, 
heartwood dark olive brown, moderately hard. Annual rings distinctly 
marked by a white Hue. Pores small. Medullary rays fine, not very 
prominent. 

Sikkim Himalaya, 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 

Weight 41 Ibs. Wood used for planking, will do well for tea boxes. The flowers 
are terminal, white, but turn red in drying. 

E 2314. Rangbul Forest, Darjeeling, 6,500 feet 41 

2. M. Champaca, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 42; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
656; Beddome vi; Brandis 3; Kurz i. 25; Gamble 3. Vern. Champa, 
Hind.; Oulia champ, Nep.; Tita&appa,A&a.i Champa, champaka, Beng. ; 
Shimbu, sempangam, Tarn. ; ChampaJcamu, sampenga, kanchanamu, Tel. ; 
Sampighi, Kan.; Champakam, Mai.; Tsaga, Burm. 

A tall evergreen tree, with grey bark, J inch thick. Wood soft, 
seasons and polishes well; sapwood white; heartwood light olive brown; 
annual rings distinctly marked by a white line. Pores small and 
moderate-sized, equally distributed. Medullary rays short, fine to 
moderately broad, visible on a radial section. 

Cultivated throughout India from the Eavi southwards and up to 5,400 feet in 
the North- West Himalaya. Wild in Nepal, Bengal, Assam (ascending to 3,000 feet), 
Burma, and in the forests of the Western Ghats as far as Kanara. 

Growth moderate, our specimens shew seven rings per inch of radius. It often 
reaches 8 feet girth at an age of 100 to 120 years. 

Weight: the mean of 7 experiments made by Brandis in 1864 gave 37 Ibs. 
per cubic foot ; Puckle's experiments in Mysore gave 42 Ibs. ; while Smythies found 38 Ibs. 




Mysore with bars 2' X V X I" gave 
The wood is very durable : e. g., specimen No. 1437 was cut by Griffith in 1836 and 
has been since then in Calcutta, and is now as sound as if fresh cut. The wood is used for 
furniture, house-building, carriage work and native drums. It is considered valuable in 
Northern Bengal for planking, door-panels and furniture ; and in Assam for building 
and canoes. The flowers are prized on account of their sweet scent, and the tree is 
planted at Hindu shrines. 

Ibs. 

E 576. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 35 

E 2313. Sul<n;i Fon-st, Darjeeling Terai 37 

K 21 'Jo. Nowgong, Assam 40 

E 10 10. Eastern Duars. Assam 36 

E 1437. Mishmi 11 ills (Griffith, 1836) . 42 

3. M. excelsa, Blume ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 43 ; Gamble 3. Vern. Bara 

champ, sa/'cd c/taatp, Nep.; tin/itf/rip, Lepeha; Guk, Bhutia. 

A lofty deciduous tree. Bark greyish brown, ^ incb thick. Wood 
soft; sapwood small, white; heartwood olive brown, glossy; annual 
rin^-.s distinctly marked by firmer autumn wood with 1'rwer pores. 
Pores small. Medullary rays short, fine and moderately broad, very 
numerous, prominent on a radial BOCilOIL According to (Jamblc, the 
wood is yellow when i'rcsh cut. 



. ] MAGNOLIACEJ3. 7 

Eastern Himalaya, from 6,000 to 8,000 feet ; Khasia Hills. 

(h-mvtli rather slow; 13 to 16 rings per inch of r.vlius :nv shewn by our specimens. 
Weight, 33 to 3-1 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is very <lur;ibl inn-n X<>. 1442 

w;is cut in 1836 and kept since then in Calcutta; the wood is now as sound a> if i'resh 
cut. 

Used for building, but chiefly for planking, door and window frames, and for furni- 
ture. The principal building and furniture wood of the Darjeeling Hills. 

Ibs. 
E 657. Chuttoclcpur Forest, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet . . . .33 

E 2312. Kangbiil Forest, Darjeeliug, 7,000 feet 33 

E 1412. Mishmi Hills (Griffith, 1836) 34 

4. M. lamiginosa, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 43; Gamble 2. Vern. 
Gogay champ, Nep. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark -^ inch thick, greyish brown, 
smooth. Wood grey, soft, shining. Pores small, scanty. Medullary 
rays fine and very fine, closely packed. Narrow concentric (annual?) 
rings of soft texture, often confluent. 

Forests of Sikkini and the Khasia Hills from 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 
Growth moderate. Weight 27 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ib8. 

E 3099. Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 27 

. 5. M. oblonga, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 43. Vern. Sappa, pliul- 
sappa, Assam. 

A tree. Sapwood white ; heartwood dark grey, soft. Annual rings 
indistinct. Pores moderate-sized, often in short radial lines. Medullary 
rays fine, uniform, closely packed, equidistant; the distance between two 
rays less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Khasia Hills and Assam. 

Weight, 40 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is used in Assam for canoes and rough 
furniture. 

E 1268. Lakhimpur, Assam 40 



ORDER IV. ANONACE.E. 

This order contains 21 Indian genera, the majority of which are South Indian 
and Burmese. 

They belong to 5 tribes, viz., 

Tribe I. Uvariea) .... Uvaria and Ellipeia. 

II. Unoneac .... Cyatliocalyx, Artabotrys, Cananga, 

Cyathostemma, Unona, Polyal- 

tJiia, Anaxayorca and Popowia. 
III. Mitrephorece .... Oxymitra, PJucunthtis, Gonio- 

t'halamns and 3Iih'i'pJioi\i. 

IV. Xylopicao .... Anona and Mclodornm. 
V. Miliuseaj .... Miliusa, Saccopefalum, Alphonsca, 

Oropliea and Uocu 

One genus, Anona. contains introduced fruit trees; five, Uvaria, EUipcia, Arta- 
lotrys, Oxymitra and Afelodorum, chiefly climbing shrubs; fifteen, Ci/dt/incdJ)/^, 
Cyatkostemma, Unona, Polyalthia, Anaxagorca, Popowia, Pit, >/'//<(- 

fa in us, M/'frej >//('((, Miliusa, Saccopctalum, Oropfiea, Canamja, Ali>honsea and 
Bocagca, are shrubs or trees. In Northern and Central India the family is represented 



8 ANONACE2E. [ Pofy alt/lid. 



by 4 species of Polyalthia, 3 of Anona, 2 of Saccopetalum and Hiliumi 
The Eastern Himalaya, Assam and Eastern Bengal, contain trees, shrubs or climbers 
of the genera Uvaria, Artalotrys, Anona, Polyalthia, Mclodorum and Miliusa, while 
the remaining genera, and the majority of the species of these, are found in South 
India or Burma. 

Of the genera not herein described, the five climbing ones contain about 30 species, 
the principal of which are : Uvaria macrophylla, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 663 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 49 ; Kurz i. 28. Vern. Bagh-runga, Beng. ; Thabwot-nway, Burm., a large evergreen 
climber common in Eastern Bengal and Burma ; Ellipeia ferruginca, Hook. f. and 
Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 52 ( Uvaria ferruginea, Ham.; Kurz i. 29), a shrub of the 
Irrawaddy valley ; and Artabotrys odoratissimus, R. Br. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 54 ; Kurz i. 
31 ( Uvaria odoratissima, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 666), a large Burmese shrub with fragrant 
flowers. Cyathocalyx martabanicus, Hook, f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 53 ; Kurz i. 
30, is an evergreen tree of Martaban and Tenasserirn. Cananga odorata, Hook, f . and 
Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 56; Kurz. i. 33 (Uvaria odorata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii.661) Vern. 
JZadapgnam, Burm., is a large evergreen tree of Tenasserim. Unona contains seven 
Burmese and three South Indian trees. Popowia two, viz. : P. Beddomeana, Hook. f. 
andTh. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 68 (jP. ramosissima, Beddome viii.) of the Travancore and 
Tinnevelly hills ; and P. Helferi, Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 69 ; Kurz i. 39 
of the Andamans and Tenasserim. Alphonsea four, viz., A. madraspatana, Bedd. 
t. 92; A. zeylanica, Hook. f. and Th.. of South India; A. lutea, Hook. f. and Th., of 
Eastern Bengal, South India and Burma; and A. ventricosa, Hook. f. andTh., of 
Assam, Chittagong and the Andamans, all trees of considerable size. MitrepJiora 

f'andiflora, Beddome t. 91. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 78, is a large handsome tree of the South 
anara forests. There are altogether, excluding those of the Malay Peninsula and 
Ceylon, about 100 Indian species ; of these about 60 occur in Burma, 30 in South India 
and 30 in Eastern Bengal. Further specimens of the wood of the larger species are 
urgently required for investigation and determination of doubtful woods, such as 
Bamau, &c. (see p. 10). 

Wood light-coloured, generally yellowish and soft. Pores small. 
Medullary rays fine to moderately broad, joined by numerous fine trans- 
verse bars. These transverse bars furnish an excellent character for 
distinguishing the wood of Auonaccse from that of most other families ; 
they are also found in Bassia and Mimusops, but in these genera they 
have more the character of wavy concentric lines. The structure o the 
different species of this family is so uniform that no attempt has been 
made to give generic characters. 

1. POLYALTHIA, Blume. 

Besides the two species here described, P. simiarum, Bth. and Hook, f . ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 63 ; Kurz i. 37, is a large tree of Eastern Bengal and Burma; P. Jenklnsii, 
Bth. and Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 64; Kurz i. 37, is a common tree of the Andamans, 
found also in Assam and Sylhet ; P. cojfeoides, Bth. and Hook, f . ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
62 ; Beddome t. 53, is a common tree of the Western Ghats, where its bark is made 
into ropes ; P. suberosa, Bth. and Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 65 ; Brandis 5. (Uvaria 
suberosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 667.) Vern. Bara cJiali, Beng. ; Banderhola, Ass.; C/iithi 
duduga, Tel., is a small tree of Oudh, IVngal and South India, with a corky bark, 
and close, tough, hard, durable wood, weighing, according to Brandis 40, and Kyd 
45 Ibs. per cubic foot, and having P = 430. There are also about 8 other species de- 
scribed, from India and Burma. 



1. P. longifolia, Benth. and Hook, f . ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 62; Bed- 
dome t. 38; Brandis 4-. Uvaria longifolia, Lam.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. CGI. 
Vern. Asokj deldari, Hind. ; Assothi, Tarn. ; Asoka, devadaru, Tel. 

A large evergreen tree with smooth bark. Wood white. Pores small, 
often subdivided, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays short, fine to 
very broad. Numerous, equidistant, very line transverse bars across 
the rays. 



'. ] ANONACEJ:. 9 



Wild in Ceylon. Planted as an avenue tree throughout Bengal and South India. 
Weight : according to Skinner, No. 76, 37 Ibs. ; Brandis says between 30 and 40 ; our 
men ives 37 Ibs. Skinner's -xpi riments giv v e P = 517. 

Ibs. 

E 2479. Calcutta 37 

2. P. cerasoides, Benth. and Hook, f . ; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 63; Bed- 
dome t. 1.; Brandis 5; Kurz i. 38. Uvaria cerasoides, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 666. Vern. JIoow, Mar.; C/tilka dudut/u, Tel.; Nakulsi, multli, Tarn. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood olive grey, moderately hard, close- 
grained. Pores small. Medullary rays short, broad and moderately fine ; 
the distance between the rays twice or three times as great as the 
transverse diameter of the pores. Numerous, very distinct, fine, equidis- 
tant, tran verse bars between the rays. 

Behar, Eastern and Western Ghats, Dekkau, Burma. 

Weight, 52 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is used for carpentry and in boat-building. 
It is much prized in Bombay. 

Ibs. 
C 997. Poona 52 

2. ANONA, Linn. 

Besides the species given below, the 'Bullock's heart/ A. reticulata, Linn.; Vern. 
Ramplial, and the ' Soursop,' A. muricata, L., are also cultivated in many parts of 
India. (Skinner, No. 14, gives for A. reticulata W = 40 Ibs. P = 640). 

1. A. squamosa, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 78 ; Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 657 ; 
Brandis 6; Kurz i. 4-6; Gamble 3. The Custard Apple. Vern. Sharif a t 
xit-uphal, Hind. ; Ata, luna, Beng. ; Sila, Tarn. ; Sitapundv, Tel. ; AUa, 
Mai., Cingh. ; Auza, Burm. 

A small tree, with an erect, short trunk. Bark thin, grey. Wood 
soft, close-grained. Pores moderate-sized, scanty. Medullary rays moder- 
ate-sized, joined by numerous white transverse bars. 

Introduced from the West Indies, and domesticated throughout India and Burma. 
Cultivated for its fruit, which ripens from July to October. Weight, 46 Ibs. per cubic 

foot. 

Ibs. 
B 2317. Myanoung, Burma 46 

3. MILIUSA, Lesch. 

Besides the two species herein described, M. indica, Lesch., M. Wifflitiana, Hook, 
f. and Th.,and M.niluc/lrii'a, Beddome, are shrubs or small trees of the Western Ghats ; 
M wlerocarpa, Kurz, is a small tree, with a rather heavy wood, from Martaban and 
Tennnsserim ; and M. macro carp a, Hook. f. and Th., a small tree from Sikkim and 
the Khasia Hills. 

1. M. velutina, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 87; Beddome 
t. 37; Brandis 6; Kurz i. 47. Umria villosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 664. 
Vern. J)om-sdl, Hind. ; Kari, C. P. ; Kharrei, Oudh ; Peddachilka dudiiga, 
nalla diiduga, Tel. ; Tk&butgyee, Burm. 

A deciduous moderate-sized tree, with a short erect trunk ; in Burma 
a large tree. Bark i inch thick, rough. Wood yellow when fresh 
cut, grey or greyish brown when dry, moderately hard. Annual rings 
indistinct. Pores small, uniformly distributed, often in short radial 
lines. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, the distance between 
two rays larger than the transverse diameter of the pores. Transverse 
burs distinct, numerous. 

13 



10 ANONACE^!. [JUiliusa. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from Nepal to the Ganges, Central India, Godaveri districts 
and Burma. 

Brandis says, " The seasoned wood weighs from 40 to 50 Ibs. per cubic foot ;" Kurz 
gives the weight at 42 Ibs. ; Benson's experiments give 60 ; and Skinner's (No. 93) 50 Ibs. 
15enson's experiments give P = 833, and Skinner's P = 839. 

Used for carts and agricultural implements, spear-shafts and oars. 

IbB. 

B 3062. Prome, Burma 

B 3122. Burma (1862) 48 

O 3113. Dehra Dun 53 

2. M. Roxburghiana, Hook. f. and Th.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 87; 
Kurz. i. 47 ; Gamble 4. Vvaria dioica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 659. Vern. 
Sutiffden, Lepcha ; Tusbi, Sylhet. 

A small tree. Bark thin, grey. Wood greyish white, hard. Pores 
very small, scanty. Medullary rays short, white, of all sizes, from fine to 
broad, very numerous, prominent on a radial section. Numerous white 
parallel wavy transverse bands across the rays. 

Terai and valleys of the Bengal Himalaya, Khasia Hills, Chittagong and Burma. 
Weight 51 Ibs. 

Ibs. 
E 2316. Chunbati, Darjeeling, 2,000 feet 51 

4. SACCOPETALUM, Bennett. 

Besides the species here described, 8. longiflorum, Hook. f. and Th., is a tree of 
Eastern Bengal found near Purneah. 

1. S. tomentosum, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 88.; Bed- 
dome t. 39 ; Braudis, 7. Uvaria tomentosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 667. Vern. 
Kirna, karri, Hind.; Hoom, Bombay; Chilkadudu, Tel.; T/ws&a, Gondi ; 
Humbiij Kurku. 

A large tree with straight stem. Bark J inch thick, of various shades, 
sometimes black, deeply cracked. Wood olive brown, moderately hard, 
smooth, close-grained ; no heart wood. No annual rings. Pores small 
and moderate-sized, numerous. Medullary rays broad and fine, very 
numerous, distinctly visible on a radial section as long, narrow plates, 
giving the wood a mottled appearance. Numerous, regular, fine, white, 
transverse bars across the medullary rays, the distance between the rays 
being a little larger than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Oudh, Nepal Terai, Gorakhpur, Behar, Central India, Western Ghats. 
Weight, 45 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 

O 342. Gorakhpur (1868) 

C 1 109. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 45 



The following woods cannot at present be identified, but they probably belong to 

this family : 

B 1949. (58 Ibs.) BoJcenet from Tavoy. A hard, close-grained, yellow wood ; when 
Reasoned it is said to shew black and white stripes, and is then railed Zebra "Wood. 
J'oivs small, scanty. Medullary rays fine and very fine, joined by numerous line 
parallel transverse bars . Used for furniture. Scarce in the Mergui Archipelago but 
plentiful in the Andaman Islands. 

1! 'Jjisl. C'.2 Ibs.) Keceived from the Andaman Islands in ISt'.G under the name of 
r rininl<H>n(j, 1'ores small, often siibdi vided. Medullary rays moderately broad, the 
distance between them many times larger than the transverse diameter of the pores. 
IV' nun-roil- faint transverse bars. It may possibly be Poly ilthia Juikinsii, Uth. and 
Hook. i'. 



Saccopelalam. ] ANONACEJJ. 11 

B 2251. (33 Ibs.) Received from the Andaraans in 1866 under the name of Thitpyoo ; 
]>;is a white soft wood, with small, scanty pores often in short radial lines. The 
medullary rays are moderately l>road, far apart, joined by innumerable parallel bars, 
and slirw well on a radial section. 

13273. (38 Ibs.) Received from Burma in 1867 under the name Bamau ; has an olive 
grey wood; it is handsome, even-grained\ moderately hard iui<i a certain 

lustre. Pores small, often subdivided. .Medullary rays line. Numerous faint white 
transvei-su bars across the medullary rays. According to Kurz, Bamcm is Tctranthcra 
grandis ; butonaccountofthetrausver.se bars in the wood, we have placed it under 
Anonacese. 

B 2236. (53 Ibs.) Received from the Andamans in 1 866 under the name of Pan-noo ; 
has a similar structure to Hainan. Wood yellowish grey, hard. Pores small, 
transverse diameter equal to or one-half the distance between the medullary rays, which 
are fine and are joined by numerous transverse bars. 



ORDER V. MENISPERMACE^3. 

An order which, in India with the single exception of the species described below, 
contains only climbing plants. Of the 17 genera found in India, many contain only 
single species. These 17 genera belong to 4 tribes, viz., 

Tribe I. Tinosporese .... Aspidocarya, Paralcena, Tinospora, 

JFibraurea, Anamirta. 
II. Cocculeae . . ." Tiliacora, Limacia, Cocculus, Peri- 

campylus. 
III. Cissampelidesa . . . Stephania, Cissampelos, Cyclea,- 

Lophopeta lum. 
IV. Pachygonese .... P achy gone, Pycnarrhena, Hcemato- 

carpus, Antitaxis. 

Anamirta Cocculus, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 99 ; Brandis 8 ; Kurz i. 53 
(Menispermum Cocculus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 807) Vern. Kakmari, Hind., a climbing 
shrub of Southern and Eastern India and Burma, has bitter berries which in India are 
used to poison fish and crows (whence the native name), and in Europe under the name of 
'Cocculus indicus ' in the adulteration of beer. Tinospora cortfifoli.a, Miers ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 97 ; Brandis 8 ; Kurz i. 52 ; Gamble 4 (Mcnispermum cordifoliiim, Willd. ; Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. iii. 811) Vern. JBatindu, Pb. ; Golancha, Beng. ; Gurcha, Kumaun ; Gurjo, Nep. ; 
Tippa tiga, Tel. ; Galwail, Bombay, is a well known climber which sends down long 
filiform runners from the branches of the trees over which it climbs ; the root is used in 
native medicine, and elephants are fond of the stem and runners. Cissampelos Parcira, 
Linn. Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 103; Brandis 10; Gamble 4 (C. convolvulacea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
iii. 842) Vern. Katori, parbik, patalci, tikri, Pb. ; DaJch nirbisi, part, N. W. P. ; 
Harjeuri, Oudh ; Batulpati, Nep. ; Pata, Tel., a climber common both to the old 
and new worlds, furnishes the Radix Pareirse of druggists. Cocculus Le&ba, DC.; 
Hook., Fl. Ind. i. 102 ; Brandis 9. Vern. Vallur, illar, Pb. ; and C. villosus, DC. ;' 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 101 ; Brandis 9 (Menispcrmum hirsutum, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 
814). Vern. Hicr, dicr, are large climbers of the dry and arid zones, while Tiliacora 
racemosa, Coleb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 99; Brandis 10; Kurz i. 54 (MenisperiHian poly- 
carpon, Roxb. FL Ind. iii. 816). Vern. TiliaJcoru, Beng. ; Earwanth, rangoe, Hind. ; 
Tiga mushadi, Tel., is a large climber of most parts of India, often covering tall trees 
with its dense dark green foliage. Other genera, such as Aspidocarya, Stephania 
and Parabcena, furnish climbing shrubs common in Eastern Bengal and Assam. 

" The structure of the wood of Menispermacese is remarkable, and 
differs in several respects from the wood of other Dicotyledons. The 
vascular bundles of a young- branch (which in most Dicotyledons unite 
and form concentric rings of wood and liber) generally remain distinct 
in MenispermaceaB, and are separated by broad radial masses of cellular 
tissue, corresponding to the medullary rays of ordinary wood. After 
some time these original wood fascicles cease growing, and in the cortical 
cellular tissue exterior to the liber originates a second circle of bundles 
similar to the first formed, excepting in the absence of spiral vessels. 



12 MENISPERMACE^l. [ 

After these bundles have attained full development, they in turn cease 
to grow, and a third circle forms in the cellular tissue of the bark, and 
so on. There is great variety in the wood structure of the genera of 
this family.'" Brandts' Forest Flora, p. 10. 

1. COCCULUS, DC. 

1. C. laurifolius, DC.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 101; Brandis 9. Meni- 
spermum lanrifolium, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 815. Vern. Ttlpara, kakra, Hind. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark thin, grey. Wood greyish 
white, soi't, divided by very broad medullary rays and concentric rings of 
the same substance as the rays, into numerous oblong radial masses, each 
mass consisting of wood cells and small uniformly distributed pores with 
a narrow belt of fibres (liber) at the outer edge. 

Outer Himalaya from the Ravi to Nepal ascending to 5,000 ft. 

Weight 41 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

ibs. 

H 2939. Near Suni, Sutlej Valley, 3,000 ft 42 

E 2466. Calcutta Botanic Gardens . 40 



ORDER VI. BEEBERIDE^E. 

An order containing four Indian genera of woody plants, belonging to two tribes, viz. : 
Tribe I. Lardizabaleae .....:. Decaisnea, Parvatia 

and Hollbollia. 
II. Berbereoe ....... Berberis. 

Two, each containing one species, are climbers, viz., Parvatia Brunoniana, Decaisne ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 108, from Assam and the Khasia Hills; and Hollbollia latifolia 
Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 108 ; Brandis 13 ; Gamble 4. Vern. Gophla, Kumaun ; Chiriya- 
nangri, bagul, Nep. ; Pronchadik, Lepcha ; Domhyem, Bhutia. The latter is found 
in the Himalaya from Kumaun eastwards, above 4,000 feet elevation, and in the 
Khasia Hills. It has a large edible fruit, a soft corky bark and wood with large 
pores and broad medullary rays (E 2859. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet). Decaixiica 
iiisignis, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 107. Vern. Nomorchi, Lepcha ; Loo- 
dooma, Bhutia, is an erect shrub of the Inner Sikkim Himalaya, growing between 
7,000 and 10,000 feet, also with edible fruit. 

1. BERBERIS, Linn. 

Contains about twelve species, all Himalayan ; two only extending southwards to the 
Nilgiris and the hills of Burma. One species, B. asiatica, Eoxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 1S'2 ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 110. Vern. Xilmora, Kumaun ; Mate-kissi, chitra, Nep., is nlso 
found on Parasnath in Behar. Besides those here described, B. umbellata, Wall., 
B. asiatica, Eoxb., B. Wallichiana, DC., B. insiffnis,Hook. L,JB.macrosepala, Hook. 
f., and B. concinna, Hook. f. occur in different parts of the Himalaya, chiefly at 
elevations above 8,000 ft. 

Wood yellow, hard or moderately hard, splits very much in seasoning. 
Pores small, larger and more numerous on the inner edge of each 
annual ring, the rest of the pores smaller and arranged in irregular tails 
or patches. Medullary rays bright yellow, moderately broad, or broad. 

Thechi'T X.-rih-Wrsl Himalayan spears may thus be recognized: 
Leaves pinnate ........ , B. 

Leaves simple 

Leaves thin with many equal sevraliuvs . . . JB. 

L ::vrs OOriaoeoUft, sen-attires few, unequal 





Leaves large, ^iven hmeath . . . B. 

Le;i\e^ siiiiill. o'l.-iurous lh'lie;ith . . B. I .^/ri II III. 

Brunches ivddi.-h ..... //. 



Btrlens.} BERDERIDE^E. 13 

1. B. nepalensis, Spreug. ; Hook. Fl. I ncl. i. 109; Bedd<>m< 
Brandis 12; Kurz i. 58; Gamble 5. B. pinuat.a, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 1 M- 
(probably). Vern. Amildaiida, chiror y Pb.j Chair I y mtl/iisse, janine- 
m unda, Nep. 

An evergreen shrub attaining- in Bengal a height of 20 feet and 
occasionally 2 feet in girth. Bark soft, corky. Wood bright yellow, 
hard. Pores very small, arranged in radial lines or patches. Medullary 
rays moderately broad, prominent, numerous, well marked on a radial 
section. 

Outer Himalaya from the Ravi to Bhutan, Khasia Hills, Tenasserim, Nilgiris and 
Western Ghats, above 5,000 i'eet elevation. 

Weight, 49 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood has a handsome colour and might be 
useful Tor inlaying ; it is used as a dye by Bhutias. 

Ibs. 

E 2318. Darjeeling, 7,000 ft 49 

2. B. Vlllgaris, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 109; Branch's 11. The 
Barberry. Vern. Zirishk, kaskmal, chochar, Pb. 

A deciduous thorny shrub, with soft brown bark, inch thick. 
Wood lemon yellow, moderately hard, even-grained. Annual rings 
marked by an irregular belt of small pores, which are larger than those 
in the rest of the wood. The pores in the main portion of the annual 
rings are grouped in short, whitish, irregularly bent lines or tails. 
Medullary rays fine to moderately broad, well marked on a vertical 
section. 

Himalaya, from Nepal westwards, in shady forests above 8,000 ft. elevation, 
Afghanistan and Beloochistan, Europe. 

Weighty our specimen gives 52 Ibs. per cubic foot ; Mathieu Fl. For. p. 12, gives 45 
to 57 Ibs. Fruit edible. The wood is a good firewood. 

Iba. 

H 3037. Matiyana, Simla, 9,000 ft 

H 3040. Naghanda, Simla, 9,000 ft 55 

3. B. aristata, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 110 ; Beddome xii. ; 
Brandisl2; Gamble 5. B. angustifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 185. Vern. 
Sumlu, simlu, kasmal } chitra, Pb. ; Tsema, Bhutia; Chltra, Nep.; Choira y 
Hind. 

An erect spinous shrub. Bark soft, light brown, corky. Wood 
yellow, hard. Annual rings distinctly marked by a narrow belt of 
numerous pores. Pores small, in short, narrow, wavy tails of white 
tissue. Medullary rays moderately broad. 

Outer Himalaya from the Sutlej to Bhutan : in the North- West Himalaya 6,000 ft. 
to 10,000 ft., in Darjeeling above 10,000 ft. ; Western Ghats at high elevations ; Ceylon. 
Wood used for fuel, the root in native medicine. 

H 80, Simla, 7,000 ft 52 

H 2888. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 ft 

H 3053. Mahasu, Simla, 8,000 ft 

4. B. Lycium, Royle; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 110; Brandis 12. Vern. 

Simla ; Kashmal, cltotra, Hind. 
An erect rigid shrub. Bark rough, corky, white or light grev. 
"Wood yellow, moderately hard. Annual rings marked by a narrow porous 
belt. Pores very small and extremely small, in narrow irregular lines 
of white tissue. Medullary rays moderately broad, numerous. 



14 BERBERIDE2E. [ Berberis. 

North- West Himalaya from 3,000 to 9,000 ft. 

H 45. Simla, 6,500ft 

H 3054. Mahasu, Simla, 7,500 ft 52 

5. B. coriacea, nov. sp., Brandis. Vern. Kashmal, Simla. 

A large erect thorny shrub, with soft corky bark. Wood yellow, 
moderately hard. Annual rings marked by a belt of small or moderately 
sized pores ; in the rest of the wood the pores are very small or ex- 
tremely small, and arranged in numerous confluent, irregularly shaped 
tails and patches of whitish tissue. Medullary rays short, fine to 
broad. 

North-West Himalaya above 8,000 ft. ; often forming alone or with other shrubs 
large extents of scrub jungle, e. g., in the valley south of Nagkanda near Simla. 

Ibs. 

H 48. Nagkanda, Simla, 9,000 ft. 
H 2894. 
H 3039. 



H 3041. 

H 3043. 

H 3038. Matiyana, Simla, 8,000 ft. 

H 3042. Hattu, Simla, 10,000 ft. 



55 

52 



6. B. angulosa, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. .111; Gamble5. Vern. 
CJiufra, Nep. 

A large erect shrub. Bark soft, brown, corky. Wood dark grey 
or yellowish brown, hard. Annual rings marked by a belt of small 
pores; in the rest of the wood the pores are very small, arranged in 
irregular radial tails of whitish tissue. Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

Inner ranges of Nepal and Sikkim above 11,000 ft. 

E 2862. Suburkum, Darjeeling, 11,000 ft. 



ORDER VII. CAPPARIDE^J. 

Six Indian genera are of trees, shrubs or climbers belonging all to one tribe, Capparooe. 
The climbing genera are : Mcerua, one species, M. arenaria, Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 171 (Capparis heteroclita, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 570). Vern. Patta tiff a, Tel., a 
large woody climber of the Western Himalaya, Upper Gangetic plain and Central 
India ; and Roydsia, two species, R. suaveolens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 643 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 180; Gamble 5. Vern. Kasonli, Nep. ; Tunggor, Lepcha, in the tropical forests of 
Sikkim, Bhutan and the Khasia Hills, and R. obtusifolia, Hook. f. and Th. ; Kurz i. 
67. Vern. Ngaphyoo, Burm., in the swamp forests of Burma. Ntebvkria lhn-i'iit, 
DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 171, is a small tree of the hilly parts of the Carnatic ; and the 
species of Cadaba are small straggling shrubs chiefly of the arid zone, C. 
Lamk. Vern. Jali taka, occurring in Berar and the Dekkan, and C. 
Stocks; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 173, being a small tree found in rocks near Cape 
in Sind. 

Wood light-coloured. Pores small to moderate-sized, rarely large ; 
often arranged in radial lines; medullary rays moderately broad, wavy. 

1. CAPPARIS, Linn. 

A genus of about thirty species of thorny shrubs or climbers. About fifteen occur in 
Burma, ten in the Dekkan and Cantaiie, live on the western coast, right in Urngal and 
:n, two in the Gan-jvtir valley and Central India, and three in the arid /.one of the 
Punjab and Sind. Besides those here described, t here are several common species. C. *j>f- 
tvtsd, Linn.; Hook. Kl. Ind. i. 17.'*; Urandis 11. Vern. l\',iti,in',i. \ 1'g. ; l\nl>rn, Tibet; 
Amir, kcri, hauler, kakri, tulc< t\ Inr, liantri, Imitri, Intuxur. 1'h. ; f 7la-&Ofo, Iviinuuin ; 



Capparis. ] CAPPAUIDEJJ. 15 

Kalvdri, Sind, is a small trailing shrub of the Punjab and Sind, whose flower buds give 
the capers of Commerce; they an- pickled and eaten in Sind and the Punjab Salt Range. 
C. (///'>/</>/(/, Jjimik. ; Hook. Fl. Jnd. i. 17 (C.^styloxa, J)0. ; Jjeddonie xiii) Vern. 
Tnin'iilli, Tain.; Httilr< ni, Tel.; /\/r///W<7, Mar., is a shrub or smiill t nv of the 
l)ckk-an ;ind Carnatie, with lar^e srarlet fruit. C. ularijol'm, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 178; Gamble 5. Vern. Naski. hnis, Xeji. ; .lh<n<>h\ Ijepeha. is a common 
thorny shrub of river banks and valleys in Northern Bengal and Assam. C. Imrrida, 
Linn/; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 178; Brandis 15 (C. zcylanica, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 507). Vern. 
His, kiti't-ilit, i'b. ; Karralurn, Oudli ; AdonOa, Teh; Kali ml, Gondi ; Gitoran, 
Aj mi-re ; Atanday, Tarn, is a climbing shrub common in most parts of India. 

1. C. grandis, Linn. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 176; Beddorae xiii; C. 
bisperma, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 569. Vern. Gnli, reyguti, raff of a, Tel. 

A small tree. Bark thick, extremely irregular, rough and corky, 
deeply and irregularly cracked. Wood white, moderately hard. No 
heartwoodj no annual rings. Pores scanty, moderate-sized to large. 
Medullary rays moderately broad, short. 

rhanda district and eastern part of the Dekkan, Eastern Ghats and Carnatic. 
Weight, 46 Ibs. Wood durable, much used by the natives in the Madras Presidency. 

Iba. 
C 1134 Ahiri, Central Provinces 46 

2. C. aphylla, Roth ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 174; Beddome xiii; Brandis 
14. Veru. Kuril, Pb. ; Kiral, S'md ; Karl, Behar. 

A small tree with scanty, small, caducous leaves, found only on the 
young shoots. Bark \ inch thick, grey, corky, with deep irregular cracks. 
Wood light yellow, turning brown on exposure, shining, very hard and 
close-grained. Annual rings doubtful. Pores small, generally in groups 
or patches between the prominent, very short, numerous, fine medullary 
rays. 

Punjab, Sind, T Rajputana and the Dekkan. 

Weight, 53 Ibs per cubic foot. The wood is used for small beams and rafters in 
roofs, for the knees of boats, for oilmills and agricultural implements ; it is a good 
firewood, and is not eaten by white ants. The fruit is eaten both raw and preserved, 
and the young flower buds are preserved as pickle. 

Ibs. 

P 444. Ajmere 

P 892. Multan 53 

P 941. 

P 3056. 

2. CRAT.EVA, Linn. 

1. C. religiosa, Forst. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 172; Beddome t. 116 and 
xiv (G.-Nurvala, Ham.) ; Brandis 16; Gamble 5. C. Roxburghii, Ham. ; 
Kurz i. 66. Capparis trifoliata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 571. Vern. Brarna, 
lildsi, bila, biliana. Hind.; Bar4n,tikto~9kak > Beng. ; Purlong, Lepcha; 
Maralingam, marvilinga, Tarn.; Uskia, usiki, ulimidi, urumatti, tellavoo- 
lemara, Tel. ; Nirvdla, Kan., Mai. ; Kumla, karwan, Mar. ; Kadet, katat, 
Barm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark grey, \ inch thick, with long 
horizontal wrinkles. Wood yellowish white, when old turning light 
brown, moderately hard, even-grained. Pores moderate-sized, numerous 
and uniformly distributed, often in short radial lines, each pore surrounded 
by a whitish ring. Medullary rays short, very wavy, fine and mo- 
derately broad, the distance between the rays slightly greater than the 
transverse diameter of the pores. 



16 CAPPARIPI K. [ Crafwa. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ravi eastwards, Bengal, Assam, Central and South 
India and Burma. 

Weight, 42 Ibs. The wood is used for drums, models, writing-boards, combs and in 
turnery. 

Ibs. 

P 3217. Nagpahar, AJmere 

270. Garhwal (1868) 33 

O 3112. Dehra Dun 47 

C 3115. Chanda, Central Provinces 45 

B 565. Prome, Burma . . . 43 

No. 23. Salem Collection 44 



ORDER VIII. VIOLACE^]. 

This order contains three genera of Indian plants : of these, two, viz., Viola and 
lonidium, are herbaceous; while the third, A Isodeia, comprises six shrubs or small 
trees found in Northern and Eastern Bengal, Burma and Malabar. A. bengalensis, 
Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 186; Kurz i. 70; Gamble 6. Vern. Kalipat, Nep., occurs in 
Sikkim, Assam, Burma and the Andamans. A. Roxburghii, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 186; Kurz i. 69 (Vareca heteroclita, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 648), in Sylhet and the 
Andamans; and A. racemosa, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 187 (A. longirace- 
inosa, Kurz i. 70), in Assam and Tenasserim, said by Kurz to have a yellowish white 
close-grained wood. 

No. B 3198. (Home, 1874, No. 26, Kyadoo). A white scented wood from the 
Andamans, with scanty, moderately large pores ; moderately fine, wavy, medullary rays, 
and numerous concentric lines of soft tissue, was identified by Kurz from Home's 
specimens as coming nearest to Alsodeia (Brandis' Memorandum on the Forest 
Resources of the Andamans, dated August 25th, 1874). 



ORDER IX. BIXINE^B. 

Seven genera belonging to three tribes : 

Tribe I. Bixese .... Cochlospermum and Bixa. 

II. FlacourtiesB . . . Scolopia, Flacourtia and Xylosma. 

III. Pangiese .... G-ynocardia and Hydnocarput. 

Bixa Orellana, Linn.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 581 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 190; Beddome t. 
79 ; Brandis 17 ; Kurz i. 72 ; Gamble 6. The Arnotto Plant, Vern. LatJcan, Hind., 
Beng. ; Jurat, Ass.; Jafra, Tel. ; Kuragumangjal, Tarn. ; Kiippu-manliala, Kan.; 
Kisri, Mar. ; Theedin, Burm., is an American shrub, introduced and cultivated in 
India for the red dye given by the pulp surrounding the seeds. 

Hydnocarpus contains four Indian species. //. heterophylla, Bl. ; Kurz i. 77. Vern. 
Kal-lau-tso, Burm., is described by Kurz as an evergreen tree with heavy, strong, 
yellowish white wood, found in the tropical forests of Burma. H. castanea, Hook, 
f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 197; Kurz i. 79, is a tree of the Andaman Islands. 
JF. alpina, Wight; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 197; Beddome t. 77. Vern. Maratatti, Xilgiris, 
is a tree of the Western Ghats, whose wood is said by Beddome to be used in the 
construction of native houses, for packing cases and firewood. H. IVinhthina, Bl. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 196 (//. Wightiana and H. incbrians, VahL; Beddome xvi. xvii). 
. Yetti, maravetti, Tarn. ; Kowti, Mar. ; Makulu, Cingli., is a common tree of 
ti, West rn CJhsits and western coast. 

The wood of Flacourtia, Xylosma, Gynocardia and Scolopia is 
uniform and remarkably similar to the wood of Euphorbiace&e j it is hard 
ami close-drained and the pores are small, in short radial lines between 
fine or very fine, closely parked medullary rays. The wood of 
Cochlospermum has an entirely different structure. 

I. COCIILOSPKKMUM, Kuntto. 
1. C. Gossypium, DC.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 100; Beddome xiv ; 



Cocklospermum.] BIXINE^E. 17 

Brandis 17; Kurz i. 72. Bombax Gossypium, Roxb. Fl. Incl. iii. 169. 
Yern. Kiimbi, gabdi, ganidr, galrjal, gangal, Hind. ; Gangam, Goiidi ; 
Gunguj kong, ltandu-gogu y Tel. ; Tanaku, kongillam, Tarn.; Chima-piuiji, 
Mai. ; Ganeri, Bhil ; Ganeri, gunglay, Mar. 

A small deciduous tree, with short, thick, spreading branches. Bark 
one inch thick, deeply furrowed ; inner substance* red. Wood extremely 
soft, grey; no heartwood. Pores large, scanty, often subdivided into 
compartments. Medullary rays broad, on a radial section, visible as long 
rough plates. 

Forests at the base of the North-West Himalaya, from the Sutlej eastwards, 
Central India, Di-kkun, I'roine District in Burma. 

Weight, 17 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood useless. Gives a clear white gum (JLatira), 
which, according to Baden-Powell, is used in the trade of shoemaking. 

Ibs. 
C 1141. Ahiri Reserve, C. P 17 

2. SCOLOPIA, Schreber. 

Three species. S. crenata, Clos.i Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 191 ; Beddome t. 78 (Phokeros 
crenatuSy W. and A. Prodr. 29). Vern. Hitterlu, Burghers, is a tree of Malabar, Kanara 
and Mysore, said by Beddome to have a hard, dense, white wood, liable to warp. 
8. Boxourgkii, Clos. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 190; Kurz i. 73 (Ludia spinosa, Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 507), is an evergreen tree of Tenasserim, the stem and older branches of which 
are armed with long, straight or compound spines. 

1. S. rhinanthera, Clos. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 190. B 1969, collected 
by Kurz in the Andamans in 1866, bears this name. It has a hard red 
wood, with a structure similar to that of Flacourtia, the pores being 
small, in short radial lines, between the very fine and closely packed 
medullary rays. Weight GO Ibs. per cubic foot. 

3. FLACOURTIA, Commerson. 

Seven Indian species. The following are the names given in the Flora Indica i.. 
191 to 194: 

1. F. sumatrana, Planch. ; Kurz i. 74 . . . Tenasserim. 

2. F. inermis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 833 ; Beddome Sylhet, S. India, Martaban. 

xvi ; Kurz i. 74. Vern. Tomitomi, Mai. ; 
Ubbolu, Kan. Perhaps introduced. Fruit 
edible. 

3. F. montana, Grah. ; Beddome xvi. Vern. AttaJc, Western Coast. 

Kan., Mar. 

4. F. mollis, Hook. f. and Th. ; Kurz i. 74 . . Tenasserim. 

5. F. Cataphracta, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 834; Bed- Bengal, Burma, Bombay, 

dome xvi ; Kurz i. 74. Vern. Faniala, Western Ghats. 
panizali, Beng. ; Talispatri, paniala, 
Hind. ; Talisapatri, Tarn., Tel. ; Na-yuwai, 
Burm. 

6. F. Hamontchi, L'Herit India. 

7. F. sepiaria, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 835 (also F. Kumaun, Bengal and South 

obcordata) ; Beddome xvi ; Brandis India. 
18; Kurz i. 75 (also F. rotundifolia). 
Vern. Sharawani, dajkar t jidkar t Hind. ; 
Kanru y Tel. 

1. F. Ramontchi, L'Herit.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 193; Beddome xvi; 
Brandis 18. F. sapida, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 835 ; Kurz i. 75. Vern. 
Kukai, kakoa, kanyu, kandei, Pb. ; Bila-ngra, bhanber, kanju, kandi 

o 



18 BixiNE-E. [Flacourti a. 

kaitdr, katti, Hind.; Kaikun, Mhairwarra; K6nl,idnki, bildli, C. P. ; 
Arma-suri, kalien, Gondi; Gurgoti, Kurku; Bincha, katdi, Beng. ; 
Bonicha, Uriya ; Pahar, bhekal, kakei, kaker, Mar. ; Bhulankas, 
Hyderabad ; Kanregu, pedda-kanru, kaka y nakka-naregu , Tel. ; Ugurassa, 
Cingh. ; Na-yuwai, Burm. 

A small thorny deciduous tree. Bark grey. Wood red, hard, close- 
and even-grained, splits, but does not warp and is durable. Pores 
small, in radial lines between the fine, uniform, closely-packed and some- 
what wavy medullary rays. 

Dry hills throughout India, Prome District in Burma. 

Weight : Brandis gives 50 Ibs. per cubic foot, the average of our specimens is 53 Ibs. 
The wood is used for turning and agricultural implements, and the fruit and leaves are 
eaten. 

Ibs. 

P 460. Ajmere . 52 

P 3221. Nagpahar, Ajmere 

O 260. Garhwal (1868) 50 

C 2739. Moharli Keservre, C. P 52 

B 3125. Burma (1862) . ' . 59 

4. XYLOSMA, Forster. 

Three species. X. controversum, Clos. ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 194, is a tree of Nepal 
and the Khasia Hills, nearly allied to X.. longifolium. X. latifolium, Hook. f. and 
Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 194, is a large thorny tree of the Bababuden Hills in Mysore. 

1. X. longifolium, Clos. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 194; Brandis 19. Vern. 
Chopra, c/iirunda, chirndi, drendu, Pb. ; KaUdwa, Oudh ; Danddl, katdri, 
kandhdra. Hind. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark i inch thick, grey. Wood pinkish, 
moderately hard, even-grained. Pores small, in short radial lines between 
the wavy, very fine and closely-packed medullary rays. 

North- West Himalaya ascending to 5,000 feet, Assam. 

Weight, 55 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is used for fuel and charcoal. 

Ib8. 

H 2947. Jander, Sutlej Valley, 3,500 feet 55 

5. GYNOCARDIA, R. Br. 

1. G. odorata, R. Br.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 195 ; Kurz i. 76 ; Gamble 
6. Chaulmoogra odorata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 835. Vern. Chaulmugri, 
peiarkura, Beng. ; Kadu, Nep. ; Tub, Lepcha ; Toungpung, Magh. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree, readily known by the hard, round 
fruits which grow on the stem and main branches. Bark \ inch thick, 
grey, smooth. Wood hard, close-grained, yellow or light brown. Pores 
very small, in radial lines between the white, very numerous and promi- 
nent medullary rays. 

Northern and Eastern Bengal and Assam, Chittagong and Burma. 

Weight, 47 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

r i In- wood is used in Chittagong for planking and for posts, and the pulp of the 
fruit in Sikkim to poison fish. The seeds give by expression a thick oil, used in the 
treatment of cutaneous diseases, especially leprosy. 

Ibs. 

E 708. Chittagong 47 



Pitlospornm. ] PITTOSPOREJ::. 19 



ORDER X. PITTOSPOEE53. 

An order containing one genus of Indian trees or shrubs, the remaining genera 
being chiefly Australian. The genus Pittosporum, Hook. PI. Ind. i. 198, contains eight 
Indian >pccics, two of which, P. glabratum, Ldl. and P. humilc, Hook. f. and Th., grow 
in tl! Kliasiu Hills; 1 hree, P. tetraspermum, W. and A., P. nilghirense, W. and A., 
and P. daxyrtdf/un, Miq., on the Western Ghats, and one, P. ferrugincum, Ail.; 
Kurz i. 78, in Hurma. Of the remaining two : one, P. eriocarpum, Royle ; Brandis 
1'J, is found in the outer Himalaya of Kumaun and Garhwal (Meda tumri, gar-silung, 
garshuna, Hind.) ; and the other, P.florilundum, W. and A. ; Beddome xvii; Brandis 19 ; 
Gamble 6 (Celastrus verticillata, Roxb. PI. Ind. i. 624). Vern. Yekaddi, Mar.; 
Prongzam, Lepcha, is a common small tree of the outer Himalaya from the Jumna to 
Bhutan ascending to 8,000 feet, the Khasia Hills and Western Ghats. 



ORDER XL POLYGALEJE. 

Three Indian genera of woody plants of little forest interest. 

Poly gala arillata, Ham. ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 200 ; Gamble 6 (Ckamceluxus arillata, 
Hassk. ; Kurz i. 79). Vern. Karima, Nep. ; Michepnor, Lepcha, is a shrub of Northern 
Bengal and the Khasia Hills; and P. Karensium, Kurz (C. Karensium, Kurz i. 79), 
a shrub of Martaban. Securidaca tavoyana, Wall. ; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 208 (S. inap- 
pendiculata, Hassk.; Kurz i. 80), is a large woody climber of Eastern Bengal, 
Arracan and Tenasserim. Xanthophyllum contains four species : X. flavescens, 
Roxb. PL Ind. ii. 222 ; Hook. PL In'd. i. 209 ; Kurz i. 81 (including, according to 
Bennett in the " Flora Indica," X. Amottianum, Wight, X. angustifolium, Wight, and 
X. virens, Roxb. ; Beddome xix). Vern. Ajensak, gandi, Beng. ; Thitpyoo, Burm., is 
a tree of Bengal, South India, and Burma, said by Kurz to have a heavy, close-grained 
wood. X. glaucum, Wall.; X. Griffitkii, Hook. f. ; and X. affine, Korth., are 
evergreen trees of Burma. 



ORDER XII. 

A small order containing bushes or small trees with small sessile or scale-like 
sheathing leaves : two genera, Tamarix and Myricairia. 

Wood white or reddish, sometimes darker in the centre, but no heart- 
wood. Pores small to moderate-sized, often in groups, more numerous 
and large in the spring wood wherever the annual rings are distinct, 
Medullary rays generally moderately broad to broad, short, distant. 

1. TAMARIX, Linn. 

Bushes or small trees, with scale-like leaves and white or pink flowers, chiefly found 
on the banks of streams and on the lowlands near rivers. There are six species, of 
which the most important are : T. articulata, Vahl, T. dioica, Roxb., and T. gallica, 
Linn. ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 248 ; Beddome xx ; Brandis 20 ; Kurz i. 83 (T. indica, Roxb. 
PL Ind. ii. 100), Vern. Koan, rufch, leinya, ghazlei, pilchi, Pb- ; Lei, ldi,jhau, Sind; 
Yelta, Tibet ; Jhau, Beng., the last two species being found along rivers and the sea-coast 
almost throughout India. Of the remaining species, T. salina, Dyer, and T. strichr, 
Boiss, are found in the Punjab and Sind, and T. ericoides, Rottb., in Bengal and Central 
India. Mathieu, PL Por. p. 23 gives 40 to 48 Ibs. as the weight per cubic foot of T. 
gallica. 

1. T. dioica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 101; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 249; 
Beddome xx ; Brandis 21 ; Kurz. i. 83 ; Gamble 6 ; Vern. Lei, pilchi, 
koan, kachleiy Pb. ; Gaz, ldo,jau, Sind ; Laljhau, Beng. ; Jan, Hind. 

A gregarious shrub. Bark grey with reticulate cracks, shewing the 
red inner bark. "Wood moderately hard, red, outer portion white. 
Pores small to moderate-sized, in groups or short radial lines, more 
abundant and larger in the spring wood. Medullary rays very promi- 



Average 13 inches or 1'4 rings 
per inch, which is fast. 



TAMABJSCINEJB. [ TatnarifB. 

nent, short, fine to very broad, very prominent on a radial section. The 
distance between the rays is generally three or four times the transverse 
diameter of the pores. 

Throughout India from Sind to Burma. Often planted for ornament. 
Of the rate of growth, little is known. Minniken, in his report of 1878 on the 
Delhi Bela plantation, gives the following measurements of seven trees in the 4th 
(Jaffar Khan) compartment, 3 years old, 8 to 15 feet high : 
No. 1 ..... 25 inches "\ 

,,2 ..... 18 

,,3 . . . . 15 ,. 

,,4 ..... 14 

,,5 ..... 12 

,,6 ..... 6 

,,7 ..... 3 

Weight, 49 Ibs. per cuhic foot. The wood is used mainly for fuel, hut also for the 
supporting sticks of roofs. 

Ibs. 
P 888. Multan .... ...... 48 

P 1388. Lahore .......... 51 

2. T. articulata, Vahl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 249; Beddome xx; 
Brandis 22. Yern. Fards, farwa, r^lch, ukhan, Jcharlei, narlei, Pb. ; 
Asreleij Sind. 

A moderate-sized tree, with grey rough bark, coppices well, and is 
easily reproduced either by seed or by cuttings ; wood white, moderately 
hard ; annual rings indistinct. Pores moderate-sized, often in groups, 
scanty. Medullary rays short, fine to very broad, the distance between 
the rays somewhat greater than the transverse diameter of the pores ; 
prominent on a radial section as irregularly shaped plates, giving the 
wood a mottled appearance. 

Punjab and Sind. 

" Growth rapid, trees 12 years old, on an average attain a girth of 2 to 3 feet, one 
15 years old measured 4 ft. 10 in. in girth, and it is stated that at times it attains 
6 ft. in 7 years." Brandis. " It grows very rapidly and to a large size, and I have 
frequently seen trees of 10 to 12 feet girth and 60 or 70 feet high." J. L. Stewart, 
Punjab Plants, p. 92. 

Weight : Brandis says, 40 to 60 Ibs. when seasoned ; Stewart says, 92 Ibs. per cubic foot 
green and 60 Ibs. dry ; the specimen received weighed 61 Ibs. Wood used for many 
kinds of ordinary work, for ploughs, Persian wheels and small ornaments, and for 
charcoal. The bark is used for tanning as well as the galls (Mdi, Punjab ; Sakun, Sind) 
which are also used as a mordant in dyeing. 

Ibs. 
P 886. Multan ........... 61 

2. MYRICARIA, Desvaux. 

The genus contains, besides the species given below, M. eleyans, Royle, a small 
bush of the inner Wc-Mi-m Himalaya and Tibet, where it is very valuable as fuel. 

1. M. gennanica, Desv. ; Hook. Fl. Ind, i. 250; Brandis 23. 
Vern. Bis 3 thalakdt, kathi, humbu, Pb.; Omlu, Lahoul. 

A shrub with rough brownish bark. Wood hard, white. Annual 
rings marked by porous spring wood. Pores small, medullary rays 
broad, short, very numerous and prominent. 

Inner Himalaya from Punjab to SiklJni. 

Wood used for fuel, ;m<l the br.-im-hrs :is fodder for slurp and goats. 

Ibs. 



;/*. Chuinbi ViiJk-y.. Tibet. 10,000 ft 



Cratoxylon, ] HYPERICINE^:. 21 



ORDER XIII. HYPEEICINE.E. 

A small order with three Indian genera. One, Ascyrum, contains only one small 
plant from Sikkim. ./////><> vV n,n, a number of herbs and small shrubs of the Himalaya, 
Ihc most common of which are H. ccrui>/> ,, lloxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 400; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
253, a handsome small shrub \vi1Ii larg.: bright yellow (lowers, found in the Western 
J I imalaya especially on rocks ; and IL. 21(jo/c< i-ia/ntm, W. and A.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
251; Gamble 6. Vcrn. Tumbomri, Lepcha. (E 2861, Darjeeling, 7,000 ft. (43 Ibs.) ) a 
very common, rather gregarious, handsome shrub of the Sikkim Himalaya, often used 
for hedges. This last has a close-grained, moderately hard wood, with annual rings 
marked by a ring of larger pores than those in the rest of the ring, which are small, 
scanty. Medullary rays fine, very numerous. 

1. CRATOXYLON, Bl. 

A genus of five trees from Burma and the Andaman Islands containing besides the 
one described, C.formosum, Bth. and Hook, f ., f rom theAudamaus, and C.pruni/lorum, 
Kurz, C. polyanthum, Korth., and C. arborescens, Bl., from Martaban and 

Tenasserim. 

I. C. neriifolium, Kurz i. 85.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 257. Vern. 
a, Burm. 

A tree. Bark dark coloured, rough. Wood dark grey, hard, close- 
grained. Pores large, in short narrow wavy irregular patches of softer 
tissue. Medullary rays not prominent, fine, numerous, on a radial section 
visible as dark narrow plates. 

Chittagong and Burma. 

Weight, 47 Ibs. per cub. ft. According to Kurz, the wood is used for building 
purposes, for ploughs, handles of chisels, hammers and other implements. 

Ibs. 

B 312. Burma (1867) 47 



ORDER XIV. GUTTIFEEJE. 

An order of tropical trees, containing six genera, belonging to two tribes, viz. : 
Tribe I. Garcinie .... Garcinia and Ochrocarpus. 

II. Calophyllese .... Calophyllum, Kayea, Mesua and 

Pceciloneuron. 

Of Ochrocarpus, there are three species. O. longifolius, Bth. and Hook, f , ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 270; Beddome t. 89. Vern. Suringi, Mar. ; Sura-ponna, Tel.; Seraya, 
Mai- ; Wundi, taringi ( 6 ), poone ( $ ), suringi, gardundi ( ), Kan., is a large, 
usually dioecious tree of the Western Ghats, whose dried flowers are used for dyeing silk. 
Skinner, No. 35 (Calophyllum longifolium) gives weight 45 Ibs. P = 546. O. sia- 
mensis, T. And. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 270 ; Kurz i. 94. Vern. TarapJiee, Burm., is an ever- 
green tree of the Eng forests of Prome and Martaban, and O. nervosus, Kurz i. 94, 
an evergreen tree of the tropical forests of the Arracan Yomah. P&ciloncuron 
includes two species, given by Beddome under Ternstromiacese, but referred to this 
Family by Dyer in "Flora Indica, i. 278." P. indicum, Beddome t. 3. Vern. 
Itirdalli, Kan., is a large tree of the western slopes of the Ghats from South Kanara 
to Malabar, from 3,000 to 4,000 ft., said by Beddome to have a hard wood used for 
rice-pounders. P. pauciflorum, Beddome t. 93. Veru. PudancjalU, is a large tree of 
the Ghats of Tinnevelly and Travancore with a valuable, hard, reddish timber, used 
for building, and to make walking-sticks. 

Wood red (in Calophyllum, Mesua and some species of Garci/u'a), 
generally with a distinct hcartwood. Pores variable in size. Medullary 
rays generally fine. Numerous concentric lines or bands of soft texture 
across the rays. 

1. GAKCINIA, Linn. 
A large genus of evergreen, opposite-leaved trees, usually with a yellow juice, 



[ Garcinia. 

generally giving a more or less pure description of gamboge. They chiefly come from 
the tropical regions of India, none of them extending to Northern and Central India, 
and only one or two as far as Northern Bengal. There are about 22 Indian species, 
the synonymy of which is somewhat confused. 

The following is Dr. T. Anderson's list, given at pages 259 to 270 of 
Hooker's Flora Indica, Kurz's species being added in brackets : 

SECTION I.-GARCINIA. 

1. G. Mangostana, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 618 ; Cultivated in South Te- 

Kurz i. 87. The Mangosteen. Vern. nasserim. 

MengJcop, youngzalai, Burm. In 

Heifer's " Report on the Provinces of Ye, 

Tavoy and Mergui" of 1839, he says 

that "a full-grown tree yields 1,000 

fruits, which -at the lowest can be 

reckoned at Rs. 3 per 100," and that 

" the integument of the fruit yields a 

very strong and valuable tan." 

2. G. cornea, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 629 ; Kurz Eastern Bengal and 

i. 88. Burma. 

" Wood brown, heavy ; gives an inferior kind of 
gamboge." Kurz. 

3. G. speciosa, Wall. ...... Tenasserim and Anda- 

mans. 

4. G. indica, Choisy (G.purpurea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. Ghats of Concan and 

ii. 624; Beddome xxi). Brindall, Goa. Kanara. 
" The fruit has an agreeable, acid flavour, a 
syrup is made from it ; the seeds furnish 
a concrete oil called Kokum in Bom- 
bay." 
6. G. Cambogia, Desrouss Western Ghats. 

6. G. Cowa, E/oxb. Assam, Bengal, Burma 

and Andamans. 

7. G. lanceafolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 623 ; Kurz i. 91. Assam, Sylhet and Chit- 

(G.purpurea Wall.) Vern. Kirindur, tagong. 
Sylhet. 

8. G. loniceroides, T. And. (G. succifolia, Kurz Swamp forests in Pegu. 

i. 91).. 

' Wood white, perishable ; yields little and 
inferior gamboge." Kurz. 

9. G. pedunculata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 625 ; Gamble Rangpur, Goalpara and 

7. Vern. Tikil, tiJcur, Beng. ; Borthekra, Sylhet. 
Ass. ; cultivated for its fruit. 
" Wood used for planks, beams, and ordinary 
building." Mann. 

10. G. Morella, Desrouss. ..... Assam, Eastern Bengal, 

South India. 

11. G. heterandra, Wall. (G.elliptica, Wall. ; Kurz Hills of Burma up to 

i. 49). Vern. Thanat-tau. Burm. 3,000 feet. 

"Wood soft, white; yields a superior quality 
of gamboge." Kurz. 

12. G. Wightii, T. And. South India. 

" The gamboge of this species is very soluble 
and yields a good pigmrnt." T. And. 

13. G. paniculatu, lu.xlt. Fl. Ind. ii. G2G ; Kurzi. Eastern Himalaya, Kha- 

92. Vern. Kubi-kowa, Sylhet. *ia Hills, Syihfit and 

Chittagong. 

14. G. atro-viridis, Griff. . ... Upju-r Assam. 

16. G. anomala, PI. and Trian. ; Kurz i. 89. Vern. KUasia Hills, and hills of 
Usaqucng, Ass. Martal.au. 3,000 to 

6,000 



Gar dm a. ] GUTTIFERJS. 23 

SECTION I. GABCINIA mMZ. 

1C. 6r. stipulate*, T. And. ; Gamble 7. Vern. Sana- Sikkim and Bhutan, up 

kadan, Lepcha. to 4,000 ft-c-t. 

"Fruit yellow, sometimes eaten by Lepchas ; 
the tree and fruit give a yellow gum, 
but it does not seem to be used." 
Gamble. 

17. G. merguensis, Wight ; Kurz i. 89 . . . Tenasserim. 

18. G. trttrtnirvrica, beddome t. 173 (G. sp. 2. Forests of Trava: 

Beddome xxi). Vern. Malampongu, Tin- and Timievelly. 
nevelly. 

" Every portion of the tree yields an abundance 
of bright yellow gamboge, not yet ex- 
amined." Beddom e. 

19. (G. microstigma, Kurz i. 91) . . . Andamans. 

SECTION II. XANTHOCHYMUS. 

20. G. Xanthochymiis, Hook. f. ; Kurz i. 93. Xan- Eastern Himalaya. Eust- 

thochymu-s pictorius, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. ern Bengal, Burma, 
633 ; 'Beddome t. 88. Vern. Tepor, Ass. ; South India. 
MaoJda, Phekial ; Dampel, Hind. ; 
Iwara memadi, tamalamu, chitaka- 
mraku, Tel. ; Mataw, Burm. 
"Yields a large quantity of indifferent 
gamboge." Roxburgh. 

21. G. ovalifolia, Hook. f. ; X. ovalifolius, Roxb. Western Ghats. 

Fl. Ind. ii. 632; Beddome xxi. Vern. 
Kokatie, Tarn. ; Ellagokatu, Cingh. 

22. G. dulcis, Kurz i. 92 (X. dulcis, Roxb. Fl. Andamans. 

Ind. ii. 631). 

Wood close-grained, hard. Pores small to large, subdivided. 
Numerous concentric bands of softer texture. The structure of the wood 
of the species of Oarcinia is not uniform. G. Cowa and G. Morella have 
similar wood, while G. speciosa differs by having fine medullary rays and 
G. Cambogia by the absence of distinct concentric rings. The structure 
of the Garcinias requires further investigation. 

1. G. speciosa, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 260; Kurz i. 88. Vern. 
Palaiva, Burm. 

An evergreen tree. Bark thin, greyish-black. Heartwood red, very 
hard, cross-, and close-grained. Pores small, very numerous. Numerous 
short, wavy, transverse bands joining the pores. Medullary rays very 
line, uniform, equidistant, not very distinct, the distance between two 
rays about equal to the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Tenasserim and the Andaman Islands. 

Weight, according to Major Protheroe, 721bs. ; our specimens give only 52 Ibs. and 
Wallich (Nos. 73, 74, Garcinia sp., Pullowa) 45'5 Ibs. 

Used for house and bridge posts, and other purposes; said to be used by the 
Andamanese to make bows. 

Ibs. 

B 504. Andaman Islands , 52 

B 2192. Do. (Home, 1874, No 18) .... 52 



Two specimens marked B 2493 Pantagah, No. 20. (51 Ibs.), and B 2,500 
Phungnyet, No. 19 (62 Ibs.), brought by Home from the Andamans in 1874 resemble 
G. speciosa, but the pores are in short radial lines and the medullary rays more 
distinct. 

B 2206 (47 Ibs.), received from the Andamans in 1866 undor the name otThingan- 
nec is similar in structure to B 2193 and 2500, but the pores are larger. 



24 GUTTIFER^:. [ Garcinia. 

2. G. Cambogia, Desr. ; Hook. Fl. Incl. i. 261 ; Beddome t. 85 ; Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 6'21. Vern. Aradal, Kan. ; Heela, Burghers. 

A small evergreen tree. Wood grey, cross-grained, shining, hard. 
Pores small and very small, in short radial lines, between the closely 
packed, uniform, very fine medullary rays. Concentric bands present, 
but indistinct. 

Western Coast and Ceylon. 

Weight, 64 Ibs. per cubic foot. Beddome says the wood would answer for common 
furniture. 

Thwaites states that this tree yields a yellow insoluble gum, which is consequently 
valueless as a pigment. It is, however, said to be soluble in spirits of turpentine, and 
to form a beautiful yellow varnish. Mr. Cherry says it gives an oil which is used in 
medicine. 

ibs. 
W 845. South Kanara 54 

3. G. Cowa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 622 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 262 ; G. Cowa 
and G. Kydia, Roxb. ; Kurz i. 90. Vern. Cowa, Hind. ; ToungtJialay t 
Burm. 

A tall evergreen tree with round stem and dark grey bark. Wood 
greyish-white, moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized to large, scanty, 
often subdivided. Medullary rays fine to broad. Numerous, wavy, 
concentric bands of soft tissue across the rays. 

Eastern Bengal, Assam, Chittagong, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 42 Ibs. per cubic foot (Brandis 1862, No. 19) ; our specimens give an average 
of 40 Ibs. Kyd gives weight 47 Ibs., P = 815. Wood not used. Is said to give a kind 
of gamboge of a rather different colour to that produced by G. Morella. 

Ibs. 

B 549. Martaban 43 

B 3148. Burma (1862) 37 

4. G. Morella, Desrouss.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 264; Thwaites Enum. 
49 ; Beddome t. 86. G. pictoria, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 627; Beddome t. 87. 
G. Gutta, Wight. The Gamboge Tree. Vern. Aradal, punar pull, Kan.; 
Gok&tv,kana-goraka, Cingh. (The gum resin, Gotagamba, Hind. ; Makki, 
Tarn. ; Revachinni, Mar. ; Sanatosi, Burm. ; Gokatu, Cingh.) 

An evergreen tree. Wood yellow, hard, mottled. Pores large, sub- 
divided. Medullary rays moderately broad. Numerous, wavy, concentric 
bands of soft texture across the rays which are narrower than in G. Coiva. 

Forests of the Khasia Hills, Eastern Bengal, Western Coast, and Ceylon. 

The tree which produces the true gamboge. The gum is, however, not collected 
in the forests of South India, and the chief trade supply is obtained from Siam. In 
(Vylon it is usually collected by cutting a thin slice off the bark of the tree here and 
there of the size of the palm of the hand. On the flat space thus exposed the gum 
collects and is scraped ofl' when sufficiently dried. 

Ibs. 

No. 14, Ceylon collection (marked Camlogia Gutta, Vern. Cocatiye) . 56 
2. CALOPHYLLUM, Linn. 

A large genus of chiefly tropical lives, of which many species occur in the Malay 
Peninsula and Ceylon. Six 'species occur in India, of which four in Burma and the Anda- 
niaiis, three in Southern India and OIL- in Northern and Eastern In-ujral. Fivespeci 
hnvin described, iind the remaining species is (,'. rctimum, AVall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 272 
((}. (tmwnum, AVall.; Kur/ i. 1)5), an evergreen tree .f Tenasserini. The i-vnus is 
r.-inarkable for its handsome flowers aiid beautiful parallel-veined, opposite, coriaceous 
leaves. 



Calophyllnm .~\ GUTTIFER/T:. 25 

Wood soft and moderately hard, reddish, with n darker coloured 
heartwood, seasons well, weight moderate. v Pores moderate-sized or large, 
prominent on a vertical section, often arranged in wavy strings or groups. 
Medullary rays fine or very fine, indistinct on a cross section but prominent 
as straight narrow lines on a radial section. Interrupted concentric lines 
of soft tissue. 

1. C. spectabile, Willd.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 271; Kurz i. 01; 
C. Moonii, Wight, Beddome xxii. ; C. anicoium, Wall, in Exhibition 
Catalogue; C. tefaapetalum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 008. Vern. Panta-ka, 
kyandoo, Burm. ; Dakar tdlada, And. ; LalcJiuni, Hind, (from Andamans). 

A tall evergreen tree. Wood light red, shining, cross-grained, moder- 
ately hard. Pores large, in scattered groups, and wavy lines prominent 
on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays fine, very numerous, promi- 
nent on a radial section as long, straight, dark-coloured narrow plates. 
Concentric lines of soft tissue divide the wood into what at first sight 
appear to be annual rings, but on closer examination are found to 
be interrupted, and cannot be held to be the lines which mark the 
annual increment ; these lines are visible on a vertical section. 

Tonasserim and Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 38-39 Ibs. per cubic foot. No. 13, from the Andaman Islands, of Brandis' 
experiments of 1866 is probably tin's : Weight, 39'5 Ibs. P = 530 mean of 8 experi- 
ments with bars 2' X 1" X 1." 

The wood is used for masts and spars ; also for planking, for which purpose it 
has lately been used in building barracks in the Andamans. 

Ibs. 
B 525. Andaman Islands ........ 39 

B 191)2. (Kurz, 1866) 38 

B 3197. (Home, 1874, No. 14, Teeni) .... 39 

2. C. inophy Hum, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 273; Beddome xxii,; 
Kurz i. 95; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 606. The Alexandrian Laurel. Vern. 
Sultana champa, Hind., Beng. ; Pinnay, Tamil; Puna, punas, Tel.; 
Wuma, Kan. ; Undi> Mar. ; T)omba } Cingh. ; Pongnyet, Burm. ; Bintangor, 
Malay. 

An evergreen tree. Bark grey or blackish -brown, smooth. Wood 
reddish-brown, moderately hard, close-grained. Pores small and 
moderate-sized, arranged in groups. Medullary rays extremely fine 
and numerous. Numerous, not very prominent, interrupted concentric 
lines of soft tissue. 

South India, Burma and Andaman Islands, often cultivated for ornament in other 
parts of India. 

Weight : 63 Ibs. per cubic foot according to Kurz ; the specimens received averaged 
42 Ibs. omitting the last which was rather decayed, " Used for masts, spars, railway 
sleepers, machinery, &c." Kurz. 

Ibs. 

W 733. South Kanara 38 

B 2257. Andaman Islands (1866) 45 

B 2258. 44 

B 2263. 26 

3. C. polyanthum, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 274; Kurz i. 95; 
Gamble 7. Vern. Kandeb, Beng. ; Kironli, Nep. ; Sung Iyer, Lepcha. 
An evergreen tree. Structure the same as that of C. spectabiie. 

Northern and Eastern Bengal, Khasia Hills, Chittagong and Burma, ascending to 
5,000 feet. 



26 GUTTIFEILE. [ Catophyllum. 

Weight, 40 Ibs. per cubic foot. Mr. Chester says it is used largely in Chittagong 
for masts, spars and rafters, and sometimes for small boat building and canoes. 

Ibs. 

E 1400. Chittagong - 44 

E 2490. Chenga Forest, Darjeeling Terai 38 

E 2953. Chunbati, Darjeeling, 3,000 feet 39 

These last two have the same structure as C. polyanthum, but the wood has a dark 
red colour. 

4. C. tomentosum, Wight; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 274; Beldome xxii. 
. elatum y Beddome t. 2. The Pooii Spar Tree. Vern. Poon,poone, 
Mai. ; Pongoo, Tamil ; Siri poone, Kan. 

A lar<*e, tall, evergreen tree. Bark with numerous longitudinal 
cracks. Structure the same as that of C. special He. 

Evergreen forests of the Western Coast from Kanara southwards. 

Weight : Couch's experiments at Plymouth Dockyard gave 36 to 43 Ibs. per cubic 
foot ; our specimens give 35 Ibs. per cubic foot. Yields the Poon spars of commerce, 
good spars often fetching large prices. It is also used for building and bridge work. 

The seeds give an oil. 

Ibs. 

W 762. South Kanara 32 

D 1279. Anamalai Hills . 38 



5. C. Wig-htianum, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 274; Beddome t. 90. 
C. decipiens, Wight Ic. 106. Vern. Kal,poon, kull-ponne, Kan. ; Cheru 
j>innay. Tarn. 

An evergreen tree. Wood hard, red. Pores large and moderate- 
sized, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays very fine, not very distinct. 
Numerous interrupted, wavy and anastomozing concentric bands of 
soft tissue. 

Western Ghats from the Konkan to Travancore. 

Weight, 45 Ibs. per cubic foot. It is probably No. 36 of Skinner's List (C. spu- 
rium) W = 39 Ibs. ; P = 567. Beddome says the timber is much esteemed and 
valuable for engineering purposes. 

Ibs. 

W 861. South Kanara 45 

3. KAYEA, Wall. 

Two Indian and one Ceylon species. K.floribunda, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 276 ; 
Kurz i. 96. Vern. Jarram-jowa t Sylhet, is a tree of the tropical forests of the Eastern 
Himalaya and of the hills of Martaban, ascending to 3,000 feet. J. nervosa, T. And. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 277 ; Kurz i. 97 is au evergreen tree of Tenasserim. 

1. K. Stylosa, Thwaites Enum. 50; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 276; 
Beddome t. 102. Veru. Suvanda, Cingh. 

A large tree. Bark dark grey. Wood soft, reddish. Pores moderate- 
sized, numerous. Medullary rays very fine, indistinct, with concentric 
bands of soft texture across the rays. 

A. Mendis gives the weight at 56 Ibs. and P = 814. 

DM. 
Ceylon, south of the island. No. 82, Ceyloii collection . . . .56 

4. MESUA, Linn. 

Beddome gives six species of this ,'MIUS, but all these are included itt the Flora 
Indica by Dr. T. A mlerson under one, MI-SIKI J'<i-r<<i. In the "Ueneriv I'huitavuni " 
there are said to In- three species. Thuso include M. ThwatU-sii, i'l. and Triun., of 
Ceylon, and u species from .Malacca. 



Mesua. ] GUTTIFER^:. 27 

1. M. ferrea, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 277; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
605 ; Kurz i. 97 ; Beddome xxiii (witU also M. speciosa, Choisy ; 
M. Roxbnrghii, Wight; J\L sclerophylla, Thw. ; M. pulc/iella, PI. and 
Trian. ; and M. coromandeliana, Wight; Beddome t. 64) ; Thwaites Enum. 
50. Vern. Nagesar, Beng. ; Nahor, Ass.; Nageshvoro, Uriya; Nangal, 
mallay nangal, Tarn.; Naga-kcsara, Tel.; Nang, Tinnevelly; Naga 
mmplgi, Kan.; Nag-champa, Mar.; Behetta-ckampagam, Mai.; Nd, 
deya-nd, Cingh. ; Kaing-go, Ma<*h ; Gangau, Burm. 

A large evergreen tree. Heartwood dark red, extremely hard. 
Pores moderate-sized, often in groups, scanty, often filled with yellow 
resin. Medullary rays extremely fine, uniform, equidistant, very 
numerous. Numerous fine, wavy, concentric lines of light-coloured 
tissue. 

Eastern Bengal from the Monas eastward (though traces of its having formerly 
been found west of that river occur sometimes in the names of places, e. g., 
Nageshwarbari, or Naksarbari, a town in the Sikkim Terai on the Nepal frontier), 
Assam, South India, Ceylon, Burma and the Andainans, often cultivated. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following experi- 
ments : 

Weight. Value of P. 

A. Mendis Ceylon No. 59, with bars 2' X V X 1" found 72 Ibs, 994 

Brandis Burma No. 18, 1862 . , 69 



Bennett Andamans No. 4, 1872 . 

Assam (4 specimens), 1378 



70 1053 

67-5 
62 
70 



Smythies < Kanara (1 ), 

(. Burma (6 ), 

Several of our specimens, however, reached 74 to 76 Ibs. per cubic foot in weight. It 
is very durable. It has been found to answer for sleepers equally well with 
JPynkado, but the cost of cutting the hard wood, its weight, and the freight from the 
Tenasseriin forests to Calcutta prevent its being much used, as the total cost is scarcely 
covered by the price (Us. 5) per broad-gauge sleeper. It is used for building, for 
bridges, gunstocks and tool handles ; but its more general use is prevented by its 
great hardness, weight and the difficulty of working it. In Ceylon an oil is obtained 
from the nut, and the tree is often planted for the sake of its handsome flowers, 

Ibs. 

E 2309. E. Diiars, Assam 64 

E 793. Kararup 61 

E 2190. Nowgong 75 

E 1273. Cachar 70 

W 741. South Kanara 62 

B 2504 Burma (1862) 69 

B 554. Martaban 75 

B 2700. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 60 

1] 2238. Andamans (Major Ford, 1866) 76 

B 2491. (Home, 1874, No. 10) 67 

B 520. 74 

No. 59. Ceylon Collection (Mesua Nag aha) . . . . .72 



ORDER XV. TERNSTEOMIACE^, 

Twelve genera belonging to three tribes, vis. .- 

Tribe I. Ternstromiese .... Anncslea, Ternstroiiiia, Adinan* 

Jra, Clcyt-ra and Enrya. 
II. Sauraujea) .... Aclinidia, Saio'auja and Stachy- 

urus. 

III. GordoniejB .... Pi/renariu, Sc/iima, Gordonia and 

Camellia. 



28 TEUNSTHOMIACE^J. [ 

Anneslea contains two small trees of Burma : A.fragrans, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
280 ; Kurz i. 98, of the Eng forests, and A. monticola, Kurz i. 98, of the hill forests of 
Al artaban at 5,000 to 7,000 feet. Ternstromia, two trees of South India and Burma : 
T.japonica, Thunb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 280; Kurz i. 99 (T. gymnanthera, Beddome t. 
91). Vein. Eaymone, Nilgiris, an evergreen tree of the Western Ghats and the Marta- 
ban Hills, said by Beddome to have a pinkish wood, used for house -building ; and 
T. penangiana, Choisy; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 281 ; Kurz i. 99, an evergreen tree of the 
Andamans and Tenasserim. Adinandra villosa, Choisy ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 283 ; Kurz 
i. 100, is an evergreen tree of Pegu. Cleyera ochnacea, DC., and C. grandiflora, Hook. 
f . and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 283, 284, are small trees of the North-Eastern Himalaya 
and Khasia Hills. Actinidia contains two climbing shrubs : A. callosa, Ldl. (No. 
E. 2858, Tukdah Forest, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet, with corky bark and brown, very porous 
wood) at about 5,000 feet, from Garhwal to Bhutan and the Khasia Hills, and A. 
strigosa, Hook, f . and Th., of the Sikkim Himalaya, at 6,000 to 8,000 feet : both, Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 286 ; Gamble 8. Vern. Ttkphal, Nep. ; Taksing, Lepcha. Fruit edible, of 
good flavour. Stachyurus Jiimalaicus, Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 288, is a 
small glabrous tree of the Eastern Himalaya from 5,000 to 8,000 feet. 

In Pyrenaria are four evergreen trees : three of which, P. attenuata, Seem. ; 
Hook. FL Ind. i. 290 (P. serrata, Bl. ; Kurz i. 105) of Tavoy; P. diospyricarpa, 
Kurz i. 104, and P. camelliaflora, Kurz i. 105, of the Martaban Hills, are Burmese : 
and one, P. barringtonicefolia, Seem. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 290, of the Garo Hills in 
Assam. Gordonia obtusa, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 291 ; Beddome t. 83. Vern. 
Nagetta, Nilgiris, is a tall grey-barked tree of the Western Ghats, said by Beddome 
to have a yellowish-white, even-grained wood, used for house-building, but liable to 
warp. G. excelsa, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 291, is a tree of the Bhutan Himalaya, 

Pores small, uniformly distributed between the fine or very fine 
medullary rays. The species of Eurya have a few broader rays alternat- 
ing with the fine rays. 

1. EURYA, Thunb. 

A genus of evergreen shrubs or small trees, of the Eastern Himalaya, Assam, 
Southern India, and Burma. E. japonica, Thunb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 284 ; Beddome 
t. 92 ; Brandis 24 ; Kurz i. 101 ; Gamble 7. Vern. Baunra, gonta, deura, Hind. ; 
Jhingni, Nep.; Tungchong, Lepcha; Hoolooni, Nilgiris ; Toungletpet, Burm., is found 
in the Himalaya from the Jumna eastwards, above 3,000 feet in altitude, in the Western 
Ghats and in Burma. It grows quickly and often gregariously in the Sikkim hills, 
and coppices well. E. trichocarpa, Korth. is a small tree of Bhutan and the Khasia 
Hills. 

1. E. symplocina, BL; Hook. Fl.Ind. i. 284; Kurz i. 102; Gamble 
7. Veru. Barajkinynij kisi, Nep.; Flolungcliong, Lepcha. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark brown, thin. Wood reddish-white, soft, 
close-grained. Annual rings marked by more numerous pores in the 
spring wood. Pores very small. Medullary rays very fine and moder- 
ately broad, the latter short, prominent. 

Hills of the North-Eastern Himalaya, from 5,000 to 7,000 feet, Burma. 
Weight, 38 Ibs. per cubic foot. Used only for firewood. 

11*. 

1, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet ..... 



2. E, acmninata, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 285 ; Kurz i. 101 ; Gamble 
7. Vern. Sanuj/iiui/ni, Nep.; Flotungchong, Lepcha. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark brown, thin, smooth. Wood diUcrs 
from that of I'], sywplorlna in having the larger medullary rays less 
broad and less prominent. 

Hills of the North- Kastrrn Ilimahiya, Assam and Martalum, from ">,<><><) to 
8,000 IV.-1. 



Sauranja. ] TERNSTROMIACE^:. 29 

Weight, according to Kyd 32 Ibs.; our specimen, however, weighed 47 Ibs. 

Kyd's experiments on a'bar 2' X 1" X 1" gave P = 337, for wood from Goalpara. 

ll.s. 

E 2320. Rangbul, Darjeeling, 7,500 ft 47 

2. SAURAUJA, Willd, 

A genus of trees or shrubs with handsome, parallel-veined, generally scaly and 
rusty-tomentose leaves, and pink or white ilowers. Of the eight Indian species live are 
round in Burma, and six in the Eastern Himalaya. .Besides the species here described, 
S. Griffith*, Dyer; Hook. Fl.llnd. i. 280 ; Gamble 8. Vern. Goyen, Xep. ; Hlosipha, 
Lepcha, is an extremely handsome small tree with large leaves bright green above and 

II II __ 1 __i.l_ J * Oi;i_l ' 1 4 C< /..././. 1Tr_ll 




Rata gogen, Nep ; Sipha, Lepcha, from Sikkim, Assam and Burma, are small trees 
or shrubs; 8. Roxbu ;//////, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 287 ; Kurz i. 103; Gamble 287 
(Ternstromia serrata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 521). Vern. Dalup, Sylhet ; Ouli gogen, Nep. ; 
Dangsipha, Lepcha, is a small tree of the valleys of Sikkim, the Khasia Hills, and 
Burma ; and S. tristyla, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 287 ; Kurz i. 104 ; (Ternstromia 
bilocularis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 522) occurs in Tenasserim. 

1. S. napaulensis, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 286 ; Brandis 25 ; 

Gamble 8. Vein. Gogina,goganda> Hind.; Gogen, Nep.; Kasur, Lepcha. 

A small tree. Bark reddish-brown, thin. Wood light pink, very 

soft, spongy ; shrinks much. Pores small. Medullary rays fine and 

moderately broad, prominent on a radial section. 

Outer Himalaya from the Jumna to Bhutan above 3,000 feet, Khasia Hills. 
Weight, 25 Ibs. per cubic foot. Leaves lopped for cattle fodder. 

Ibs. 
E 2321. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet 25 

3. SCHIMA, Reinw. 

Six species. 8. crenata, Korth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 289; Kurz i. 107. (Gordonia 
oblata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 572. G.floribunda, Wall.) is an evergreen tree of Burma. 
>S'. klmsiana, Dyer ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 289, is a white-barked tree of the Khasia Hills. 
S. monticula, Kurz i. 107, is a tree of the summits of the Nattoung Range in 
Martaban, at 6,000 to 7,200 feet ; and 8. bancana, Miq. ; Kurz i. 108, is a tree of the 
Eng forests of Martaban and Tenasserim. 

1. S. Wallichii, Choisy; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 289; Gamble 8. 
Gordonia integrifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 572. Vern. Ckilauni, goechassi, 
Nep.; Makusal, Hind. ; Sumbrong, Lepcha; Gugera, Goalpara; Makriah 
chilauni, makusal, Ass. ; Dingan, Khasia ; Boldak, Garo ; Jam, 
Cachar. 

A large evergreen tree. Bark black or dark grey with deep vertical 
cracks. Wood rough, red, moderately hard, shrinks much in seasoning, 
but is durable. Pores moderate-sized and small, round, extremely 
numerous and uniformly distributed. Medullary rays very fine, uniform, 
equidistant, very numerous : on a radial section visible as narrow, darker 
coloured plates. 

Northern and Eastern Bengal, and Chittagong, ascending to 5,000 ft. 
Growth moderately last, our specimens shew 4 to 8 rings per inch of radius. 
The following experiments have been made to determine the weight and transverse 
strength : 

Weight. P = 

Kyd with Goalpara wood in 1831, No. 48, bar 2 ' X 1 " X 1 " . found 43 Ibs. 383 
Brandis with SSikkiin in 18G4, bar G ' X 2 " X 2 " . 45 760 

Smy lliies with our four specimens in 187S . . . . 45 



30 TERNSTROMIACE^). . [ Schima. 

The wood is durable ; E 1449, brought by Griffith from the Mishmi Hills in 1836, 
was perfectly sound when cut up in 1878. It is used in Northern Bengal and Assam for 
many purposes, but chiefly for building. Many of the tea factories in Darjeeling have 
been built of it, and the Public Works Department have sometimes used it for bridges. 
Mann states that in Assam it is used for planks and ordinary building purposes and 
for canoes. In 1875 several sleepers were made over to the Northern Bengal State 
Railway for experiment, but the result is not yet known. As large quantities of the 
timber, well grown and straight, are available, it is to be hoped that it may be ere 
long in more extensive demand. 

It seeds profusely every year during the winter ; the fruit is a hard capsule which 
splits open to let full the flat, slightly winged seeds. In thick forests, however, 
seedlings are rarely found, but wherever light is admitted and the soil has been 
slightly stirred, they come up in profusion. 

E 491. Barnunpokri Forest, Darjeeling 43 

E 646. Khooklono^ Forest, Darjeeling Terai 44 

E 636. Eastern Duars, Assam . . . . . ' . . .42 

E 1449. Mishmi Hills (Griffith, 1836) 50 

2. S. Noronhse, Rwdt. ; Kurz i. 107. Vern. Panma, tJiitya y Burm. 

An evergreen tree. Bark brown, irregularly cracked. Wood reddish- 
brown, moderately hard, close-grained. Pores small, in short radial lines 
between the very fine and closely-packed medullary rays. There is some 
doubt about the identification of this number. 

Tenasserim and Martaban Hills. Weight 45 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

UN. 
B 299. Burma (1867) 45 



4. CAMELLIA, Linn. 

Four species. C. caudata, Wall; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 293; Kurz i. 108, is an 
evergreen shrub of the forests of the Martaban Hills at 3,000 to 4,000 feet. C. 
lutescens, Dyer ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 293, is a shrub of the Mishmi Hills, 

1. C. drupifera, Lour.; Hock. Fl. Ind. i. 293; Kurz i. 109; Gamble 
9. C. Rissi, Wall. Vern. Kissi, hingua, Nep. ; Chashing, Bhutia, 
Lepcha. 

A large evergreen shrub. Bark thin, greyish -white. Wood grey, 
soft, even-grained. Pores very small, uniformly distributed between 
the very fine, very numerous medullary rays. 

Eastern Himalaya, Assam and Khasia Hills, ascending to 8,000 feet, Tenasserim, 
and Andaman Islands. 

E 3111. Kalimpiing, Darjeeling, 4,500 feet. 

2. C. Thea, Link.; Brandis 25; Kurz i. 109; Gamble 9, the 
China Tea Plant. C. theifera, Griff. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 292, the Assam 
Tea Plant. Vern. Cha. 

A shrub with thin grey bark. Wood grey, soft. Pores numerous, 
very small, uniformly distributed between the numerous line medullary 
rays. 

Cultivated in many districts in India, especially in Kangra, Kulu, Dclira Dun, 
Kninaun, J)arjeeling, the Western Dilavs. Assam, Cadiar, ChittagODg and lla/,aribagh 
ill Northern India, as well as in the Nilgiri Hills and Ceylon. 

Weight, 56 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

MM. 

3142. Dehra Dun . 60 



Lipterocarpus. ] DIPTEROCARPE^. 31 



ORDER XVI. DIPTEROCARPE^I. 

An order of groat forest importance, containing large resinous trees and a few 
climbing sbrubs, belonging to seven genera, viz., Dipterocarpu* t A ii<-i*lr<><-ladus, 
Aiilaofiti-ni,. I'xlicct, ti/wrca, ILo^ca and I'alvi'ia. Uou/ia and Monoporandra are 
found in Ceylon. 

Of A >i<-ixfrnrladus t a genus of climbing shrubs, two species are found in India: 
A. WttllirliiL I'lan.-h ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 300; Km-/. i. Ill, in Chitlagong, Burma and 
UK- Andaiiians; and A. G' //////////, PlaiK-li ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i :i< >o ; Kur/i. 110. Vern. 
riilicit-inrny. Hurin., in swamp forests in Pegu, JMartabsui and Tenasserim. Anisoptera 
ylafn'it, Kur/ i. 112. Vern. T//i>t(/a</i>, Uunn., is a large evergreen Burmese tree. 

The camphor of commerce is obtained from Dryobalanops Camphora, a, tree of 
Sumatra. The camphor is often found in the stem in a solid state y but is also procured 
liquid by incision. 

The Dipterocarpeae here described have a uniform structure. The 
pores are round, often in groups, small to large, but generally moderate- 
sized, enclosed in a narrow white ring. The medullary rays are fine and 
moderately broad, generally equidistant. The heartwood is generally 
distinct, dark coloured, heavy (from 40 to 70 Ibs.) and resinous, exuding 
wood oils or dammer, which are found, not in separate resinous ducts, but 
in the pores (vessels) of the wood. The wood of most species is hard, 
strong and durable, that of several species of DipterocarpM is softer and 
perishable. 

1. DIPTEROCARPUS, Gaertn. f. 

Twelve species, all lofty trees, of Eastern Bengal, South India and Burma. These 
species are : 

1. D. turlinatus, Gaertn. f Eastern Bengal, Burma and 

Andamans. 

2. D. Icevis, Ham. ...... Burma. 

3. D. vestitus, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 295. . Tavoy. 

4. D. obtusifolins, Teysm. .... Hills of Prome and Martaban. 

5. Z>. pilosits, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 615 ; Hook. Fl. Arracan, hills of Martaban 

Ind. i. 296; Kurz i. 115. Vern. Hollong, and Tenasserim. 

Ass. 

" Rarely used for canoes, does for planks. " Mann. 

6. (D. Hasselfii, Bl. ; Kurz i. 114) . . . Tenasserim and Andamans. 

7. D. tuber culatus, Roxb. .... Chittagong and Burma. 

8. D. scaber, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 297. . Eastern Bengal. 

9. D. alatus, Roxb Chittagong, Burma and 

Andamans. 

10. D, incanus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 614; Hook Chittagong. 

Fl. Ind. i. 298. 

11. D. GriJJitkii, Miq. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 299; Tenasserim and Andamans. 

Kurz i. 116. 

12. (D. costatus, Gaertn. ; Kurz i. 117. Under Hills of Chittagong, Marta- 

D. alatus in Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 298.) ban and Tenasserim. 

This list is chiefly taken from ^Dyer's description in the " Flora Indica," and Kurz' 
"Burma Flora," but there is considerable difference in the synornymy given in Kurz, the 
" Flora Indica" and Alphonse de Candolle's Monograph in the "Prodromus," Vol. xvi. 
Kurz' species are given in brackets. 

The species of Dipterocarpm have a reddish, soft or moderately hard 
heartwood, generally rough. Pores visible on a vertical section, moderate- 
sized to large. Medullary rays often of two sizes, fine and moderately broad. 

1. D. turbinatus, Gaertn. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 295 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 612; Kurz i. 114. The Gurjun-Oil Tree. Vern. Gurjun, tiliyagurjun, 
Beug. ; Kanyoung, Magh; Kanyin-nee, kanyin-wettoung, Burm. 



32 DIPTEROCARPEJE. [ Dipterocarpus. 

A lofty evergreen tree. Wood rough, moderately hard ; heartwood 
reddish grey. Pores round, large and moderate-sized, joined by short 
concentric bands of soft tissue. Medullary rays prominent, broad and 
very fine, a large number of the latter intervening between a pair of the 
former; very prominent and shining on a radial section. 

Eastern Bengal, Chittagong, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 
Skinner, No. 64, gives the weight at 45 Ibs. and P = 762 ; Kurz gives 55 Ibs. for the 
weight, while our specimens average 50 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is used for house- 
building and for canoes in Burma ; and the wood-oil is used in painting houses and 
ships. 

Ibs. 

E 709. Chittagong 49 

B 293. Burma (1867) 43 

B 2216. Andaman Islands (Major Ford, 1866) 52 

B 2555. Burma (1862) 56 

2. D. laevis, Ham. ; Kurz i. 114. D.turlinatus, Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
295 (in part). Vern. Kanyin, kany in-nee, Burra. 

A lofty tree. Sapwood white ; heartwood rough, reddish, s.->ft. Pores 
moderate-sized, numerous. Medullary rays red, fine, moderately broad 
and broad, visible on a radial section as long bands, the distance between 
two broader rays equal to two to four times the transverse diameter of the 
pores. 

Tropical forests throughout Burma. 

Weight : our specimens give an average of 46 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is 
rarely used, but is occasionally employed for planking and rafters. It yields copiously 
a resin and a wood-oil used for painting. 

Ibs. 

B 292. Burma (1867) 43 

B 2506. (1862) 49 

D. indicus, Beddome t. 94. Vern. Guga, Kan., of the Western Ghats, is referred to 
this or to D. turbinatus by Dyer. 

3. D. obtusifolius, Teysm.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 295; Kurz i. 115. 
Vern. Eanyi*-kok y Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark f inch thick, ash-grey, longitudin- 
ally cracked, rough. Heartwood reddish brown, rough, moderately 
hard. Pores large and moderate-sized. Medullary rays fine and very 
fine, numerous. 

Eng forests of Prome and Martaban, ascending to 3,000 feet. 
Weight, 59 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 
B 3128. Kya-eng, Attaran Valley, Burma 59 

4. D. tuberculatus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 614; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 297; 
Kurz i. 113. D. grandijiorus y Wall. The Eng Tree. Vern. Eng, Burm.; 
Sooahn, Talcing. 

A large deciduous gregarious tree, with dark grey bark, forming the 
"Eng forests" of Burma. Wood red, hard. Pores circular, large and 
moderate-sized, often filled with resin. 1 Medullary rays promim-nt, 
moderately broad, with a number of fine rays between each pair of broad 
ones; distance between broader rays as much as twice transverse dia- 
meter of pores. 

ChiU:i#nitf and Burma. 

Weight! Uramlis in JJiinna List of 1S(52. No. 1'J, -ivrs 5 5 Ibs. ; Skinner, No IM, 
given 45 and Benson 46 Ibs. ; while the average of our .vpL-ciiiions givi-s 5-1 Ibs. 



Dipterocarpus. ] DIPTEROCARPEJJ. S3 

gives P = 758 ; Skinner 750. The timber is very largely used in Burma for building, 
canoes, and house posts. It gives no wood-oil, but a clear yellow resin. 

B 2505. Burma (18G2) 50 

B 306. (1867) 52 

B 2 ISO. 59 

5. D. alatus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 014; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 293; Kurz 
i. 116. Vern. Gurjun, Beng.; Kanyin, kanyin-pyoo, Burm. 

A very large tree with grey bark. Sapwood white ; hearfcwood reddish 
grey, moderately hard, smooth, mottled. Pores scanty, lar^e, often oval 
and subdivided. Medullary rays undulating, short, fine and moderately 
broad, not prominent. Pores prominent on a longitudinal section. 

Chittagong, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

Weight: Brandis in Burma List, 1862, No. 11, gives 38 Ibs. ; our specimen gives 
50 Ibs. ; Bennett, No. 9, Andaman woods, (Kanyin), gives Weight 49 tbs., P = 727. The 
wood is used for house-building and canoes, but is not durable. 

U)8. 

B 818. Burma 50 

B 2243. Andarnans (1866) (rather eaten) 38 

6. D. zeylanicus, Thwaites Enum. 33; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 297; 
Beddome xxv. Vern. Hora, Cingh. 

Heartwood red, moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized to very large. 
Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, frequently bending. 
Ceylon, up to 3,000 feet. 

Weight, 45 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used for building. It gives a wood-oil and 
gum resin. 

Ibs. 
No. 37. Ceylon collection 45 



E 720 is a wood sent from Chittagong under the name Michamma. In structure 
it resembles Dipterocarpus, and differs chiefly by the very numerous, very fine, equi- 
distant medullary rays. The pores are joined by white, wavy concentric lines. The 
wood is interrupted by concentric belts of fibrous substance resembling liber, about % 
inch thick. 

E 1257. (43 Ibs.) from Tezpur, Assam, has the structure of Dipterocarpus. 

E 1960. (37 Ibs.) Vern. Lowa, Beng. ; Chakyai, Magh, from Chittagong, is 
probably a species of Dipterocarpus : it is distinguished by numerous broad and fine 
medullary rays, and moderate-sized, often subdivided pores. 

2. VATICA, Linn. 

Six species. V. grandiflora, Dyer ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 301 (Anisoptcra odorata, 
Kurz i. 112. Hopea grandiflora, Wall.) is a deciduous tree of Martaban and 
Tenasserim, where also are found V. faginea, Dyer ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 301, and 
V. Helferi, Dyer; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 301 (Shorea Heifer i, Kurz i. 119). V. scaphnla, 
Dyer; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 301 (Hopea scapkula, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 611 ; Kurz i. 121). 
Vern. Boilshura, Beng., is a tree of Chittagong, especially on Mascal island, whose 
trunk is used for making canoes. V. Roxburghiana, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 302 ; 
Beddome ^t. 95. Vern. Mendora, Ciugh., is a large tree of the Western Coast and 
Ceylon, yielding a gum resin. 

1. V. lancesefolia, BL; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 302; Kurz i. 122; Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 60 1. Veru. Morkal, Ass.; Moal, Sylhet; Pantliitya, Burm. 

A large tree. Heartwood red, rough, hard. Pores small, numerous, 
uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine, not distinct. 

Eastern Himalaya, Assam, Eastern Bengal, Chittagong and Burma. 

If this is Skinner's No. 131 ( Valeria laneccefolia, Vern. Let-touk, Burai.) the weight 
is 58 Ibs. and P = 931 ; Wallich gives 54 Ibs. ; our specimens 35 to 52 Ibs. per cubic foot. 



34 DIPTEROCARPEJE. [Shorea. 

The wood is not very good. The tree gives a resin called yhund, used in temples. 

B 2508. Burma (1862) 35' 

B 2282. Andamans (1866) 52 

We identify this last by the structure, though the tree is not given from the 
Andanians. 

3. SHOREA, Roxb. 

Nine species. S.Jtoribvnda, Kurz. i. 119; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 304, is a deciduous 
tree of Tavoy. S. assamica, Dyer; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 307, is a tree of Upper Assnra 
discovered by Or. Mann on the banks of the Dehing river. S. gratissima, Dyer; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 307 (Hopea gratissima, Wall. ; Kurz i. 121), is found in Tenasserim. 

Wood generally cross-grained. Heart wood brown, hard or very 
hard. Pores moderate-sized to large, generally filled with resin, in 
patches of lighter coloured tissue. Medullary rays fine, broad, equidistant. 

1. S. stellata, Dyer ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 304. Parashorea stellata, 
Kurz i. 117. Vern. Koungmhoo, Burm. 

A very large evergreen tree. Bark J inch thick, dark brown, 
longitudinally fissured. Wood white, hard, rough. Pores round, 
moderate-sized to large, uniformly distributed, often filled with a white 
substance; each pore enclosed in a narrow white ring. Medullary 
rays moderately broad ; the distance between two rays generally equal to 
the transverse diameter of the pores. 
Burma. 
Weight, 47 to 50 Ibs. The wood is a used for canoes and in boat-building. 

Ibs. 

B 1944. Tavoy, Burma . . .47 

B 2481. Tenasserim 50 

2. S. Talura, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 618; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 304. 
S. laccifera, Heyne ; Beddome t. 6. Vatica laccifera, W. and A. Vern. 
Talura , talari. Tarn. ; Jaldri, Tel. ; Jalaranda, Kan. 

A large tree. Bark grey, with longitudinal fissures. Wood grey, 
very to extremely hard, smooth, with small dark-coloured irregularly- 
shaped heartwood. Pores small and moderate-sized, often in groups 
enclosed in patches of white tissue, which are frequently elongated and 
wavy, forming interrupted concentric bands. No distinct annual rings, 
but alternating belts, with numerous and with few pores. Medullary 
rays fine, very numerous, frequently white, bending. 
Mysore and the eastern districts of Madras. 

Weight: Puckle gives 43 Ibs. per cubic foot; our specimens give 65 to 70 Ibs. 
Puckle finds P = 896. The wood is much used for house-building, and is largely sent 
down to Madras for that purpose. 

Ibs. 

D 1056. South Arcot 70 

D 1092. Madura 65 

D 1092 has a smooth, yellow, even-grained wood, while D 1056 is grey with a dark 
brownish-red heartwood, but the structure of the two is identical. 

3. S. robusta, Gaertn.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 615; Beddome t. 4; 
B nmdis 26; Kurz i. 119; Gamble 9. The Sal Tree. Vern. Sal, sala, 
salwa, sdkhu, sakhcr, Hind. ; Sakiva, Ncp. ; Teturl, Lepcha ; Boh,it, (iaro ; 
Salwa, aoringhi, Uriya ; Koro/t, Oudh ; Sard, riajal, C. P.; Giitjal, r lYl. 

A large "Tcgarious tree, never quite lea Hess. Bark of young trees 
smooth with a lew long, deep, vertical cracks ; oi' old trees 1 to 2 inches 
thick, dark coloured, rough, with deep longitudinal furrows. Sapwood 



Skorea. ] 



DTPTBROCARFEJE. 



35 



.small, whitish, not durable. Heartwood brown, finely streaked with 
dark lines, coarse-grained, hard, with it remarkably fibrous and cross- 
Drained structure; the fibres of suecessive concentric strata in the wood 
do not run parallel but at oblique angles to each other, so that when 
the wood is dressed the fibres appear interlaced; does not season well. 
Annual rings visible. Pores moderate-sized to large, often filled with 
resin ; each pore or group of pores in a patch of whitish tissue. Medullary 
rays uniform, moderately broad, straight, very prominent, joined by 
short white transverse lines, clearly visible on a radial section as 
numerous interrupted bands; the distance between the medullary rays 
equal to the transverse diameter of the pores. 

North-east moist and intermediate zones : Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Bias to 
Assam, eastern part of Central India, from the Ganges to the Godaveri, extending 
westward to the longitude of Mandla, with an outlying patch on and around the sand- 
stone hills of the Pachmsrhi Range. 

The wood of the sal tree has concentric rings, which we at present assume to 
correspond to one year's growth. There are a few cases on record in which the wood of 
young trees (up to 15 years) has been found to have a number of rings corresponding 
to the age of the tree. But sufficient proof to support the assumption has not yet been 
collected. Assuming, however, that the concentric rings are annual, the following 
information is available regarding the rate of growth of sal. 

In 1873 Mr. Fisher examined 40 sal trees in the Pantan Reserve, Kamrup district, 
Assam: 5 tret's of 6 feet in girth had, on an average, 10 rings per inch of radius; 
20 trees of 4 feet 6 inches girth had an average of 97 rings per inch ; and 15 trees of 
3 feet girth had 11 rings per inch. The rings were counted on lengths of radius, from 
the centre, of 2'86, 573, 8'6 and 1T5 inches respectively, corresponding to a girth of 
wood only of 18, 36, 54 and 72 inches. 

In 1874 he examined 32 trees in the Balipara Reserve, Darrang district, Assam: 
10 trees of 1 foot 6 inches girth gave an average of 38 rings, or 13 rings per inch 
of radius; 10 trees of 3 feet girth gave 61 rings, or 10'6 rings per inch of radius; 
10 trees of 4 feet 6 inches girth gave 92 rings, or 107 rings per inch ; 1 tree of 
5 feet 7 inches girth gave 110 rings, or 10'3 rings per inch ; and 1 tree of 6 feet 
girth gave 122 rings, or 10'6 rings per inch of radius. 

In 1875 he examined 20 trees in the Sidli forests, Goalpara district, 
Assam : 3 trees of 4 feet 6 inches girth gave an average of 89 rings, or 10'3 rings 
per inch radius ; and 17 trees of 3 feet girth gave 50 rings, or 8'8 rings per inch radius. 
The rings were counted in the same manner as in 1873. 

In 1876 he examined 11 trees in the same forests : 4 trees of 4 feet 6 inches girth 
gave 76 rings, or 8'8 rings per inch of radius ; 7 trees of 3 feet girth gave 51 rings, 
or 8'8 rings per inch. 

In 1877 he examined 17 trees in the same forests : 1 tree 6 feet in girth gave 103 
rings or 9 rings per inch of radius ; 1 tree 4 feet 6 inches in girth gave 96 rings, or 11 
rings per inch of radius; 13 trees of 3 feet in girth gave 51'5 rings, or 8'9 rings per 
inch of radius ; and 2 trees of 1 foot 6 inches girth gave 26 rings or 9'1 rings per inch. 

The rings were counted in the same manner in each case. The result of the detailed 
counting of the rings was ns follows : 



LOCALITY. 


'o 

si 


Rings counted on a length of 
radius from centre, eon 
ing to a girth (wood only) of 


18" 


36" 


51" 


72" 


Pantan (on the hill) 
,, (in the plains; 
Balipara 
Sidli, 1S75 . 

;; is?? : : 


22 
IS 
32 
20 
11 
17 


30 
88 
2G 


66 

61 
52 

61 


8'.' 
89 

83 


115 

i-.-i 

110 

"90 

112 


120 


30 


66 



36 DTTEEOCAUPE^. [ Shored. 

On an average the number of rings per inch of radius is 10, and it will be noticed 
that the annual increments are exceedingly uniform. A tree grows : 

np to 18 inches girth (wood only) in 30 years. 
from 18 to 36 in 26 

36 to 54 in 27 

54 to 72 in 29 

In the Oudh forests a different result has been obtained. When the first proposals 
were made in 1863 to regulate the working of the forests of the Kheri division, the 
following was assumed as the mean rate of growth : 

Girth 18 inches, age 15 years. 
64 50 
72 80 

Subsequent data seeming to indicate a somewhat slower rate, it was estimated in 
1868, in order to settle the number of trees to be cut over in 1868 and 1869, that a 
girth of 54 inches would be attained in 65 years, and a girth of 72 inches in 95 
years. 

In September 1869, Mr. Forrest examined 50 logs cut in the Newal Khar sub- 
division of the Kheri forests ; these logs had a mean girth of 5 feet 3 inches and gave 
on an average 4'79 rings per inch of radius. Again in 1877 a sal tree about 16 or 17 
years old was examined by Captain Wood, and at 1 foot from the base, where the girth 
was 1 foot 10 inches, it was found that an inch of radius contained 4'80 rings. 
Thus, supposing we take 5 rings to the inch as indicating the average rate of growth, 
the trees examined in Oudh would have attained a girth of 6 feet in 57 years, which, 
it will be seen, is about one-half the time which the trees examined by Mr. Fisher in 
the Duars required to attain the same size. 

In the Central Provinces the counting of rings has given a mean between Bengal 
and Oudh. In 1867, Captain Douglas examined 13 stumps in the Bijeragogarh 
forests ; their mean girth at 17 inches from the ground was 5 feet 3 inches, and the 
average number of rings per inch of radius was 6'5. In 1874 Mr. Fernandez examined 
a single stump in the same forests, and 7*2 rings were counted per inch of radius. 
The mean of the results of these countings is 6'85 rings per inch, which would place 
the age of a tree 6 feet in girth at 78 years. Subsequent observations in the Ban jar 
Valley forest, Mandla district, give a mean of 5 to 8 rings per inch and tend to 
confirm this rate of growth. 

The following cultivated trees of known age were measured by Mr. Brandis 
in 1863 ; 

Saharanpur, and Eastern Jumna Canal 13 years, girth 27 inches (average of 33 trees). 
> j> > "0 ,, ,, o4?5 
35 79| 
Calcutta 25 ,,69 ' (one tree). 

The weight of a cubic foot of seasoned wood is generally found to vary between 
50and601bs. The average of the experiments recorded below is 59 Ibs., but while 
Baker's experiments (85) give an average- of 61'61bs., Brandis' experiments (114) give 
(,111V 5'J-O Ibs. as the averse. The average of the 13 specimens weighed in 1878, 
Omitting the hist, is 59 Ibs., but this includes unseasoned or only partially seasoned wood ; 
the average wight, of the (ijirliwal (() 204) and Mandla (C 17 8) specimens, whieh wcro 
thoroughly seasoned, ia 6J Ihs. CliHord gives f>5lhs. as the weight of s;il \vhen jiert'eetly 
dry ; 54 to 55 IUB. may therefore be considered as the average weight of seasoiud sal. 

The transverse strength has been tested hy numerous experiments. The value of 
P as determined by Brandis Baker and others, ranges from (5-1S to W.I the mean 
value being 790. The- following abstract shews the roults of all the best experiments 
on this timber. 



S/torea. ] 



DIPTEKOCARPE.E. 



37 



Experiment by whom 

conducted. 


Year. 


Wood whence procured. 


o'l 


Size of bar. 


H 


o 








*, 







a 










Ft. Ins. Ins. 






Bnndta 


1864 


Bengal (Morung) 


28 


C x 2 x 2 


57 


806 








8 


6 2 It 


56 


847 


" 






20 


211 


50 


7ir, 




1865-66 




11 


311 


56 


91G 








14 


2 1 f 


49 


602 






,, (Durblmnga). 


13 


622 


51 


708 


, 






12 


6 2 1J 


54 


791 


" 






8 


3 1 1 


56 


884 




1829 


(Morung) 


31 


722 


59 


778 








64 


622 


64 


792 








24 


3 1 It 




803 








6 


722 




829 






Bengal .... 


9 


722 


61 


717 








3 


3 It 1 




858 








18 


211 




823 






Gorakhpur 


10 


622 


62 


816 






Pilibhit .... 


6 


722 


62 


692 


Campbell . 


1831 


Morung (seasoned) . 


4 


622 


55 


870 





M 


(unseasoned) 


4 


622 


66 


862 


,, 


M 


Gorakhpur 


1 


622 


65 


884 


Skinner, No. 132 . 


1862 


Northern India 






55 


880 


Kyd .... 


1831 


Morung . 


1 


211 


54 


820 


Cunningham .... 


1854 


Gwalior . 


3 


2 1 1 


65 


1,097 


AVallich .... 




India and Nepal 


3 





47 




Smythies 


1878 


Many localities (Sec list) 


13 




59 


... 



The following is a summary of Mr. Clifford's remarks about sal in his Memoran- 
dum on the Timber of Bengal : 

The inherent qualities of sal render it a very difficult wood to season ; it warps 
and splits in drying, and even when thoroughly seasoned, it absorbs moisture with 
avidity in wet weather, increasing l-24th in bulk, and correspondingly in weight. 
1 hiving the process of seasoning it dries with great rapidity on the surface, while 
beneath it remains as wet as when first cut, and evaporation goes on afterwards with 
extreme slowness. The effect of this peculiarity is to cover the surface all over with 
superficial fiaws from unequal shrinkage. With proper precautions, however, it can 
be made to dry slowly, and under these circumstances it has been found by numerous 
experiments that the ratio of drying is f of an inch annually all round the piece of 
wood. Sal, when once thoroughly seasoned, stands almost without a rival, as a 
timber, for strength, elasticity and durability, which qualities it retains without being 
sensibly alleeled, for an immense length of time. 

Numerous varieties of sal timber are supposed to exist. Mr. Clifford, in the 
pamphlet above quoted, saj's : " There are two descriptions of sal brought to Calcutta ; 
they are known as ' Morung ' and ' Durbhunga;' one from tlie forests to the east of 
the Coosi, the other from the forests to the west. The Morung sal is the best ; it is 



38 DIPTEROCARPE^l. [ Shorea. 

very straight-grained, clean and free from knots; it seasons more kindly, and is 
stronger than the Durbhungah sal ; only a practised eye can distinguish one sal from 
the other." Many of these supposed varieties, however, exist in imagination 
only, e.g., the two Buxa pieces E 3137 and E 3138, the Nepalese sawyers say that one 
is a softer and redder wood than the other, but we can distinguish no such difference 
between them. 

Sal is the timber which in Northern India is the most extensively used. It is in 
constant request for piles, beams, planking and railing of bridges ; for beams, door 
and window-posts of houses ; for gun-carriages ; the body of carts (not the wheels, for 
which it is unsuited and for which sissu or even saj is better) ; and above all, for 
railway sleepers, the yearly consumption of which reaches some lakhs of cubic feet. 
It is used in the hills of Northern Bengal, where it is found, perhaps, of the largest size 
now available, for making canoes. Owing to its not being floatable, difficulty is 
experienced in most sal forests in getting the timber out of the forests in log. The 
difficulty is, however, partially overcome by floating the logs either with the assistance 
of boats or with floats of bamboos or light woods, such as semul (Bombax 
malabaricum). 

When tapped, the tree exudes large quantities of a whitish, aromatic, transparent 
resin (Idl d/iuna). which is collected and sold. It is used to caulk boats and ships and 
as incense. " In some places in the Upper Tista forests, large pieces, often 30 to 40 
cubic inches in size, are found in the ground at the foot of the trees." Gamble. Large 
extents of forest, chiefly in Central India, such as Chota Nagpore, the Central Provinces 
and the country between the Mahauadi and Godavari, are often ruined by this practice 
of tapping the trees to obtain the resin. The seed is eaten by the Sonthals, especially 
in time of scarcity, it is roasted and is usually eaten mixed with the flowers of the 
Mohwa (Bassia latifolia). 

Scarcely any tree of the Indian forests has such a power of natural reproduction as 
sal. The seed ripens at the commencement of the rains ; and often germinating even 
while yet on the tree, the heavy seed is scattered around and at once produces a crop 
of seedlings. Without light, however, these seedlings soon die off, so that cuttings in 
sal forest where fire protection is assured, might be heavy. But, usually, scarcely 
have the seedlings reached one year in age when they are destroyed by jungle fires, 
but so great is the vitality of the plant, that the roots of the stems destroyed again at 
once put out fresh shoots, and this happens often year after year, so that at the root of the 
tree a large hard ball of wood and bark is formed. With fire-protection, however, the 
regeneration of sal forests is almost a certainty ; the seedlings in a few years kill 
down the grass and plants of slower growth which surround them, and form forests, 
often of very considerable extent, almost to the exclusion of other species of tree. 
The sal tree coppices, especially when young, but not under all circumstances. 








204. 
2990. 
873. 

388 


Garhwal (1868) . 
(1874) . . . 
Kamgauga Valley, Kumaun, 1 
Oudh . . . . 


,800ft..' 


Ibs. 
. 53 
. 59 
. 69 
60 


o 


1215. 






. 59 




i 

o 


2980. 
' 1210. 
1211. 
1213. 
1214 


(section of fire-damaged 
(sapling sections) 
(sections of shoot) 


tree) .... 








M-mdla C P (1871) . 




49 


p 


1235 






. 64 


E 




Sukna Hills Darjeeling, 1,500 


ft 


. 58 


E 


703.' 


Tista Vallt'V , 




. 64 


E 
E 
E 
E 
E 


\\Y.\7. 

sisa 

636. 

1440. 


Dai-jcelin'.; Terai . . 
Jjuxa Ueserve, Western Diiars 

Eastern Duars, A - .mi 
Mishmi Hills (Griffith, 1836) 


..... 


. 54 

. 02 

. c.l 

. 53 
. 47 



(The identification of ihis last sj.relmen is dnnUful ; the poivs are not filled with 
and the medullary rays are finer and mure numerous than in sal.) 



Shorea. ] DIPTEROCARPE^E. 39 

4. S. obtusa, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 306; Kurz i. 118. Vein. 
Thitya } Burin. 

A large tree. Bark inch thick, grey, with doep longitudinal 
fissures. Heartwood the colour of sal, very hard and durable. Pores 
moderate to large, often filled with ri'sin ; each pore surrounded by a 
narrow white ring. Medullary rays moderately broad to broad, numerous, 
joined by short irregular transverse bars or lines of lighter coloured 
tissue. The wood of this tree is more even-grained than that of either 
sal or engij'ni. 

Eng forests of Burma. 

Weight : according to Skinner, No. 115, 58 Ibs. ; Brandis' Burma List of 1862, 
No. 17, gives 57 Ibs. ; our specimens vary from 52 to 67 Ibs., avenging GOlbs. Skinner 
gives P = 730. The wood is much valued on account of its durability ; it is used for 
canoes and in building, and is valuable for tool-handles and planes. 

Ibs. 

B 555. Prome, Burma 64 

B 556. 67 

B 2973. 52 

B 283. Burma (1867) 56 

5. S. Tumbuggaia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 617; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 306 ; 
Beddome xxvi, t. 5. Vatica Tumbuggaia y W. and A. Vern. Cangii, congo, 
tamliugaij tambayum, Tarn. ; Thamba, googgilapu-karra,) Tel. ; Vanboga, 
Mai. 

A large tree. Wood smooth, harder than that of sal, but similar in 
structure. Medullary rays shorter and somewhat unequal. Concentric 
lines more numerous and more distinctly marked. 

Intermediate and south dry zones. Cuddapah and North Arcot Districts. 
"Weight: Baker gives 68 Ibs. ; Skinner, No. 133, 58; while our specimens give 67 Ibs. 
Baker gives P varying from 902 to 996; Skinner 980. This is also, probably, 
Skinner's No. 137 ' Congoe' ; weight 64 Ibs., P = 892. The wood is used for house- 
building, particularly for door frames and posts and for rafters. It gives a danmier, 
which is used as a substitute for pitch and for burning in temples. 

Iba. 

D 1062. Cuddapah 66 

D 1078. North Arcot 68 

6. S. siamensis, Miq. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 304. Pentacme siam- 

ensis, Kurz i. 119. Vern. Engyin, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark 4 inch thick, dark grey, with deep 

vertical fissures. Heartwood very bard, very heavy and cross-grained ; 

in this respect similar to sal, which it also resembles in colour. Pores 

moderate-sized, rarely large, sometimes in groups and filled with resin, 

enclosed in narrow white rings and joined by fine, wavy, concentric 

lines. Medullary rays fine, numerous, equidistant. 
Eng forests of Burma. 
Weight : Brandis' Burma List of 1862, No. 16, gives 55 Ibs. ; our specimens 

average 51 Ibs. The wood is much prized on account of its durability, it is used for 

house-building, bows and other purposes. It gives a red resin. 

Ibs. 

B 2507. Burma (1862) 48 

B 3127. Kya-eng, Attaran Valley, Burma 69 

B 2972. Promo/ Burma 46 

4. HOPEA, Roxb. 

Large, glabrous or hoary tomentose, resinous trees. Eight species, of which 5 are 
South Indian and 3 Burmese. 21. loitgifolia, Dyer; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 3U9 (U. 



40 DIPTEROCARPEJE. [ Ilopea. 

fora, Beddome xxvii., in part) is a large tree of Tinnevelly. H. Wiffhtiana, Wall. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 309 ; Beddome t. 96. Vern. Kalbow, kiralboglii, Kan. ; Kong, 
Tinnevelly, is a large tree of the Western Ghats often forming coppice woods and 
yielding a good timber. H. glalra, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 309 (H. Wightiana, 
Beddorne t. 96, in part), is a tree of South India ; and H. racophloea, Dyer (Hopea sp., 
Beddome xxvii) is a tree of the Wynaad with hard, heavy, durable timber. H. ollu)ir/i- 
folia, Dyer ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 309 ; Kurz i. 121, and H. Griffithii, Kurz i. 122 ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 310, are trees of Tenasserim. 

Heartwood yellowish brown, hard, smooth, even-grained ; seasons 
well. 

1. H. odorata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 609; Hook. PL Ind. i. 308; 
Kurz i. 120. H. eglandulosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 611. Vern. Thing an, 
Burm.; Rimda, And. 

A large evergreen tree. Bark \ inch thick, dark, with deep longi- 
tudinal furrows. Wood yellow or yellowish brown, hard, close and even- 
grained. Pores moderate-sized and large, less numerous than in sal. 
Medullary rays short, moderately broad, with a few intermediate fine 
rays, very prominent, joined by numerous white transverse lines. The 
rays are visible on a radial section as long straight bands, giving the 
wood a beautifully mottled appearance. 

Eastern moist zone. Scattered in evergreen forests of British Burma and the 
Andaman Islands. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments : 

Weight, Value of P. 

Baker in 1829, 4 experiments with Tavoy wood 7' x 2" x 2" gave 51 Ibs. 839 

Skinner in 1862, No. 80, ... ... Burma 45 706 

Bennett in 1872, No. 5, Andaman 58 737 

Wallich Martaban , 39 

Brandis in 1862, No. 14, Burma 46 

Bmythies in 1878, 8 and Andaman wood 50 f , 

Very durable, e,ff., the specimens brought by Wallich from Tavoy in 1828, which, 
though now 50 years old, are perfectly sound and good. Boats made of it are said 
to last 20 years. It is the chief timber tree of Southern Tenasserim. It is used for 
house-building and canoes ; also considered good for solid cart wheels. It gives a 
yellow resin, which, according to Major Protheroe, is used by the Andainanese, mixed 
with beeswax and red ochre, to make a wax used to fasten their spear and arrow- 
heads. 



B 282. 
B 285. 
B 546. 
B 2509. 
B 2698. 
B 2714. 
B 2716. 
B 611. 
B 2201. 


Burma (1867) 


. 


, 


Iba. 
44 

.".'!! 53 


Burma (1862) 
Tavoy (Wallich, 


1828) 

H 





43 
52 
49 


Andaman Islands ........ 51 
(Major Ford, 1866) 54 



2. H. parviflora, Beddome t. 7. Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 308. Vern. Kind 
toyhi, lirfjUj Kan.; Iruboyam, Malabar. 

A large tree. Wood brown, hard and close-grained. Pores small and 
moderate-sized, numerous. Medullary rays moderately broad, prominent, 
generally bent where they touch the poros, uniform ami equidistant, 

W.-^li-ni moist /.our. Malubur mul South Kauara, up to 3,500 ft. 
Weight, 02 to 63 Ibs. 



Valeria. ] DIPTEROCARPE.E. 4-1 

The wood is of good quality, 1 hough scarcely known ; it is valued in South Kanara 
for building temples and may be found useful for sleepers. 

W745. South Kanara J 

W759. ; <j 3 

5. VATKRIA, Linn. 

Only one species is indigenous in India, though fourteen are described from 
Ceylon. 

1. V. indica, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 313; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 602. 
V. m-alabarica, Blurne; Beddome t. 84. The Piney Varnish or Indian 
Copal Tree. Vern. Piney maram, dhup maram, vallay ktingiliam, 
kondricam, Tamil; Dupa maram, dhupa, paini, munda dhup, Kan.; 
Dupada, Tel. ; Payani, paini mara, ve/la kondrikam, Mai. ; Hal, Cingh. 

A large evergreen tree, bark whitish. Sapwood white with a tinge 
of red ; heartwood grey, rough, moderately hard, porous. Pores small and 
moderate-sized, often in groups. Medullary rays fine and broad, very 
prominent on all vertical sections, while on a radial section they appear 
as rough plates with white shining fibres between them. The dis- 
tance between the broad rays is generally greater than the transverse 
diameter of the pores. 

Western moist zone. Western Ghats from Kanara to Travancore, ascending to 
4,000ft. 

Weight 41 Ibs. per cubic feet. 

Wood not much in request, occasionally used for canoes, for coffins and the masts 
of native vessels. It gives an excellent varnish resembling copal. 

Iba. 

W 747. South Kanara 41 

W 1187. 41 

6. DOONA, Thwaites. 
A genus of Ceylon trees, 10 species. 

1. D. zeylanica, Thwaites Enum. 34; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 311 ; Bed- 
dome t. 97. Vern. Doon, Cingh. 

A large tree. Bark rough and cracked. Heartwood the colour of 
sal, moderately hard. Pores large, often subdivided. Medullary rays 
fine, uniform and equidistant, the distance between the rays less than 
the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Central Provinces of Ceylon, up to 4,000ft. 

Weight, according to A. Mendis, 29 Ibs. Wood used for housebuilding. The tree 
gives a large quantity of colourless gum resin, which, dissolved in spirits of wine or 
turpentine, makes an excellent varnish. 

Ibs. 

No. 25, Ceylon Collection 29 



ORDER XVII. MALVACEAE. 

An order of which in India about 22 genera are found, mostly herbs or small under- 
shrubs, with ten genera of trees or large shrubs. Few of them are valuable for their 
timber, though the wood of Bombax malabaricum is extensively used for temporary 
constructions and boxes. Many are valuable for their fibres, and particularly Adinso- 
nia and Hibiscus. The Cotton Plant, Gossypium, belongs to this family, only one 
species of the genus, G. Sforksii; Masters, a straggling shrub of the limestone rocks on 
the coast of Siud. being indigenous in India. 



42 MALVACEAE. \_flill8CU8. 

The ten genera belong to two Tribes, viz. : 

Tribe I. Hibisceae . . . Decaschistia, Dicellostyles, Hibiscus 

and Thespesia. 
II. Bombacese . . . Eydia, Adansonia, Bombax, Erioden- 

dron, Cullenia and Durio. 

Decaschistia contains 2 shrubs of Southern India. Dicellostyles jujubifolia* 
Benth. ; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 333 ; Gamble 10. Vern. Kubindt, Nep. ; Dantagldr, Lepcha' 
is a small white-flowered tree of the hills of Sikkim and Bhutan. Adansonia 
digitata, Linn. ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 348; Koxb. PL Ind. iii. 164; Beddome xxix; 
Brandis 30, the Baobab Tree. Vern. GoraJc imli, Hind.; Kalp briksh, Ajmere, 
Delhi ; Paparapulia, Tam., was introduced from tropical Africa and is now cultivated 
here and there, chiefly in South India and Bengal, but occasionally as far north as 
Gurgaon (see ' Indian Forester,' Vol. iv. i. p. 102, for description of a tree at Tilpat, 
measuring 22 feet in girth and rising 50 feet to the first branch). Brandis mentions 
3 trees at Deogarh in the Central Provinces, respectively measuring 16, 22 and 40 feet 
in girth, and there are one or two good-sized trees at Calcutta and Barrack- 
pore. It is being experimentally planted at Calcutta and in the Sundarbans ; as, 
were it capable of easy cultivation, its rapid growth, valuable fibre and fruit would 
make the extension of its growth desirable ; as yet, however, it has not succeeded. 
Eriodendron anfractuosum, DC. ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 350 ; Beddome xxx. (E. orientale, 
Steud. ;^Kurz i. 131. Bombax pentandrum, Koxb. PL Ind, iii. 165) the White 
Cotton Tre9. Vern. Safed simal, senibal, hatian, Jcatan, Hind. ; Shwet simul, Beng ; ; 
Ilavam, Tam. ; Buruga, pur, kadami, Tel. ; Shamieula, Mar. ; Pania, Mai. ; Imbul, 
Cingh., is a tall deciduous soft-wooded tree of India and Burma, often planted. Skinner, 
No. 67, gives its weight as 30 Ibs., and P = 400. Cullenia excels i, Wight; Hook. 
PL Ind. i. 350; Beddome xxx. Vern. Malai-konji, aini-pillao, Tam.; Kattii-bodde, 
Cingh., is a tall white-wooded tree of the Western Ghats and Ceylon, having a 
large globose, spiny fruit. Durio Zibethinus, DC. ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 351 ; Roxb. 
PL Ind. iii. 399 ; Kurz i. 132. Vern. Duyin, Burm. ; Durian, Malay, is the well known 
and much prized fruit tree, yielding the Durian or Civet-Cat fruit. It is wild in 
South Tenasserim, but is cultivated as far north as Moulmein. 

Wood generally soft, a few species with small dark coloured heart- 
wood. Pores moderate-sized to large. Medullary rays fine or mode- 
rately broad. Kydia calycina and Hibiscus syriacus have transverse 
bars across the rays. 

1. HIBISCUS, Medik. 

A genus of herbs, shrubs, climbers or small trees. The 9 Indian woody species 
consist of 2 small trees, 2 shrubs, 1 climber and 5 introduced garden shrubs. 
H. fragrans, Roxb. PL Ind. iii. 195. Vern. Kinurlur, Beng., is a small tree of 
Assam and Cachar. H. macrophyllus, Roxb. ; Kurz i. 126 (H. setosus, Roxb. PL Ind. 
iii. 194) Vern. Kachia udal, kasyapdla Beng. ; Sho, dayban, Magh; Yetwoon, Burm. 
(Weight, 27 to 28 Ibs. per cubic foot, according to Wallich) a small handsome, large-leaved 
tree of Eastern Bengal, Chittagong and Burma, said by Kurz to have a rather heavy 
wood, and to give a good rope-making fibre. H. scandens, Roxb. PL Ind. iii. 200; 
Kurz i. 127 ; Gamble 10, is a large climbing shrub of Eastern Bengal from Sikkim 
to Chittagong; and H. collinus, Roxb. PL Ind. iii. 198. Vern. Kandagang, TeL, 
a large shrub of the Eastern Madras coast. JET. rosa-sinensis, Linn., the Shoe 
Plant. Vern. Juwa, oru, Beng. ; Khoungyan, Burm. with brilliant, large, red 
flowers ; H. tricuspis, Banks ; //. mutabilis, Linn. ; and H. syriacus, Linn. Yern. 
Gurhul, are all shrubs which have been introduced and are now cultivated in gardens. 

1. H. tiliaceus, Linn.; Hook Fl. Ind. i. 343; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 
192; Bfddome xxix ; Kurz. i. 126. Vern. Kola, chelwa, Beng. ; Thengben, 
thim/jan, Burm. ; Beligobil, b''l/.i/><il-f<i, Cin^h. 

Pores very numerous, small :ind moderate-sized, often subdivided, 
rays fine and moderately 1>roud, not very prominent. 

of Indiii, IJurinii ami (Vvlon. 
V, 3o to :*S ll.s. per outicfoot 



T/i,'*j),'xia. ] MALVACEAE. 43 

The wood is not used, except as fuel. If gives a fibre wh'eh 's very extensively 
used in Bengal for rough rop 

E 405. Sundarbans 35' 

No. 7. Ceylon Collection (marked Paritium tiliaceum) . . 38 

2. THESPESIA, Corr. 

Two species. T. Lampas, Dalz. and Gibs.; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 345; Kurz i. 
128; Gamble 10 (Hibiscus Lampas and tetralocularis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 197, 198) 
Vern. Bonkapash, Ass. (Wallich) ; Kondapatii, Tel, is a shrub found in most 
parts of India, whose wood, according to Kyd, weighs 29 Ibs. and P = 407. 

1. T. populnea, Corr.; Hook. PL Ind. i. 345; Beddome t. 63; 
Kurz i. 128. Hibiscus populneus, Willd. ; Roxb. FL Ind. iii. 190. The 
Portia Tree or Tulip Tree. Vern. Parsipu, Hind.; Poresh, parash, 
Beng. ; Paris, purasa, portia, pursa, pursung, puvarasam, Tarn. ; Gan- 
garaya, Tel.; Beudi, Guz., Mar.; Sureya, Cingh. 

A moderate- sized evergreen tree. Sapwood soft; wood pale reddish, 
with small, dark coloured, hard heartwood. Pores moderate-sized, scanty, 
subdivided, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine, uniform, the 
distance between two rays generally equal to the transverse diameter of 
the pores. 

Coast forests of India, Burma and the Andaman Islands. Planted throughout 

India. 

Weight, "Skinner, No. 130, and A. Mendis give 49 Ibs. ; our specimens give 50 Ibs. 

Skium-r gives P = 716, and A. Mendis 708. 

Wood durable : it is used in South India for gun stocks, boats, cart and carriage 

making and for furniture ; in Burma for carts and furniture. It yields a good fibre 

from the bark, and a yellow dye from the capsules. 

Ibs. 

C 1050. Guzerat 50 

E 2488. Calcutta 

B 2470. Andaman Islands (Kurz, 1866) 

No. 51. Salem Collection 53 

No. 28. Salem Collection (marked Eugenia caryophyllafolia) . 48 
No. 80. Ceylon Collection 49 

3. KYDIA, Roxb. 

Besides the species described below, K. glabrescens, Mast. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
348, is a tree of Bhutan and Assam. 

1. K. calycina, Roxb. ; Hook. FL Ind. i. 348 ; Beddome xxviii ; 
Brandis 29; Kurz i. 124; Gamble 10. K. calycina and fraterna, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. iii. 188, 189. Vern. Pola, pula, puli patha, po'dri, Hind.; 
Barranga, bhoti, C. P.; Kubinde, Nep. ; Sedangtaglar , Lepcha ; Mahow, 
Mechi; BoldobaJc, Garo ; Kopasia, Uriya ; Potri y pandiki, peddo,potri t 
pedda kunji, Tel.; Buruk, bosha, Gondi; Bendi, Kan. ; Waning, Mar.; 
Dwadote, Barm. 

A small tree. Bark i inch thick, grey, peels off in irregular flakes. 
Wood white, soft ; no heartwood. Annual rings marked by white con- 
centric lines. Pores scanty, moderate-sized, often oval and subdivided. 
Medullary rays short, fine to broad, numerous, joined by white trans- 
verse bars, and in this respect resembling Auonaceae ; on a radial section 
distinctly visible as long straight bands. 

Common in the forests of all parts of India and Burma, except the arid region. 
Growth fust, 4 to 8 rings per inch of radius. 



MALVACK.F 



[ Bo i ill a jr. 



Weight, 40 to 45 Ibs. per cubic foot according to Brandis ; our specimens give 38 Ibs. 
as an average. The wood is used for house-buildiug, ploughs and oars, and for carving. 
The inner bark gives a fibre. 

Ibs. 

C 1177. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 37 

C 1163. 33 

3154. Saharanpur . . 45 

4. BOMBAX, Linn. 

1. B. malabaricum, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 349 ; Beddome t. 82 ; 
Brandis 31 ; Kurz i. 130; Gamble 10. B. heptaphyllum, Cav.; Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. iii. 167. The Cotton Tree. Vern. Simbal, Hazara ; Sfiirlan, Sutlej ; 
Semul, shembal, semur, pagun, somr } Hind., Beiig. Bouro, Uriya; Bolchu, 
Garo; Sxnglu, Lepcha ; Burga, bu>gu, faraffa,Te\.', Illaram, puld, Tarn.; 
Katu-imbul, Ciugh. ; Wallaiki, Gondi ; Ka/seori, Bhil ; Lapaing, Magh ; 
Letpan, Burra. 

A very large deciduous tree, with branches in whorls, spreading hori- 
zontally, and stem with buttresses at base. Bark grey, when young with 
conical prickles with corky base, when old with long, irregular, vertical 
cracks. Wood white when fresh cut, turning dark on exposure, very 
soft, perishable; no heartwood ; no annual rings. Pores scanty, very 
large, often oval and divided into compartments. Medullary rays fine 
to broad, numerous, not prominent. Pores prominent on a vertical 
section. 

Throughout India and Burma. 

Growth fa^t. Our specimens shew 3 to 7 rings, averaging 4| per inch of radius. 

Weight : 23 to 24 Ibs. according to Brandis, For. Fl., 28 Ibs. Burma List of 1862, 
No. 5 ; our specimens vary from 17 to 32 Ibs. the average being nearly 23 Ibs., the 
Bengal and Assam specimens being lighter than those from the Central Provinces. 
The value of P is between 642 and 697 (Cunningham), The wood is not durable, 
except under water, when it lasts tolerably well ; it is used for planking, packing cases 
and tea-boxes, toys, scabbards, fishing floats, coffins, and the lining of wells. In 
Bengal and Burma the trunk is often hollowed out to make canoes. It gives a brown 
gum used in native medicine, regarding which Captain Campbell says : " The collec- 
tion of Semul gum commences in March and is continued till June ; it sells in the 
Kumaun Bhabar at one anna per seer, and is used as a medicine; it is not exported 
from Kumaun." The cotton which surrounds the seeds is employed to stuff pillows 
and quilts. 

The Semul tree seeds very freely every year, and seedlings come up abundantly 
and grow very rapidly. It is easily reproduced by cuttings. 

Ibs. 



C 201. 
C 11)7. 
E 679. 
E 2323. 
E 1232. 
E 1432. 
E 1961. 
B 3117. 
No. 14. 


Mandla, Central Provinces i 
Chanda 
Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Ter 

Sibsagar, Assam 
Assam 


185 
ai 


'}) 


32 
31 
23 

17 
28 

21 
24 
20 









Burma (1862) . 
Salem Collection . 














2. B. insigne, Wall.; Hook. Fl Ind. i. 349; Kurz i. 130. Veru. 
Scffinl, Ihuia, Buig.; Sattu, Magh. 

A large tree, trunk without prickles. Structure similar to that of 
B. malabaricum t but pores smaller and more scanty. 

Chittagong, Burma and tht- Andaman Islands. 



Sterculia.] STEiicn.iACEJE. 4-5 

Weight, 31 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is more durable than that of B. mala- 
baricum ; the specimen from the Andaman* luul been J2 years in Calcutta in the 
rough, and was only slightly discoloured on being cut up. 

Ibs. 

B 2215. Andaman Islands (Major Ford, 1866) .... 31 



ORDER XVIII. STERCULIACEJE. 

An Order containing 15 Indian genera of herbs, shrubs, climbers or trees. Of 
these genera, three are herbs or (Melhania) under.-hrubs, and the rest shrubs, erect 
or climbing, and trees. The Order is divided into 6 Tribes, viz. : 

Tribe I. Sterculieae ..... Sterculia and Heritiera. 

II. Helieterese Reevesia, Kleinhovia, Helicteres 

and Pterospermum. 

III. Eriolienese ..... J&riolana. 
IV. Dombeyese ..... Melhania. 
V. Hermannieffi .... Meluchia. 

VI. Buettneriese .... Abroma, Guazuma, Buettneria 

and Leptonychia. 

Of the genera not here described, Reevesia contains two small trees: R. Wallichii, 
Br. and R pubescens, Mast; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 364; Gamble 11, of Sikkim and the 
Khasia Hills. Kleinhovia Hospita, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 364; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 
141 ; Beddome xxxiii, is a handsome tree commonly cultivated in the hotter regions of 
India. Fine specimens may be seen in avenues in Calcutta. Melochia velutina, Beddome 
xxxv., is a small tree of Burma and the Malay Archipelago, cultivated elsewhere in 
India. Abroma augusta, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 375 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 156 ; 
CJ amble 11. Vern. Ullat Journal, Beng., is a large shrub or small tree of Sikkim and the 
Khasia Bills, cultivated in other parts and yielding a strong, white fibre. Guazuma 
tomentosa, Kunth ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 375 ; Beddome t. 107 ; Kurz i. 149. Vern. Rudrak- 
sha, Tel. ; Thainpuche, Tarn., is an American tree often planted in avenues, having a light 
brown wood used in Southern India for furniture and packing cases. According to 
Skinner, No 77, its weight is 32 Ibs. per cubic foot, andP = 596. Buettneria contains 
8 species of small trees and climbers ; and Leptonychia (under Tiliacese in Beddome), two 
shrubs of Burma and the Western Ghats. The Cocoa Plant, Theobroma Cacao, Linn. 
belongs to this family, and has been grown in some parts of India and in Ceylon. 

The genera of this family have little in common as regards the struc- 
ture of their wood. The species of Sterculia have a very soft and light 
wood, that of Heriliera being very hard and heavy, while the wood of 
Ei'iolana and Pterospermum is intermediate between the two. 

1. STERCULIA, Linn. 

In the Flora Indica 22 species of this genus are described. Among these, 13 out 
of the 14 species described by Kurz occur, and there are also 4 Burmese, chiefly Tavoy, 
species not occurring in Kurz : total 17 Burmese species. Nine species are described from 
the north-eastern moist zone, and eight from the western moist zone and Southern 
India. Three occur in North- West and Central India. 

8. fcetida, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 354; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 155 ; Beddome xxxi ; 
Kurz i. 135. Vern. Janyli-badam, Hind.; Pindri, Tarn.; Gurapu-badam, Tel.; 
Hlyanpyoo, letkop, Burma, is a large evergreen tree of South India and Burma, 
with a light wood and edible seeds According to Skinner, No. 118, the weight is 28 
Ibs. and P = 464. S. guttata, W. and A. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 148 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 355 Beddome t. 105 ; Vem. Kawili, Tarn. ; is a common tree of Southern India 
whose bark yields a valuable cordage. 8. Roxburghii, Wall. ( 8. lancecefolia, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. iii. 150), is a tree of the hills of Sikkim and Assam, ascending to 6,000 ft. S. 
Balanc/has, Linn. ; Beddome xxxii. (S. anaustifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 148 ; Kurz i. 
138) Vern. Cavalum, Mai , is a moderate-sized tree of the western coast. 8. alata, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 152; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 360; Beddome xxxii.; Kurz i. 134; Gamble 
11. Vera. Tula, Beng. ; Muslim, Nep. ; Dodeli, Kan. ; Hanukyow. Magh ; Letkop, 
Burm., is a tall tree of Northern and Eastern Bengal, South India and Burma. 



46 STERCULIACE^J. [Sfet'culia. 

The wood is generally light, soft, often spongy, with large pores and 
moderately broad or broad medullary rays, which are very prominent on 
a radial section. 

1. S. urens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 145 ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 355 ; Beddome 
xxxii ; Brandis 33; Kurz i. 185. Veru. Gulu, hulk, gular, tabsi, tauuku, 
karrai, Hind. ; Odla, hatchanda, Ass. ; Tabsu, Tel. ; Vellay putali, Tarn. ; 
Hit-turn, pinoh y Gondi ; Takli, Kurku ; Karai, kandol, gwira, Mar. ; 
Kalru, Ajmere ; Kalauri, Panch Mehals. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark 4 inch thick, very smooth, white or 
greenish grey, exfoliating in large thin irregular plates. Wood very 
soft, reddish brown with an unpleasant smell, with lighter coloured sap- 
wood. Prominent and regular concentric lines, which may possibly 
be annual rings. Pores large, often oval and subdivided, frequently 
filled with gum. Medullary rays moderately broad, on a radial section 
prominint as long, dark, undulating bands, giving the wood a mottled 
and reticulate appearance ; the distance between the rays is larger than 
the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ganges eastwards, Southern India and Burma. 

Weight, about 42 Ibs. per cubic foot ; Kyd gives for Assam wood : Weight 18 Ibs., 
P = 103, but it seems probable that Kyd's specimen was not this, but S. villosa. 

Wood used to make native guitars and toys. It yields a gum called l Katila or 
'JZatira.' The seeds are roasted and eaten by Gonds and Kurkus in the Central Pro- 
vinces. Its bark gives a good fibre, and fine specimens of it from Berar were sent to 
the Paris Exhibition of 1878 (C. 984 from Bairagarh Reserve, Melghat.) 

Ibs. 

P 471. Ajmere 35 

P 3220 Nagpahar, Ajmere 

C 1102. Ahiri, Central Provinces 39 

D 1088. Madura, Madras 51 

2. S. villosa, Roxb. PL Ind. iii. 153 ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 355 ; Beddome 
xxxii; Brandis 32; Kurz i. 136; Gamble 10. Vern. Poshwa, Sutlej ; 
Udal, udar, Hind. ; Gul-bodla, gul-kandar, massu, Punjab ; Kanhlyem, 
Lepcha ; Kudar, bari.nga, Gondi ; Buti, Kurku ; Omak, odela, salua, 
Ass.; Udare, Garo; Take nar, ami, ani-nar, Tarn.; Sambeing, Magh. 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark grey or brown. Wood grey, very 
soft, spongy. Annual rings prominent. Pores large, often sub- 
divided. Medullary rays moderately broad, harder than the white 
spongy tissue between them, joined by numerous transverse bars. On a 
radial section the pores and medullary rays are distinctly visible, giving 
the wood a reticulate and mottled appearance. 

Sub- Himalayan tract from the Indus eastwards; common in forests throughout 
India and Burma. 

Growth fast, 3 to 6 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 15 to 22 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
Wood not used. The tree is valuable on account of its fibre, which is coarse but strong. 
It is made into ropes and coarse bags, and in Bengal, Burma and South India into ropes 
and breastbands for dragging timber. Specimens were sent to the Paris Exhibition of 
1878 from many provinces, but especially iVom Bengal and from Berar ((' i'M'.. i,.r 
Bairagarh Reserve, JMi-lghsit). It gives a white pellucid gum which exudes copiously 
from cuts in the bark. It coppices freely, and is extremely dillieult to extirpate iii 
clearings. 

Ibs. 

K 2:{21. Sivoke, D.-irj.-i-ling Terai . 22 

K r.'ju. liMiiiiiiijiolvri, Darjivling Ter.ii 15 

W 847. South Kiiniu-a 2(J 



Slerculia. ] STERCUUACKJE. 47 

3. S. COCcinea, Roxb. PI. Ind. iii. 151; Hook. PL Ind. i. 357; 

Kurz i. 137 ; Gamble 11. Vern. Sitio uddl, Nep. ; Katior, Lepcha. 

A small evergreen tree, with smooth, light grey bark. Wood grey, 
spongy, extremely soft. Structure similar to that of S. urens. Trans- 
verse bars distinct. 

Eastern Himalaya, ascending to 6,000 feet, Assam, Khasia Hills, hills of 
Burma. 

Weight, 17 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Bark used for the same purposes as that of S. villosa, but less commonly. 

Ibs. 
E 573. Khooklong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 17 

4. S. COlorata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 146; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 359; 
Becldome xxxii ; Brandis 34 ; Kurz i. 138; Gamble 11. Vern. Bodula, 
walena, samarri, Hind. ; Moola, Beng. ; SUto udal, phirphiri, omra,i Nep .; 
Kanhlyem t Lepcha; Bolazoug y Garo; Khowsey, pinj, Berar ; Bhdi-koi, 
Bombay; Kara&d, Te\. ; Wet-shaw, Burm. ; Berdd, And. 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark grey. Wood grey, very soft. Struc- 
ture similar to that of S. urens, but medullary rays broader and shorter, 
and transverse bars distinct. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, Central and South India, Burma 
and the Andaman Islands. 

Growth fast, 3 to 4 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 24 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Bark used in rope-making. Pine specimens of the fibre were sent from Berar to 
the Paris Exhibition of 1878 (C 985. Bairagarh Reserve, Melghat). 

Ibs. 

E 1394. Chittagong .......... 24 

2. HEBITIERA, Blume. 

Contains 3 Indian trees, of which 2 are here described. They have simple 
leaves, scaly beneath or silvery white. Besides the two here described, H. Fomes, 
Buch. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 363. (H minor, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 142; Kurz. i. 141) is a 
tree of Sylhet, Chittagong, Arracan and the deltas of the Ganges and Irrawaddy. 
It has a red brown, strong wood, weighing 66 Ibs. per cubic foot, and used for boats, 
bridges and house-building. 

Heartwood red, very hard. Numerous transverse bars between the 
medullary rays. 

1. H. littoralis, Dryand. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 363 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
iii. 142; Becldome xxxiii.; Kurz i. 140. Vern. Sunder, sunclri, Beng.; 
Penglai-kanazo, Burm. ; Mawtdd, And. 

A small gregarious evergreen tree. Bark dark grey, with longi- 
tudinal cracks. Sap wood white ; heartwood dark red, very hard, close- 
grained. Pores moderate-sized to large, often oval and subdivided into 
compartments. Medullary rays uniform, moderately broad, short, 
wavy, with numerous, very fine, white, transverse bars; the distance 
between two rays being generally equal to the transverse diameter of 
the pores. 

Coasts and tidal forests of Bengal, the Peninsula, Burma and the Andaman 
Islands. 

Weight, as much as 104 Ibs. when wet, according to Schlich. The weight of 
seasoned wood, as well as the value of P, have been determined by the following 



48 



STERCULIACE.E. 



[ Ileritlera. 



experiments which shew that the weight may be tolerably correctly taken at 65 Ibs. 
and the value of P at 850 : 



Experiment by whom 
made. 


Year. 


Wood whence procured. 


Number 
of experiments. 


Size of bar. 


i 


Value of P. 


Brandis 


1864 


Bengal 


9 


Ft. in. in. 
6x2 x 2 


Ibs. 
62 


860 








2 


6x2 x li 


63 


927 




1865-6 




1 


6x2x2 


65 


783 








5 


3x1x1 


98 


1,288 


Skinner, No. 79 
Kyd 


1862 
1831 


Burma 


1 


2 x 1 x 1 


64 

67 


8l 

710 


Campbell 
Baker 


18 9 


Bengal (seasoned) 
(unseasoned) 
,, (5 years old) 
(4 vears old) 


2 
2 
4 
1 


6x2x2 
6x2 x 2 
7x2x2 
6x2x2 


62-5 
08 
61 
62 


1,033 
744 

984 
859 


' 






9 


3 x \\ x 1 




848 


.... 








10 
6 


2x1x1 
7x2x2 


68 


80S 

8*3 


Wallich 




India 


1 




59 










1 




47 




Smythies .... 


1878 


Different places . , 


6 





65 





Sundri wood is durable ; it is heavy and does not float, and is extremely tough. It is 
used for a great variety of purposes, such as beams, buggy shafts, planking, posts, 
furniture, firewood ; but chiefly in boat-building, for which purpose it is very exten- 
sively used in Calcutta, and particularly in the Government Dockyard at Kidderpore. 
It is the chief timber of the Sundarbans forests. Its reproduction is most favourable. 
On all lands flooded by ordinary flood-tides, a new growth of jungle springs up imme- 
diately ; but on land ordinarily above high-water mark, it only establishes itself by slow 
degrees. It soon spreads itself on newly formed islands on the sea edge of the forests. 
" The roots of the Sundri do not penetrate deep into the ground, but spread laterally 
2 to 3 feet below the surface, sending out perpendicular tough shoots, which stand 
from 3 to 15 inches in height all round the parent stem ; and when there are many 
trees close together, walking through a Sundri forest is very much like finding one's 
way among a fine growth of inverted tent pegs." Home, in" Bengal Forest Report, 
1873-74, paragraph 13," which, as well as Dr. Schlich's article in the " Indian 
Forester," Vol. i, p. 6, may be referred to for further details about Sundri. 

The Sundri forests are generally very well stocked. Valuations made by Home in 
1873-74 gave, for the average amount of material per acre of Sundri forest, 

Seedlings and saplings under 3 feet girth .... No. 2,487 

Trees above 3 feet girth ,,182 

Ibs. 

E 401. Sundarbans 70 

E 2916. 66 

B 3123. Burma (1862) 69 

B 517. Andaman Islands 63 

B 2285. (1866) 68 

B 2226. 53 

2. H. Papilio, Buddome t. 218.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 36:3. Vern. 
Soundalay unnu, Tinnevelly. 

A very lofty tree. Wood red, very hard, structure similar to that 
of //. littoralis, but pores less numerous and smaller, and transverse 
bars more numerous and more prominent. 

Evergreen forests of the Western (Jlmts between Tr;ivanrore and Tinnevelly. 
Weight, (53 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used tor building, cart poles and agr'ieultural 

hnpleiii 

Lb* 
D 1066. Tinnevelly 63 



Helicleres. ] STERCULIACE.E. 49 

3. HELICTERES, Linn. 

The genus contains, besides the common H. Itora, Linn., six other species, chiefly 
small shrubs of Northern and Eastern Bengal and Burma, H. elongata, Wall.; Hook. 
PI. Ind. i. 365, and If. spicata, Colebr. ; Hook. Fl. lud. i. 366, extending as far north 
as Sikkim. 

1. H. Isora, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 365; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 143; 
Beddome xxxiii ; Brandis 34; Kurz i. 142. Vern. Maror-phal,jonkapkal t 
k<i]ntii, bhendu, Hind.; Itoh, Godavari; Aifa, Gondi; Kori-buta, Kurku ; 
anteri, Banswara ; Gubadarra, kavanchi, Tel. ; Kewan, maradsing, Bombay ; 
Thoognaychay> Burin. 

A shrub with grey bark, wood white, soft. Pores numerous, small, 
often in radial lines. Medullary rays fine and very fine. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastward, Bengal, South and Central India 
and Burma. 

Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 35 Ibs. per cubic foot. The 
branches are used for fuel, fencing and thatching, and the bark yields a strong white 
fibre made into coarse cordage and canvas for gunny bag.s (specimens from JBerar sent 
to Paris Exhibition, 1878. C 987. Bairagarh Reserve, Alelghat). The fruit is remark- 
able for its spirally twisted carpels ; it is used in native medicine. 

Ibs. 

C 2804. Melghat, Berar 35 

4. PTEROSPERMUM, Schreb. 

Twelve species of this genus occur in India. Of these, two are found in North- 
West India, thrvie in North- East India, seven in Southern India and five in 
Burma. They are, most of them, trees with handsome flowers and generally oblique, 
leathery leaves. Three species are here deseribed. Of the remainder, P. lancecefolium, 
Itoxb. Jb'l. Ind. iii. 163; Hook. Fl. Ind. i 368; Brandis 35 ; Kurz i. 146. Vern. San 
kalla, Beng., is a large tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards 
and of Eastern Bengal down to Ohittagong. P. Heyneanum, Wall., P. diversifolium, 
Bl., P. reticulatum, W. and A., P. obtusifolium, Wight, P. glabrescens, W. and 
A., and P. rubiginosum, Heyne ; Beddome t. 106. Vern. Kara toveray, Tinnevelly, 
are trees of South India ; while P, cinnamomeum, Kurz i. 147, and P. javanicum, 
Jungh., are trees of Burma. 

Wood reddish, moderately hard. Pores small and moderate-sized, 
often in short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, closely packed. 

1. P. acerifolium, Willd.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 368; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii, 
158 ; Beddome xxxv ; Brandis 35 ; Kurz i. 145 ; Gamble 11. Vern. Kanak- 
champa, Mus, Beng.; Hattipaila, Nep.; Gaik, Magh; Toungpetwoon, Burm. 

A tali tree, with thin, grey, smooth bark. Sapwood white; heartwood 
soft to moderately hard, red. Pores scanty, small, oval or elongated, 
generally subdivided, visible on a longitudinal section. Medullary ravs 
fine, very numerous, undulating, not prominent, uniform and equi- 
distant. Innumerable very fine transverse lines. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, Bengal, Chittagong and Burma. 
Often planted for ornament. 

Weight, our specimens average 47'5 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood somewhat resem- 
bling Thitka, is worthy of notice; it is sometimes used for plan kin gin Bengal. Leaves 
used as plates and for packing tobacco in Northern Bengal. The down on the leaves 
is used for tinder and to stop bleeding in wounds. 

Ibs. 
E 593. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai ..... 44 

E 3135. Sukna 48 

B 2510. Burma (1862) 51 



50 STERCULIACE^I. \_Pterospermnm. 

2. P. suberifolium, Lam. ; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 367; Beddome xxxiv ; 
P. canescens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 162. Vern. Baelo, Uriya; Lolagu, Tel.; 
Taddo, Tarn. ; Velenge, Ciugh. 

A moderate-sized tree, wood light red, moderately hard ; structure the 
same as that of P. aceri/olium. Medullary rays closely packed. 

Northern Circars and Carnatic. 

Weight, 36 to 401bs. Wood tough, used for building, carts and other purposes. 

Ibs. 

C 1250. Gumsur 38 

C 1311. 40 

No. 91. Ceylon Collection 36 

3. P. semi-sagittatum, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 368; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
iii. 160; Brandis 35; Kurz i. 146. Yern. Nagyee, Burm.; Nwaleinbyeng, 
Magh. 

A moderate-sized tree with an irregularly shaped, fluted stem and 
grey bark 1 to 2 inches thick. Wood reddish grey, moderately hard ; 
structure the same as that of P. acerifolium, but with more numerous 
pores and a few broader medullary rays. 

Chittagong and Burma ; sometimes planted in other parts of India. 
Growth moderately fast, 6 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 40 to 50 Ibs. per cubic 
foot. Wood durable. 

Ibs. 

B 2511. Burma (1862) 40 

B 2706. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 50 

Similar in structure to this is B 1418, sent from Burma under the name of Hman, 
the chief difference between its wood and that of P. semi-sagittatum being that it 
is scented, smoother and has much smaller pores. 

5. ERIOL.ENA, DC. 

Contains six Indian species, one of which comes from Central India, two from the 
Eastern and Central Himalaya, three from Southern India and one from Burma. 

Besides the species here described, there are E. Stocksii, Hook, f . and Th., ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 370, a shrub; E. quinquelocularis, Wight; Beddome xxxv., a tree from 
Southern India ; and JE. spectabilis, Planch. ; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 371, from the Himalaya. 

Heartwood hard, reddish, close-grained, mottled. Pores moderate, 
sized, in rings of soft tissue often arranged in concentric bands. 
Medullary rays moderately broad, uniform. 

1. E. Wallichii, DC. ; Hook. 11. Ind. i. 370. Eriofana sp., Gamble 
11. Vern. KulindJ, Nep. 

A small tree, bark inch thick, brown. Sapwood grey; heartwood 
reddish brown, hard, mottled. Pores moderate-sized, often subdivided, 
enclosed in irregular patches of soft tissue, and frequently arranged in 
concentric lines. Medullary rays moderately broad and very fine. 

Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya. 

Weight, 4t) Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood much esteemed by Nepalese. 

E 2326. Bamunpokri, Darjeelirig 40 

2. E. Hookeriana, W. and A.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. ;J7d; Beddome 
xxxv; Brandis 36. Vern. Nar-botku t Tel.; Arang, Berar; Kut/ci, 
Ijlioinlei', Gomli. 

A small tree. Bark grey. Wood light red. Annual rings marked 
by an almost continuous line of pores. Pores small and moderate-sized, 



Jfriofana."] STERCULIACM 51 

often subdivided, enclosed in rings of soft texture. Medullary rays 
moderate-sized, wavy. Structure similar to that of the wood of Kydia 
calycina, but transverse bars wanting. 

Central and Southern India. 

Growth moderate ; our specimen shews 10 rings per inch of radius. The bark 
gives a good fibre, and fine specimens were sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1878 from 
Berar (C 989. Bairagarh Reserve, Melghat). 

C 3791. Chanda, Central Provinces . . . . . ... 

3. E. Candollei, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 370; Kurz i. 148. 
Vern. Dwanee, Burm. 

A deciduous tree, with grey bark. Heartwood brick-red, with orange 
and brown streaks, old pieces, however, losing their bright colour; hard, 
close-grained, shining, takes a beautiful polish, seasons well. Pores 
round, moderate-sized, in narrow rings of white tissue, prominent on a 
vertical section. Medullary rays numerous, white, prominent, fine and 
moderately broad. Annual rings marked by sharp concentric lines. 
Pores frequently arranged in concentric lines, and sometimes joined by 
narrow, wavy, concentric bands of soft tissue. 

Burma. 

Weight, according to Kurz 47, according to Brandis' experiments 48 Ibs. ; our 
specimens average 51 Ibs. According to Brandis' four experiments, made in 1864, 
with bars 3' X 1" X V the value of P is = 1020, which shews great transverse strength. 
Wood used for gunstocks, paddles and rice pounders : it is very handsomely marked 
and is well worthy of attention. 

bs. 

B 286. Burma (1867) 41 

B 326. . 53 

B 1455. 54 

B 2512. (1862) 55 



E 1951 (45 Ibs.) is a wood received from Chittagong under the name Moss6. It 
is soft, reddish grey, with a small darker heartwood, splits and warps. Pores moderate- 
si /cd, subdivided often in short radial strings. Medullary rays short, moderately 
broad, joined by innumerable transverse bars. In structure the wood resembles 
that of E. Candollei, but the specimens of leaves which accompanied the wood sent 
belonged to Erownlowia elata, Roxb., a Tiliaceous tree. The wood, however, has no 
resemblance to that of any of the latter family. 



ORDER XIX. TILIACE^3. 

Contains 11 Indian genera. Of these, 9 are trees, shrubs or climbers, and 2, Cor- 
chorus and Triiimfutta, herbs or undershrubs. The Order is divided into 4 Tribes, 
viz. : 

Tribe I. Brownlowieae ...... Brownlowia, Fcnfacc and 



II. GrewiesB ....... Gre-wia, Columbia, Erino* 

carpus and Triumfetta. 

III. Tilienc ....... Core/writs and 

ptcron. 

IV. Heteropetalae ...... Echinocarjius and Elceo- 

carput. 



52 TiLiACKa:. [ Peutace. 

BrownlowiecB contains 3 species : B. elata, Roxb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 381 ; Kurzi. 153 
(Humea elata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 640.) Vern. Masjot, a lofty tree of the tidal 
forests of Chitta^ong and Tenasserim (see p. 51, under Eriolana in SterculiacesB 
No. E 1951) ; B. lanceolata, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 381, of the tidal forests of the 
Sundarbans, Arracan and Tenasserim, and B. peltata,ftt\i. ; Kurz i. 153 of Tenasserim. 
Columbia includes two shnibs of Burma. Erinocarpus Nimmoanus, Grah. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 394 ; Beddome t. 110. Vern. Chowra, jangli bendi, Kan., is a fibrous- 
barked tree of the western coast, and Plagiopteron fragrans, Griff. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 399, a climbing shrub of Mergui. To the genus Corchorus belongs the Jute Plant, C. 
capsularis, Linn. ; Vern. Pat, Beng., now extensively grown in and exported from 
Bengal : and other species, all of which yield fibres. Several species of Triumfetta also 
yield fibres, e. a., T. angulata, Lam. (T. rhomboidea, Jacq. ; Fl. Ind. i. 395) Vern. 
Ckikti, Hind., of which fine specimens were sent from Berar to the Paris Exhibition 
(C. 988. Bairagarh Reserve, Melghat). Tilia europcea, L., the Lime Tree or Linden 
of Europe, belongs to this Order. 

The wood of Tiliacese is marked by numerous, uniformly distributed, 
small or moderate-sized pores, and fine, equidistant, medullary rays. 

1. PENTACE, Hassk. 

1. P. burmanica, Kurz; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 381; Kurz i. 154. 
Vern. Thilka, kathitka, Burm. 

A very large, tall tree. Wood yellowish red, shining 1 , soft, even- 
grained, takes a good polish. Pores moderate-sized, often oval and 
subdivided into compartments, numerous, uniformly distributed. 
Medullary rays moderately broad, wavy, red, visible on a radial section, 
equidistant ; the distance between the rays generally equal to the trans- 
verse diameter of the pores. Annual rings visible. 

Burma. 

Growth rapid, 3 to 4 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 421bs. on an average. Now 
very largely used in Burma for boats, boxes and other purposes for which a light wood 
is required. Large quantities are annually exported, and though a few years ago the 
wood was quite unknown, it is now well known, even in European markets. 

ibs. 

B 281. Burma (1867) 42 

B 802. Tharrawaddi, Burma 41 

B 815. Rangoon ........ 43 

B 1386. Moulmein . 41 

B 3119. Burma (1862) .... 42 



2. BERRYA, Roxb. 

1. B. Ammonilla, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 639; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 3S3; 
Beddome t. 58; Kurzi. 155. The Trincomali Wood. Vern. Pdwoon, 
Burra. ; Halmillila, Cingh. (whence the specific name). 

A large tree with thin bark. Heartwood dark red, very hard, close- 
grained, but apt to split; it has, even when old, a smooth, rather damp 
feel. Pores small, oval, subdivided, enclosed in white patches, which are 
united by narrow undulating bands of soft tissue. Medullary rays 
prominent, numerous, uniform and equidistant; the distance between the 
rays equal to the transverse diameter of the pores. 

South India, Burma and Ceylon. 



Benya. ] 



TILTACE^;. 



53 



The Weight and Transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments: 



Experiment by whom 

conducted. 


Year. 
1864 


Wood whence 
procured. 


Number 
of experi- 

lllrllts. 


Size of scantling 


Weight. 


Value of 
P. 


Brandis 


Burma. 


7 


Ft. in. in. 
f 3 x 1 x 1 ^ 

12 x 1 x 1 J 


64 


826 


No. 8. . 


1862 









66-62 




Puckle .... 




Mysore. 


2 


2x1x1 




971 


Skinner No. 28 . 


1862 


Ceylon. 




Various. 


60 


784 


No. 31 . 





M 






63 


1,012 


Cat. Exh., 1862 . 


>) 


M 


... 


3 x 1J x I* 


50 


622-1028 


Baker .... 


1829 


,, 


3 


6x2x2 


51 


700 


A. Mendis, No. 33 









2x1x1 


48 


844 


Smythies 


1878 


Burma. 


6 





61 


... 



Benson's Byttneria, weighing 721bs., is probably this. The wood is very durable. 
No. H 2722 had been 50 years in Calcutta, and was perfectly sound and good on being 
cut into. It is used for carts, agricultural implements and spear-handles, and in Madras 
for masiila boats, and is much esteemed for toughness and flexibility. 

Iba. 

B 288. Burma (1867) 52 

B 327. (1866) 61 

B 1420. Tharrawaddi, Burma 65 

B 1452. Prome, Burma 65 

B 2722. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 63 

B 3118. Burma (1862) 58 

3. GREWIA, Linn. 

A large genus containing about 30 Indian trees and shrubs, distributed all over 
India, except in the inner arid Himalaya. Q-. opposififolia is found as high up as 
6,000 feet in the North -West Himalaya. There are 12 species in North- West and 
Central India, 8 in the North-East, 17 in South India and 10 in Burma. 

The genus contains 3 sections, of which the first, Grewia, contains the majority 
of species. The second, Omphacarpus, contains only one species G. calophylla 
Kurz i. 157 Vern. Mayanbo, Burm., a small evergreen tree of the coast forests 
of the Andamans. The third Microcos contains two species : G. sinuata, Wall. 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 392; Kurz i. 158, a large shrub of the swamp forests of Burma; 
and G. Microcos, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 392; Kurz i. 157 (G. ulmifolia, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 591). Vern. Aswar, Beng. ; Tardh, Magh; Myat-ya, Burm.; Thayoh, 
Arracan Weight 5L Ibs (Brandis, 1862, No. 10), a small tree of Eastern Bengal, 
Chittagong, Burma and South India. In the section Grewia, besides those herein 
described, may be noticed : G. villosa, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 388 ; Brandis 39 Vern. 
Jnzarra, pastuwanne, Pb. ; Dhohan, Ajmere ; Jalidar, Jcaskusri, thamther, Salt 
Range, a small shrub of the arid zone in Rajputana, the Punjab and Sind ; G. sapida, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii, 590 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 387 ; Brandis 41 ; Gamble J2, a well known, 
small, yellow flowered undorshrnb of the Sub-Himalayan forests, sending up yearly 
numerous shoots from a perennial root-stock ; and G sclerophylla, Roxb. ; Brandis 39 ; 
Kurz i. 162 ( . scabropkylla, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 584 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 387 ; Gamble 
12) Vern. Pharsia, Kumaun, a small shrub with white flowers and large leaves, of 
similar localities; G. Iceriqata, Vahl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 389; Beddome xxxvii ; 
Brandis 42; Kurz i. 150; Gamble 12 (G. didyma, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 591) Vern. Kat 



54 TILIACE^:. [ Grewia. 

bhewal, bkimiil, kakki, Hind. ; Allpeyar, Tel. ; Dansagla, Lepcha, is a small tree 
of the outer Himalaya, from the Jumna eastwards, Assam, Central and Southern India 
and Burma, recognized by its long, tapering, glabrescent leaves ; while G. abutilifolia, 
Juss. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 330; Beddome xxxvii (G. aspera, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 591) 
Vern. Pedda taraJci, Tel., is a small tree found in Southern India. Some species of 
Grewia have edible fruits, and the wood of some is strong, tough and elastic. 

The wood of Grewia has small or moderate-sized pores, uniformly 
distributed, and numerous fine, rarely moderately broad medullary rays. 
The annual rings are generally marked. 

1. G. oppositifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 583 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 384 ; 
Brandis 537. Vern. Dhamman, pharwa, Pb. ; Biul, biung, bahul, bhimal, 
bhengal, Hind. ; Bieul, Simla ; Pastuwanne, Afg. 

A moderate-sized tree, with grey bark. Wood white, with a small 
mass of irregularly-shaped heartwood, hard, giving out an exceedingly 
unpleasant odour, especially when fresh cut. Annual rings marked by 
white lines. Pores moderate-sized, very numerous, uniformly distributed. 
Medullary rays fine, white, wavy, very numerous. 

North- West Himalaya, from the Indus to Nepal, ascending to 6,000 feet. 
Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 45 to 50 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
The wood is used for oar-shafts, handles, bows, &c., and for most purposes for which 
elasticity and toughness are required. The bark gives a fibre which is much used in the 
Punjab for rope and paper-making, but is not durable. The tree is much lopped for 
feeding cattle during the winter. 

Ibs. 

H 100. Bhajji, Simla, 4,000 feet 45 

H 154. Sainj, 3,000 50 

2. G. populifolia, yahl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 385 ; Brandis 38. Vern. 
Ganger, Pb. ; Gango, Sind ; Gangerun, Rajputana. 

A small shrub, with grey bark. Wood yellow, hard, close-grained. 
Annual rings marked by an almost continuous line of slightly larger 
pores. Pores small, numerous, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays 
very fine, white, wavy, very numerous. 

Arid zone, in the Punjab, Sind and Rajputana. 

Growth very slow. The wood is used for walking sticks and the fruit is eaten. 

P 3228. Nagpahar, Ajmere 

3. G. tilisefolia, Vahl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 386; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
587; Beddome t. 108; Brandis 41; Kurz i. 161. Vern. Pharsa, 
dhamm, Hind.; Khesla, kasul, Gondi; Dhamni, Kurku; Charachi, 
tharrd y Tel. ; Dhamono, Uriya ; Thadsal, batala, Kan. ; J)amnak t 
3$hil ; Daman, Mar. ; Sadachn, Mai. ; Daminne, Ciugh. 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark J inch thick, grey on young trees, 
dark brown on old trees. Sap wood white ; heartwood small, brown, 
close-grained, hard. Annual rings visible. Pores moderate-sized, 
numerous, uniformly distributed ; a continuous belt of pores in the 
spring wood; autumn wood harder. Medullary rays fine, prominent on. 
a radial section, giving a handsome silver grain ; the distance between 
the rays equal to the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna to Nepal, ascending to 4,000 feet ; Central 
and South India. 

Growth modcirato, about 6 rings per inch of radios. Weight, according to Skinner 

No. 75, 34 Ibs. ; Brandis s:iys 3D to ID Ibs.; the average of those examined :ive 48 Ibs. 
Skinner's experiments in Smith India , #ive P = 565. Used for shafts, shoulder poles, 
inasts, oars and all purposes l'.>r which elasticity, strength and toughness aro required. 



Grewia. ] TILIACE^I. 55 

The fruit is eaten and the inner bark made into cordage. Fine specimens of this were 
sent from Berar for the Paris Exhibition of Ig78. (C. ( JS3. Baingarh lieserve, 
Melghat.) 

Ibs. 

C 188. Mandla, Central Provinces (1871) 48 

1169. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces ..... 46 

C 2757. Moliarli Krscrve, Central Provinces 53 

C 2766. Melghat, Berar 

C 1253. Gumsur, Madras 49 

No. 17. Ceylon Collection 44 

4. G. salvifolia, Heyiie ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 386 ; Beddome xxxvii ; 
Brandis 43. Vern. Bather, nikki-bekkar, gar gas, Pb. ; Saras, Ajmere ; 
Jdra, Circars. 

A small tree, with dark-coloured bark. Wood yellow, heartwood 
orange-brown, bard, close-drained, structure similar to that of G. 
tilicefolia, but medullary rays more numerous and pores smaller. Annual 
rings well marked by a line of larger pores. 

Punjab, Sind, Central Provinces and Southern India. 
Growth slow. Fruit small, edible. 

P 3227. Nagpahar, Ajmere ............ 

P 3237. Goran Hills, Ajmere 

5. Gr. vestita, Wall. ; Brandis 40; Gamble 12. G. elastica, Royle ; 
Kurz i. 160. G. asiatica, Linn. var. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 387. Vern. 
Farri, phalwa, dhamman, Pb. ; PAarsia, dhamun, bimla, Hind. ; Poto 
dhamun, Palamow; Sealposra, Nep. ; Kunsung, Lepcha ; Piniayau, Burm. 

A small tree, with grey or brown bark. Wood greyish white, hard 
and close-grained. Annual rings wavy. Pores moderate-sized. Medul- 
lary rays fine and moderately broad> numerous, prominently marked on a 
radial section, and giving the wood a beautiful silver grain. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastwards, Bengal, Central India and 
Burma. 

Growth moderately slow, 5 to 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, our specimens 
give an average of 48 Ibs. per cubic foot ; Brandis says 50 Ibs. Wood tough and elastic, 
used for shoulder poles, bows, spear handles, &c. Splits well, and is sometimes used 
for shingles. The branches are lopped for fodder. 

Ibs. 

E 651. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 43 

E 2325. 61 

B 3120. Burma (1862) 51 

6. Gr. asiatica, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 386; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 586; 
Beddome xxxvii.; Brandis 40; Kurz i. 161. Vern. Phalsa, Hind. ; 
D/iamni, Ajmere. 

A small tree. Bark rough, grey. Wood yellowish white, structure 
similar to that of G. veslita. 

Wild in Central India and Rajputana. Cultivated throughout India for its fruit. 
Bark used in rope-making. 

P 470. Ajmere . 

P 3218. Nagpahar, Ajmere 

P 3235. Goran Hills, Ajmere 

7. G. multiflora, Juss., Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 388; Gamble 12. G. sepi- 
aria, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 589.; Brandis 42. Vern. Pansaura, Hind., 
Beng. ; Nilay, Nep. 

A shrub or small tree. Bark brown. Wood white, soft, similar in 
structure to that of G. oppositifulia, but with smaller pores. 



56 TILIACE^J. [ Grewia. 

Outer Himalaya from Nepal eastwards, ascending to 4,000 feet, Khasia Hills. 
Used in Bengal for making hedges, for which it is very useful. 

Ibs. 
E 2327. Sivoke, Darjeeling Terai 42 

8. G. pilosa, Lam. ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 388 ; Brandis 39. G. carpini- 
folia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 587. Vern. Posanyni, Ajmere. 

A shrub with four-angled stem and brown bark. Wood yellowish 
white, hard, divided into triangular wedges proceeding from the centre 
towards the four corners and sides, the annual rings in the wedges towards 
the corners marked by large pores, those towards the sides by a white line 
and a few moderately large pores. Pores in the rest of the wood small. 
Medullary rays fine, white, numerous. 

Plains of the North- West, Central and South India. 



P 3230. Nagpahar, Ajmere 
P 3256. Goran Hills, Ajmere 



4. ECHINOCARPUS, Blume. 

Contains 5 large trees of the forests of the north-east and east moist zone in 
Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, the Khasia Hills and Burma. E. sterculiaceuy, Bth. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 400 ; Gamble 12. Vern. Banj, Nep. ; Thabola, Magh, is a very large tree of 
the Sikkim Terai, Chittagong and Burma, with a deeply buttressed trunk and large fruit 
covered with long needle-like spines. E. tomentosus, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 400 ; 
Gamble 12. Vern. Kaktay, Nep. ; TaJcsor, Lepcha, is a large tree of the Sikkim Hills 
from 2,000 to 4,000 feet, E. Murex, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 399, is a large tree of the 
Khasia Hills and Burma (E. Sigun, B\. ; Kurz i. 162) ; and E. assamicus Bth. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 399. Vern. Jabba hingori, Ass., a tree of Upper Assam, whose 
wood, according to Mr. Mann, is used for planking. 

1. E. dasycarpus, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 400 ; Gamble 12. Vern. 
Gobria, Nep. 

A large tree. Bark dark grey. Wood greyish brown, soft. Pores 
small. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, closely packed, 
straight, prominent on a radial section. 

Eastern Himalaya, 5,000 to 7,000 feet. (Hooker, in Fl. Ind., says : " Sikkim at 2,000 
feet," but I have never seen it below 5,000 feet. J. S. Gr.) 

Weight, 32 Ibs. per cubic foot. Used for planking, for tea-boxes and to make 
charcoal. It is in considerable demand in Darjeeling. The tree is very handsome, as 
it has showy clusters of yellow-white flowers, capsular fruit, with short close-set spines, 
black seeds with a red arillus, and drooping branches. It flowers and seeds freely 
each year, and seedlings come up well. 

E. 694- Chuttockpur, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet 32 



E. 1289 sent from Cachar under the name ' Sitarjat' has a similar structure, but 
the pores are larger. This is probably E. tiliaceus of Mr. G. Mann's Assam Lists 
(Phul hingori, Ass. ; Sitarsaaz, Cachar), Assam Forest Keports, 1874-75 and 1875-76. 
Said by Mr. Maim to be used for planks and beams where not exposed to changes 
of weather. 

5. EL.EOCARPUS, Linn. 

A large genus of trees, chiefly found in the moister parts of India ; 25 species are 
found in India, of which the distribution is: 

North-Western India .......... 1 

North-Eastern India 14 

J'mrma 17 

Central India . 1 

Southern India . 14 



Elaocarpu9."\ TILIACE-B. 57 

The genus is divided into three sections : 

Section I. Ganitrus contains E. Ganitrus, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 592 ; Hook. PL 
Ind. i. 400 ; Beddome xxxvii. ; Brandis 43 ; Kurz i. 168. Vern. 
Rudrak. Hind., a large tree of North-Eastern and Central India, 
the hard tubercled nuts of which are polished and made into rosaries 
and bracelets. 

Section II. Dicera contains, besides the two species described below : E. serratus, 
Linn. Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 401. Beddome xxxviii. Vern. Jalpai, 
Beng. ; Perinkdrd, Kan. ; Wiralu, Cingh., a tree, with edible fruit, 
of Bengal, the North-East Himalaya and the Western Coast (Weight, 
331bs., Wallich); E. Jloribundus, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 401; 
Kurz i. 167 of Eastern Bengal and Burma; E. oblonyus, Gaertn. ; 
Beddome xxxviii. Vern. ikki, Nilgiris, of Southern India, with 
a strong, white, tough wood ; and several other loss common species. 

Section III. Monocera contains E. tuberculatus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii 594; Beddome 
t. 113 ; Vern. Rudrak, Hind., a large tree of Southern India, whose 
nuts are used in the same way as those of E. Ganitrus ; E. rugostis, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 596 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 405 ; Kurz i. 166 ; Gamble 
13. Vern. Nandiki, Nep., of the Eastern Himalaya, Chittagong and 
Burma; E. ferrugineus, Wight; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 406 ; Beddome 
t. 112, a common tree of the Nilgiris ; and E. Varunua, Ham. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 407 ; Kurz i. 165. Vern. Tuttcaly, saul kuri, 
Ass., of the Himalaya from Kumaun to Sikkim, Assam, Sylhet 
and Chittagong ; besides other species. 

The species of Elaocarpus have usually handsome flowers with laciniate petals, 
and the fruits of most species resemble an olive and are eaten. 

1. E. robustus, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 402; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ij. 597 ; 
Kurz i. 169 ; Gamble 13. Vern. Jalpai, Sylhet; Bepari, batrachi, Nep. ; 
Chekio 3 Magh ; Taumagyee, Burm. 

An evergreen tree. Wood white, shining, soft, even-grained. Annual 
rings marked by a prominent line. Pores moderate-sized, uniformly 
distributed, generally oval or elongated, subdivided. Medullary rays 
fine and very fine, closely packed, visible as long narrow bands on a 
radial section. 

Eastern Himalaya ascending to 2,000 feet, Khasia Hills, Eastern Bengal, Chitta- 
gong, Burma and Andaman Islands. 

Growth moderate. Weight, 381bs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 
E 581. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 38 

2. E. lanceaefolius, Koxb, Fl. Ind. ii. 598; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 402 ; 
Kurz i. 167; Gamble 13. Vern. Bhadras, batrachi, Nep. ; Shepkyew, 
Lepcha; Sakalang, Ass. 

A large tree. Wood soft, light brown. Pores small, in short strings 
of 2 to 5. Medullary rays extremely numerous, fine and very fine, 
appearing as narrow plates on a radial section. 

Eastern Himalaya from 6,000 to 8,000 feet, Khasia Hills, Sylhet and Tenasserim. 
Growth moderate, 8 rings per inch of radius. Weight 41 Ibs. Used for house- 
building, tea-boxes and charcoal. Fruit edible. 

Iba. 
E 358. Rangbul, Darjeeliug, 7,000 feet 41 



ORDER XX. 

A small Order containing 4 genera of Indian trees or shmbs. The only one of any 
importance is Erythroxylon. jKeimvardtia contains 2 small yellow flowered under- 
shrubs of the Himalaya, Eastern Bengal and the Western Ghats ; Hugonia Mystax, 

H 



58 LIN KM . [ Eryth roxy Ion . 

Linn. ; Hook. Fl. I ml. i. 413. is a rambling leafy shrub of Southern India; and 
Ixomuithc* khasiana, Hook, f . ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 416. a small tree of the Khasia 
Hills. Many species give a strong fibre. Linum usitatissimum is the flax plant; 
cultivated in India for its fibre and oil. 

1. ERYTHROXYLON, Linn. 

Contains four Indian species. Besides the one described, E. Eunthianum, Wall. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 414; Kurz i. 171, is a shrub of Eastern Bengal, the Khasia Hills and 
Burma, above 3,000 feet elevation ; and.!?, burmanicum, Grift'. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 414 ; 
Kurz i. 171, a tree of Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

The Coca or Spadic Plant of Peru, well known as a powerful stimulant of the 
nervous system, is the E. Coca. 

1. E. monogynum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 449; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 414; 
Kurz i. 171. E. indicum, Beddome t. 81. Szthia indica, DC. Prodr. i. 576. 
Bastard Sandal. Vern. Devadarti, Tarn. ; Adivi gerenta, Tel. 

A small tree. Sapwood white; heartwood dark brown, with a 
pleasant resinous smell, very hard, takes a beautiful polish. Pores very 
small, very numerous. Medullary rays short, very fine, uniformly 
distributed. 

South India and Ceylon. 

Weight, 55 to 67 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Used as a substitute for sandalwood. The wood gives an oil used as a preservative 

for native boats. 

Ibs. 

D 1083. North Arcot 55 

D 1091. Madura .66 

D 2027. Mysore . 67 



ORDER XXL MALPIGHIACE^J. 

An Order which is represented in India merely by two genera of climbing or 
straggling shrubs. Hiptage Madablota, Gaertn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 418 ; Brandis 
44; Kurz i. 173; Gamble 13. (Gaertnera racemosa, Eoxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 368) Vern. 
Kampti, madmalti, Hind. ; Endra, chopar, benkar, Tchumb, Pb. ; Shempati, Nep. ; 
Haladwail, Mar. ; Madulmluta, Beng., is a common climbing shrub of most parts 
of India and Hurrna ; H. candicans, Hook, f . ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 419 ; Kurz i, 174. 
Vern. Toungsookapan, Burm. ; and H. obtusifolia, DC. ; Kurz i. 173 are respectively 
a large shrub and a climber of Burma; H. acuminata, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 419, 
is a bushy shrub of the Khasia Hills ; and H. parvifolia, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 419, a shrub of Southern India- and Ceylon: making 5 species. Aspidoptcrys 
contains 7 climbers, chiefly of the Himalaya, Southern India and Burma, but none 
of any special interest. 



ORDER XXII. GERANIACEJE. 

A large Order, chiefly containing herbaceous plants, such as Geranium, Oxalis and 
Impatiens. Only one genus, Averrhoa, contains trees, and these introduced: A. 
Carambola,L\nn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 439; Iloxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 450; Beddome xxxix. ; 
Brandis 45 ; Kurz i. 177 ; Gamble 13. Vern. Kamaranga, Hind. ; Kamranrj, Beni;. ; 
Soungyah, Burm., is a small tree which is commonly cultivated in India and Burma 
for its fruit, which is eaten stewed or made into preserves. Home says it is used in 
the Sundarbans for building purposes and furniture. Skinner, No. 18, gives its weight 
as 40 Ibs. )T cubic i'oot, and 712 for the valuo of P; Wallidi skives its weight at iS'.Hbs. 
A. Bilimlri, Linn.; Hook. H. Ind. i. 1:59 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 451 ; Beddome t. 117. 
VVni. liiliiiilti, l>lii ,iil>n , <n/r<///<r, Hind., is a small tnv cultivated and often found 
run wild in India. It lias an acid fruit, which is pickled or JUV-M rved in sugar, and the 
juice is used in removing iron stains from linen. 



Evodia. ] KUTACK2E. 59 



ORDER XXIII. RUTACE.E. 

A large Order, containing however few trees of any size, but generally shrubs or 
climbers, which are aromatic with gland-dotted leaves. 
The Order is divided into 4 Tribes, viz. : 

Tribe I. Rutese .... Only herbs such as the garden Rue, 

and the Bonninghausenia, so 
common in Himalayan forests. 

II. Xanthoxyleai . . . JSvodia, Melicope and Xan- 

thoxyltan. 

III. Toddulieae . . . Toddalia, Acronyclda and 

Skimmia. 

IV. Aurantiese .... Glycosmis, Micromelum, Murraya, 

Clausena, Triphasia, Limonia 
Luvunga, Paramignya, Atalan. 
tia, Citrus, Feronia and Aegle- 

Melicope contains two shrubs : M. indica, Wight ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 492, Beddome 
xl., of the higher ranges of the Nilgiri Hills ; and M. Helferi, Hook, f ., of the Andaman 
Islands and Tenasserim. Acronychia laurifolia, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 498 ; Kurz 
i. 184; Gamble 14 (A. pedunculata, DC.; Beddome xlii.) Vern. Paoiolay, Nep.; 
Loajam, Ass., is a small tree of the Sikkim Himalaya, Khasia Hills, Assam, 
Chittagong, South India and Burma. G-lycosmis pentaphylla, Correa ; Hook. Fl. Ind, 
i. 499; Beddome xliii. ; Brandis 49; Kurz i. 186; Gamble 14. Vern. Ban-nimbu, 
potali, pilrti potala, girgitti, Hind.; Kirmira, Bombay; Taushouk, Burin., is a 
common evergreen shrub, with very variable leaves and fruits, found in most part of 
India. Micromelum contains 2 species: M. pubescens, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 501 ; 
Beddome xliii. ; Kurz i. 186 ; Gamble 14. Vern. Lasmani, IN ep. ; Kambrong, Lepcha ; 
Tanycnghpo, Burm., is a small tree of the Eastern Himalaya, Assam, Eastern Bengal, 
South India and Burma, with a rather heavy, close-grained, yellowish white wood ; and 
M. hirsutum, Oliv. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 502; Kurz. i. 187., a small Burmese shrub. 
Clausena contains 9 species, chiefly shrubs, the chief of which are C. pe)itaphylla y 
DC. ; Brandis 49. Vevn. Rattanjote, surjmukha, teyrur, Hind., a deciduous shrub 
of the Sub-Hiinalaj T an tract from the Jumna to Nepal ; and C. Willdenovii, W. and 
A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 606 ; Beddome xliv. ; Gamble 15. Vern. Mor kurangi, Kaders ; 
Afadanay, Nep. ; Terhilnyok, sidemnyok, Lepcha, a small tree of the Sikkim 
Himalaya, Western Ghats and Ceylon. Triphasia trifoliata, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 507 ; Kurz i. 192, is a small spinous garden shrub of South India and Burma. 
Limonia contains 4 shrubs of India and Burma, of which L. acidissima, Linn.; 
Hook. Fl ind. i. 507; Beddome xlv ; Braudis 47; Kurz i. 192 (L. crenulata, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 381) Vern. Beli, Hind. ; Tor-elaga, Tel. ; Kawat, Mar. ; Theehaya-z<r, 
Burm. a spinous shrub of dry hills in various parts of India, with a hard close- 
grained wood, is the most common. Luvunga has 2 climbing shrubs, one of Eastern 
Bengal and Burma, the other of Southern India. Paramignya, has 5 shrubs or climbers 
of Eastern Bengal and Burma, of which the most common is P. monophylla, 
Wight; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 510; Kurz i. 193; Gamble 15. Vern. Natkanta, Nep.; 
JJinnok, Lepcha, an erect or climbing shrub extending from Sikkim down to Tenas- 
serim. Citrus contains 3 well-known fruit trees C. Aurantium, Linn. Vern. Narangi, 
naringi, Hind. ; Kumla nebu, Beng. ; Suntala, Nep. ; Kitchli, Tarn. ; Kittali, Tel., 
the Orange, cultivated in most parts of India, but especially in Sikkim and Sylhet 
(Skinner, No. 48, gives W. = 49, P = 717); C. medica, Linn., the Citron, Lemon and 
Lime, cultivated all over India ; and C. decumana, Wild., the Shaddock or Pumelo. 

The Rotacea have a very uniform structure. The wood is close and 
even-grained, generally white, with a yellowish tinge. The pores are small, 
uniformly distributed, with a tendency to form radial lines. The medul- 
lary rays are fine, uniform and equidistant. The wood of Skimmia is 
anomalous, being distinguished by extremely small pores, arranged in 
oblique wavy tails, and by very fine, very numerous medullary rays. The 
wood of most species is marked by white concentric lines, which are 
generally at unequal distances and often run into each other. 



60 RUTACE^J. [ Evodia. 

1. EVODIA, Forst, 

Contains 6 species of Indian small trees or shrubs. IS. viticina, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 489 ; Kurz ; i. 179, is a small tree of Tenasserim ; E. rutcecarpa, Hook. f. and 
Th., a small tree of the inner valleys of Sikkim, between 7,000 and 10,000 feet ; and JK. 
melicefolia, Bth., a small tree of Assam. 

1. E. fraxinifolia, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 490 ; Gamble 13. 
Vern. K.inukpa, Nep. ; Kanti,, Lepcha. 

A small tree. Bark smooth, light gi'ey, y 1 ^ inch thick. Wood 
white, soft. Pores small, often subdivided, numerous near the inner 
edge of each annual ring. Medullary rays short, moderately broad. 

Eastern Himalaya in Sikkim, between 4,000 and 7,000 feet, Khasia Hills from 
3,0:0 to 5,000 feet. 

Growth fast, 4 to 6 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 21 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood 
used only for posts of huts. It comes up commonly in second growth forest, and the 
leaves, flowers and fruit when bruised, have a disagreeable aromatic smell. 

Ibs. 
E 3101. Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 21 

2. E. Eoxburghiana, Benth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 487; Kurz i. 180. 
E. triphylla, Beddome xli. Fagara triphylla, Roxb. FJ. Ind. i. 416. 
Xanlkorylum triphyllum, Thwaites Enum. 69. Vern. Nebede, lunu- 
ankenda, Ciugh. 

A small tree. Wood greyish brown, moderately hard. Pores small, 
uniformly distributed. Medullary rays short, distant, fine to moderately 
broad. 

Khasia Hills, South India and Ceylon, Tenasserim and the Andaman Islands. 
Weight, 51 Ibs., according to A. Mendis. 

Ibs. 
No. 60. Ceylon Collection 51 



B 1979 collected by Kurz in the Andamans in 1866 and marked E. triphylla, 
DC. (Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 488 ; Kurz i. 180), has a soft pale red wood, with moderate- 
sized, oval, elongated and subdivided pores, and very fine and closely packed 
medullary rays. 

2. XANTHOXYLUM, Linn. 

A genus containing 10 small, rarely large trees or straggling or climbing shrubs, 
most of them of very little importance. Besides the one described : X. acantho- 
podium, DC.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 493; Kurz i. 181 ; Gamble 14. Vern. Bogay timnr, 
Nep., is a small tree of the outer Himalaya from Kuniaun to Sikkim and the Khasia 
Hills, ascending to 7,000 feet ; X. Rhetsa, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 495, Beddome xli. 
(Fagara Rhetsa ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 417) Vern. Rhetsa man, Tel. ; Sessal, Mar. ; 
Rattu kina, Bingb. is a large tree of the Western and Eastern Ghats of South India; 
and X. Budrunga, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 495 ; Kurz i. 182. Vern. BorjonaU, Ass. ; 
Mayanincf, Burm., is a tree of Eastern Bengal, Chittagong and Burma, with a rather 
heavy, sol't, yellowish white, close-grained wood. The rest are shrubs or climbers. 

1 X. alatum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 768 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 493 ; 
Beddome xlii. ; Brandis 47 ; Gamble 14. Vern. Timbiir } timur, tezmal, 
durmur, Hind.; Balay timiir, Nep.; Snnyru, Lepcha. 

A shrub or small tree. Bark corky, young stems with thick conical 
prickles with a corky base. Wood close-drained, yellow. Pores small, 
often in radial lines, not uniformly distributed; belts with numerous 
pores often alternating with belts with scanty pores. Medullary rays 
fine, short, very numerous. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan, ascending to 7,000 feet, Khasia Hills. 



Xanihoxyfam.] RUTACE2E. 61 

Wood used for walking sticks, the branches for making tooth-brushes. Fruit 
used as a remedy for tooth-ache, as a condiment and to purify water. The whole 
plant has a strong aromatic unpleasant smell. 

Ibs. 

H 107. Bhajji, Simla, 4,000 feet 46 

E 2329. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 5,OCO feet ...... 34 

3. TODDALIA, Juss. 

Contains two species : one the rambling, sarmentose shrub here described ; the other 
T. bilocularis, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 497 Bcddome xliii., a handsome tree 
of the Western Ghats, always unarmed and reaching 3 feet in girth. 

1. T. aculeata, Pers.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 497; Beddome xlii ; 
Brandis 46; Kurz i. 183; Gamble 14. Scopolia aculeata, Sm. ; Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. i. 616. Vern. Kanj, Hind.; Dahan, lahan, llajputana ; Meinkara 
Nep. ; Saphijirik, Lepcha; Milkaranai, Tarn.; Kondakaskinda, Tel. 

A large scandeut shrub, the branches covered with prickles. Wood 
porous, yellowish white, soft. Pores moderate-sized, very numerous, 
often subdivided, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays very fine, 
uniform and equidistant. 

Outer Himalaya from Kumaun eastwards, Khasia Hills and Western Ghats, ascend- 
ing to 7,000 feet. 

The root bark gives a yellow dye and a bitter and aromatic tonic, used by natives 
in some parts of the country as a remedy for fever. (Sidie.) 

E 2855. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet 

4. SKIMMIA, Thunb. 

1. S. Laureola, Hook, f . ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 499; Brandis 50; 
Gamble 14. Vern. Ner, barru, Pb. ; Nehir, gurl pata y Kumaun; Chum- 
lani, Nep. ; Timburnyok, Lepcha. 

An extremely aromatic shrub. Bark thin, bluish grey. Wood white, 
soft, with distinct, white, concentric lines which may possibly be annual 
rings ; has an aromatic scent when fresh cut. Pores extremely small, 
in narrow, irregularly bent lines. Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan, from 5,000 to 11,000 feet, Afghanistan. 
Weight, 42 Ibs. per cubic foot. The leaves are eaten in the Himalaya in curries. 

Ibs. 

H 2846. Mahasu, Simla, 8,000 feet 

E 2330. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet 42 

6. MURRAYA, Linn. 

Besides the species described, M. Konigii, Spr. ; Hook. Fl. Tnd. i. 503 ; Beddome 
xliv; Brandis 48; Kurz i. 190; Gamble 14. (Bergera Konigii, Linn.; Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 375) Vern. Gandla, gandi, boivala, Pb. ; Harri, Tcatnim, Hind. ; Earsanga, 
Beng. ; Ckanangi, Hyderabad ; Karepak, Jcari-vepa, Tel.; JKamwepila, Tain., is a 
small tree of the outer Himalaya from the Ravi to Assam, Bengal, South India and 
Burma, whose leaves are used for flavouring curries. The wood is close, even-grained, 
hard and durable, and is used for agricultural implements. 

1. M. exotica. Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 502; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
374; Beddome xliv.; Brandis 48; Kurz i. 190; Gamble 14. Vern. 
Marchula,juti t Hind. ; Kamini, Beng.; Naga golunga, Tel. ; Raket-berdr, 
Gondi ; Simali, Nep. ; S/iitzem, Lepcha; Hakay, Burm.; Mackatta, And. 

A shrub or small tree, with thin grey bark. Wood light yellow, 
close-grained, very hard, apt to crack. Pores very small, sometimes 



62 RUTACE^. [Mnrraya. 

in short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, very numerous. Sharp, 
white, concentric lines, which frequently run into each other. 

Outer Himalaya from the Jumna to Assam ascending to 4,500 feet, Behar, South 
India, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 62 Ihs. per cubic foot is the average of our specimens ; Wallich gives 61 Ibs. 

The wood resembles boxwood and has been tried for wood-engraving, for which it 
seems suitable if well seasoned ; it is also used for handles of implements. It is 
often planted for ornament, and is sometimes called " Satinwood " at Port Blair. 

B 3195. Andaman Islands (Home, 1874, No. 24) 63 

B 519. Andaman Islands ......... 62 

No. 26. Ceylon Collection .61 

5. ATALANTIA, Correa. 

Contains 5 small trees of South India and Burma. A. racemosa, W. and A. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 512; Beddome xlvi, is a small tree of South India and Ceylon ; 
A. caudata, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 513, a shrub of the Khasia Hills ; and A. 
macrophylla, Kurz i. 195, an evergreen tree of the coast forests of the Andamans. 

1. A. monophylla, Correa; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 511; Beddome xlvi.; 
Kurz i. 195. Vern. Arawi nim, Tel.; Katyalu, Tarn. ; Makhur, Mar. 

Wood yellow, very hard and close-grained. Pores very small ; in 
groups or short radial lines. Medullary rays very fine, numerous ; the 
distance between the rays greater than the transverse diameter of the 
pores. Numerous white concentric lines at varying distances. 

Eastern Bengal, Southern India and Ceylon. 

Weight, 65 Ibs. per cubic foot. Recommended by Kurz as a substitute for box- 
wood. 

Ibs. 
No. 10. Salem Collection 65 

2. A. missionis, Oliv. ; Hook. Fl.Ind. i. 513; Beddome xlvi. Lima- 
nia missionis, Wall. ; Thwaites Enum. 45. Vern. Pamburu, Cingh. 

Wood yellowish white, moderately hard, close-graiued. Annual rings 
marked by a white line and a belt of more numerous pores. Pores 
small, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine, wavy, very numerous, 
uniform, not equidistant. 

South India and Ceylon. 

Weight, 48 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is used for furniture and cabinet work, 
it is sometimes variegated. 

Ibs. 
No. 66. Ceylon Collection 48 

7. FERONIA, Correa. 

1. F. Elephantum, Correa; Hook. PL Ind. i. 516; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 411; Beddome t. 121; Brandis 56; Kurz i. 198; Gamble 15. The 
Wood Apple. Vern. Bilitt, kait, kat-lel, Hind.; Kath-bel, Beng.; Vallanga y 
veldy kavit, Tarn. ; Velagd, elaka, yellanga, Tel. ; Eilwar, Kan. ; Kaivat, 
Mar. ; Hman, Burm. 

A large tree. Bark dark grey or nearly black. Wood yellowish 
white, hard. Annual rings distinctly marked by a white line. Pores 
small, in short radial lines, joined by short, narrow, white, concentric 
bands. Medullary rays short, white, prominent, fine and moderately 
broad, very numerous, not straight. Structure similar to that o 
Marmelos and Cratceva reliyiosa. 



Veron in.] i ; i T A c MR. 6 3 

Sub-Himalayan i'oivsts from the Ravi eastwards, Bengal, South India, Chanda 
district in the Central Provinces. 

Wright, SOlbs. per cubic foot, according to Skinner, No. 74; 49 according to Cun- 
ninghara. Value of P. 623 (Cunningham) ; 645 (Skinner). The wood is used for 
house-building, naves of wheels, oil-crushers and agricultural implements. It gives 
a gum similar to gum arabic. The pulp of the fruit is acid and is made into jelly. 

E 2487. Calcutta 

8. AEGLE, Correa. 

1. A. Marmelos, Correa; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 5] 6; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 579; 
Beddome t. 161 ; Brandis 57 ; Kurz i. 198; Gamble 15. The Bael Tree. 
Vern. Bel, Hind. ; J3ela } Beng. ; Mahaka, Gondi; Beta, Kurku; Vilva, 
Tarn. ; Maredu, patir, marat, Tel.; Bilapalri, Kan. ; Okshit, Burm. 

A small tree, bark | inch thick, outer substance soft, grey, exfoliating 
in irregular flakes. Wood yellowish white, hard, with a strong aromatic 
scent when fresh cut ; no heartwood, not durable, readily eaten by insects. 
Pores small, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays wavy, fine, short, 
white, numerous, uniform and equidistant. Annual rings marked by 
distinct lines, and often by a continuous belt of pores. In some cases the 
pores are more numerous in the autumn wood. 

Sub-Himalayan forests from the Jhelam eastwards, Central and South India, 
Burma. 

Weight, 40 to SOlbs. (Brandis) ; Wallich gives 49 ; our specimens average 57 Ibs. 
The tree is not often cut, as it is chiefly valued for its fruit, the pulp of which is 
used medicinally in diarrhoea and dysentery, as a sherbet and as a conserve, keeping 
well when dry. The wood is used in construction, for the pestles of oil and sugar- 
mills, naves and other parts of carts, and for agricultural implements. 

ibs. 

P 441. Ajmere 

O 248. Garhwal (1868) 57 

O 268. 60 

C 1176. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 52 

C 2785. Melghat, Berar 62 

E 2486. Calcutta 

E 638. Goalpara, Assam 53 

B 564. Prome, Burma . . . . . . . . .60 

The structure of Cratceva religiosa is very similar to this, but the wood is much 
softer, and the pores are enclosed in patches of soft tissue. 



OBDER XXIV. SIMAEUBE^J. 

Contains eight genera of Indian trees or shrubs, almost always with bitter bark. 
They belong to 2 Tribes, viz., 

Tribe I. SimarubeaB Ailanthus, Samadera, Picrasma, 

Brncea, Eurycoma and Suridna. 
II. Picramnieae .... Harrisonia and Balanites. 

Harrisonia Bennettii, Hook.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 519; Kurz i. 203. Vern. 
Tapooben, Burm., is a small spinous tree of Burma. Brucea contains two bitter 
shrubs : B. sumatrana, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 449 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 521, of Assam, 
Tenasserini and the Andaman Islands ; and B. mollis. Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 521 ; 
Gamble 15, of Sikkira, Bhutan, Sylhet and Burma, ascending to 6,000 feet. Eurycoma 
longifolia, Jack ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 52 ; Kurz i. 202, is a small tree of Tenasserim 
and the Andaman Islands, with a bitter bark which, in the Mala}- Archipelago, is used 
as a febrifuge. Suriana maritima, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 522; W. and A. Prodr. 
361 (Surianecc), is a sea-side shrub with thick velvety branches and yellow flowers. 
Quassia wood is the produce of Quassia amara, a tree of the West Indies. 



64 SIMARUBE^;. [ Ailanthu* 

Wood white, soft (moderately hard in Balanites) ; no heartwood. 
Pores moderate-sized. Medullary rays moderately broad to very broad. 

1. AILANTHUS, Desf. 

Besides the two species described, A. glandulosa, Desf., is a lofty tree, indigenous 
in Japan, but occasionally planted both in Europe and in Northern India. It grows 
rapidly, throwing up abundant root suckers, and has for that reason been employed in 
plantations made to clothe barren stony hills in the south of France. It is also often 
employed as an avenue tree, and is cultivated in gardens. 

1. A. malabarica, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 518 ; Beddome t. 122 ; 
Brandis 58 ; Kurz i. 200. Vern. Peru, Tarn., Tel. ; Dhup, baga-dh&p, 
gogul-dhup, Kan.; Mattipdl, Anamalais; Kambalu, walbiling, Cingh. 

A large deciduous tree, with thick, rough bark. Wood white, very 
soft and spongy. Pores large, scanty, subdivided. Medullary rays 
short, moderately broad, the distance between the rays being larger 
than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

"Western Ghats, rare in Pegu. Often planted in South India for ornament. 
Weight, 23 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood not used. The tree gives a gum resin 
which is used medicinally, especially in dysentery. For Mr. Broughton's report on 
an analysis of it see Beddome t. 122. 

Ibs. 

W 746. South Kanara 23 

2. A. excelsa, DC.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 518 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 450; 
Beddome xlix ; Brandis 58. Vern. Ariuua, Meywar; Maha rukh, Hind., 
Mar. ; Peru, pee, Tarn. ; Pedu, pey^ pedda, Tel. ; Gormi-kawat f Uriya. 

A large tree. Wood soft, white. Structure similar to that of A. 
malabarica. 

Central and Southern India. Often planted. 

Weight, 28 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used to make floats for fishing, sword handles, 
spear sheaths and catamarans. The bark is aromatic and is used as a febrifuge and 

tonic. 

Ibs. 

C 2784. Melghat, Berar 

No. 4. Salem Collection 28 

2. SAMADERA, Gaertn. 

2. S. indica, Gaertn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 519 ; Thwaites Enum. 70; 
Beddome xlix; Kurz i. 200. Vern. Samadara y Cingh. ; Kathai, Burm. 

A small tree. Wood light yellow, soft, no heartwood. Pores small ; 
scanty. Medullary rays very fine, uniform, closely packed. 

South India and Ceylon. 

Weight, 26 Ibs. per cubic foot. The bark is used as a febrifuge. 

No. 76. Ceylon Collection 26 

3. PICRASMA, Bl. 

B 1977. collected by Kurz in the Andamans in 1866 and marked 
P.javanica,'B\. Vern. Th ityooben, Burm., has a soft, white wood. Pores 
small, uniformly distributed, joined by fine, concentric lines. Medullary 
rays short and fine. Weight, 27 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Besides this species, P. nepalcnsis, Bonn, is a small tree of Nepal and the Khasia 
Hills, and P. quassioides, Benn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i, 520 ; Brandis 69, Vern. Tuthai, 



Picravna. ] SIMARUBE.E. 66 

tithu, hala, Pb. ; Charangi, Hind., is a tall shrub of the outer Himalaya from the 
Chenab to Nepal, occasionally ascending to 8,000 feet, with a bitter bark, which is used 
as a substitute for quassia. 

4. BALANITES, Delile. 

1. B. Roxburgh!!, Planch. ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 522 ; Brandis 59 ; Kurz 
i. 204. B. <zgyptica y Delile; Beddorae 1. Ximenia agypliaca, Roxb. PL Ind. 
ii. 253. Vern. Hingu, ingua, hingol, hingola, Hind.; Garrah, Gondi; 
Gari y ringri, Tel. ; Nanjunda t Tarn. ; Hingan, Mar. 

A small tree, with grey bark, i inch thick. Wood yellowish white, 
moderately hard, no heartwood, no annual ring's. Pores small or 
moderate-sized, distributed in irregular bands and groups. Medullary 
rays short, very broad ; on a radial section visible as narrow plates, with 
a few fine ones intervening. 

Drier parts of India and Burma. 

Weight, 481bs. per cubic foot. Wood used for walking sticks and for fuel. From 
the seed a fixed oil is expressed. The seeds, bark and leaves are used in native 
medicine, and the kernel of the fruit, filled with gunpowder, in fireworks. 

Ibs. 

P 450. Ajmere 48 

C 1171. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 



ORDER XXV. OCHNACE^J. 

Contains two genera, Ochna and Gromphia, comprising glabrous trees and shrubs. 
Ochna is described below. Gomphia contains two small trees : G-. angustifolia, Vahl. : 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 525 ; Beddome li., a small tree of the Western Ghats ; and G. suma- 
trana, Jack, of the sea-coast of Tenasserim. 

Wood red or brown ; grain close, but twisted. Pores small or very 
small, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays moderately broad. 

1. OCHNA, Linn. 

Besides the three species described, O. pumila, Ham., is a small undershrub of the 
Sub-Himalayan tract, principally in sal forests, with a perennial underground stem 
throwing up annually, after the jungle fires, -stems 2 to 3 feet high, bearing handsome 
yellow flowers. 

1. 0. squarrosa, Linn. ; Hook, FL Ind. i. 523 ; Roxb. FL Ind. ii. 
643; Beddome 1. ; Brandis 60. Vern. Sttuari, yerra-juvi, Tel. ; Narole, 
mudahj Kan. ; Komari, Uriya. 

A shrub or small tree. Wood reddish brown, moderately hard, close- 
grained. Pores very small, very numerous, between the moderately 
broad, but not very prominent medullary rays, which are clearly visible 
on a radial section. 

Bengal, Burma and South India. 
Weight, 51 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

DM. 

C 1305. Gumsur. 51 

2. B. 1978 collected by Kurz in 1866 in the Andaman Islands and 
marked 0. andamanica, Kurz, has a red, hard wood, with the medullary 
rays prominent on a radial section, similar in structure to that of 
0. sqnarrosa. Weight, 58 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

I 



66 OCHNACEJE. [ Ockn o . 

3. 0. Wallichii, Planch ; Hook. Fl. Iiul. 521 ; Kurz i. 205. Vern. 
Today aft, Burm. 

A deciduous tree. Wood light brown, hard, close-grained. Pores 
small, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, 
prominent on a radial section. 

Burma. 

Weight, 54 Ibs, per cubic foot. ibs. 

B 3132. Burma (1862) 54 



ORDER XXVI. BURSERACE^. 

Contains seven genera of Indian trees, often resinous. They all belong to tin- 
Tribe Burserece, viz.: Protium, Bosicellia, Garuga, Balsamodendron, liursera, 
Canarium and Filicium. Protium contains two South Indian trees : P. caudatum, 
W. and A.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 530; Beddomc t. 125. Vern. Konda mamidi, Tel.; 
Kilevay, niluve, Tarn. ; Konda mdvu, Kan., a deciduous tree with green bark, often 
used for planting in avenues ; and P. pubescens, W. and A , a small tree, resembling 
the former species. 

Wood marked by fine distant medullary rays, and small or moderate- 
sized, uniformly distributed pores. 

1. BOSWELLIA, Roxb. 

1. B. thurifera, Colebr.; Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 383;Beddome lii. ; 
Brandis 61. B. serrata, Roxb. ; Hook. Fl Ind. i. 528. B. glabra, 
Roxb.; Beddome t. 124. Vern. Salhe, salei, sdlgd, Hind.; Guggar, 
dumsal, Kumaon ; Salla, bor-salei, ganga, Gondi ; Luban, salai, Beng-. ; 
Kungli, gugulu, kundrikam, morada, Tarn. ; Andu&u, anduga, parangi, 
Tel.; Chittu, Kan. 

A moderate-sized, often gregarious tree. Bark J inch thick, yellow, 
sometimes greenish yellow, exfoliating in small, hard, irregular flakes 
and thin plates of much larger size. Wood rough, white when fresh-cut, 
darkening on exposure, moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized, often 
subdivided. Medullary rays fine and moderate ; on a radial section 
distinctly visible as long narrow plates. 

Intermediate, northern and southern dry zones, Sub-Himalayan tract from the 
Sutlej to Nepal, drier forests of Central and Southern India. 

Height, 30 to 35 Ibs. per cubic foot (Brandis) ; our specimens give 32 Ibs. Wood not 
durable, but it has been reported that 5 sleepers made of it and soaked for some time 
in a tank filled with the leaves of Bahera (Terminalia bellericaj and watiT and put 
down in June 1876 on the Holkar and Neemuch State Railway are still perfectly 
sound and good. (Indore Forest Report, 1876-77, quoted in Indian Agriculturist of 
May 1878.) It is used for fuel and for making charcoal, which in Nimar is used 
for iron smelting. From wounds and cracks in the bark it gives a transpuivnt, 
fragrant, ;/m:n resin, having an agreeable scent when burnt. It is used medicinally 
as a diaphoretic and astringent, to make ointment for sores, and as incense (Labanu, 
fcAndiu; li>'<it<inra, kundriJcam}, but is not the true frankincense, which is the produce 
of a tree of the Somali country and Arabia. (Bird wood in Linn. Trans, xxvii. 
p. 146. Cooke's Report on the Gums, Resins, Oleo-resins and Resinous Products in 
the India Museum, p. 81, 1874.) 

Ibs. 

P 3215. Nagpahar, Ajmere 

C 1112. Ahin Reserve, (Vnt nil Provinces 8C 

2780. Melghat Forest, 1'erar 28 

2. QARUGA, Uoxl>. 
1. G. pinnata, Roxb. V\. Ind. ii. im> ; llook. R j m l. i. 



fjnnnj,i.'] Uli:- G7 

Boddomc i. ll-s; Br.mdis 62; Kurx i. 207; Gamble 15. Vern. 
atufafkilmira, sarofa, Pb. ; Ghogacr,kaikar y Hind.; (Jurja, Bamln; 
kai/cra, ghunja, mu/nlruf, C. P. ; Juin, kf/arpaf,, nil bhadi, Beng.; 
Mo/ii, Uriyn; Gia, ]\Icchi ; l)nfa]ablji. y Nrp. ; M>i /'///, Lepcha; Gendeli poma, 
Ass.; Chitompa ? Q&w t Mroiing-shixlia, Mai^h ; Qanuui t gdrg&i Tel ; Qupni t 
kekra, Gondi ; Kekkeda, Kurku ; Karre vemtiii, Tain. ; K\iruk t Mar. ; 
Chinyoky Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark 1 inch thick, soft, red inside, grey or 
brown outside, exfoliating in lar^-e irregularly shaped scales; sapwood 
large, heartwood reddish, moderately hard. Pores lar^e, not numerous. 
Medullary rays short, moderately broad ; 1311 a radial section visible 
as narrow horizontal plates. 

SuL>-IIhn;iluy;in foivsts from the Juinna eastwards, Central and South India, 
Cbittagong, Burma. 

Weight, according to Brandis, No. 45, 52 Ihs. per cubic foot. The specimens here 
examined varied from 31) to 40 Ibs., giving an average of 4<) Ibs. This is, very likely, 
NVal lieh's Jcctt/i, :](5 Ibs. The wood is not durable, but it seasons well. It is used 
occasionally for house-building and for fuel. The bark is used lor tanning and the leaves 
for fodder. It exudes copiously a clear gum of no value. The fruit is sometimes eaten. 

Ibs. 

225. Garhwal (1868) .... 39 



O :U6. Gorakhpur (1868) . 

C 1107. Chanda, Central Provinces 

B 648. Darjeeling Terai . 

E 1389. Chittagong . 



39 



46 
39 



B 812.. Burma 

3. BALSAMODENDRON, Kunth. 

Contains four species of balsamiferous, often spiny shrubs or trees. Besides 
li. .l/"tfXv^, Hook., described below, it contains B. pubescens, Stocks; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 520 ; Brandis 65. Vern. Bayi, bai, Beluch., a small tree of Beluchistau and the 
hills separating that country from Sind, as far south as Karachi. It yields a small 
quantity of tasteless, inodorous, brittle gum, almost entirely soluble in water. 
B. Berryi, Arnott ; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 529 ; Brandis 65 ; Beddome t. 126, is a tree of 
the forests on the east side of the Nilgiris, cultivated as a hedge plant. It is very 
fragrant and gives a gum-resin. B. RoxburgJiii, Arn. Vern. Gugala, Beng., is a 
small tree of Eastern Bengal and Assam. The drug called ' Myrrh ' is the gum- 
resinous exudation of Balsamodendron Myrrlia, Ehrenb., a small tree of Arabia and the 
African coast of the Red Sea. 

1. B. Mukul, Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 529 ; Brandis 64. Vern. Gugal, Sindi. 

A small tree, bark greenish yellow, peeling off in long thin, shining 
paper-like scrolls. Wood soft, white. Pores small. Medullary rays fine, 
short. 

Arid zone, Sind, Kattywar, Rajputana, Khandesh. 

Weight, 20 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood not used. The tree yields a gum called 
' Gugal ' or Indian Bdellium, which is obtained from incisions made in the bark, and is 
used in native medicine and for preparing an ointment for bad ulcers, 

Ibs. 

P 448. Ajmere 

P 2919. Rajputana 20 

P 3238. Dewair, Ajmere , 

4. BURSERA, Linn. 

1. B. serrata, Colebr. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 530; Brandis 61; Kurz i. 
208. Vern. Murtenga, Ass. ; Thadee-bcn, Burm. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood hard, sapwood light brown, heart- 
wood red, close-grained. Pores small, uniformly distributed. Medul- 



68 BURSERACE^:. [Bursera. 

lary rays fine, fed ; on a radial section distinctly visible as narrow dark 
bands. 

Eastern moist zone, Bengal, Assam, Chittagong and Burma. 

Weight, 46 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood good for furniture. 

B 313. Burma (1867) 46 

B 2225. Andamans (similar in structure, but wood lighter and softer) 37 

5. CANARIUM, Linn. 

Contains 4 large resinous trees of Southern India, Eastern Bengal and Burma. 
C. strictum, Roxb. ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 534; Beddome 1. 128, is the Black Dammer Tree, 
Vern. Karapu kongiliam, Tarn. ; Manda dhup, Kan. ; Thelli, Mai., a tall tree of 
Southern India, giving a brilliant black gum used medicinally and for other purposes 
(for Mr. Broughton's analysis of it, see Beddome under t. 128). C. euphyllum, Kurz, 
i. 208 and C. coccineo-bracteatum, Kurz, i. 209 are large trees of the Andaman Islands. 

1. C. bengalense, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 136; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 534; 
Kurz i. 209; Gamble 15. Vern. Goguldhup, Nep. ; Natockpa, Lepclia ; 
Tekreng, Garo; Bisjang, dhuna, Ass. 

A tall tree with straight cylindrical stem. Bark light coloured, 
hard, thin, rough with horizontal wrinkles. Wood shining, white when 
fresh cut, turning grey on exposure, soft, even-grained, does not warp, 
but decays readily. Pores scanty, large, often oval and subdivided, 
prominent on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine, white ; on a 
radial section distinctly visible, giving the wood a mottled appearance. 

Eastern moist zone, eastern Himalaya, Bengal and Burma. 

Weight, 28 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is much esteemed in Bengal for tea- 
boxes, and it is also used for shingles. The tree yields a resin which is used as 
incense ; it is clear, amber-coloured and brittle. 

Ibs. 

E 703. Great Rangit Valley, Darjeeling, 3,500 feet . . . .28 

6. FILICIUM, Thwaites. 

1. F. decipiens, Thwaites Enum. 59 ; Beddome t. 129; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 539. Vern. Katu puveras, Tarn.; Pehimbia, Cingh. 

A tree with elegant fern-like leaves. Heartwood red, moderately 
hard. Pores small, in groups or short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, 
numerous, at unequal distances. 

Western Ghats up to 4,500 feet, Ceylon. 

Weight, 68 Ibs. per cubic foot (A. Mendis). Wood strong, valuable for building. 

Ibs. 

No. 70, Ceylon Collection 68 



ORDER XXVII. MELIACE-E. 

An Order containing about 20 trees or shrubs, chiefly of the moist zones. 
The Order is divided into 4 Tribes, viz. : 

Tribe I. Meliese Turrcea,Naregamia,Munronia t 

Melia and Cipadessa. 

II. Trichiliese Dysoxyhim, Chisocheton, Sando- 

ricum, Aalaia, Lansium, 
Amoora, walsura, Heynea, 
Beddomca, and Carapa. 

III. Swieteniece Soymida, Chickrassia, and 

Swietenia. 
)t IV. Cedrele* Chloroxylon and Cvdrt-ht. 



Mel'ia. J M ELI AC: 69 

Of these 20 genera, 10 are described here. The remaining 10 are of much less 
importance. To >//< <> //><//*, Linn., V. r'tllosa,-. Benn., and Nareyamia alata, 
W. and A., are shrubs of Southern India; Munronia Wallichii, Wight, is a shrub 
of the Eastern Himalaya and the Nilgiris; Cipadcusu fnit/cosa, Bl.; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 545 (Mallca Rothii, Adr. Juss. ; Be<M<.ine liv. Ekelerg'ia indica, Koxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 392). Vern. Xtd l>il<'. Hind.; i.'hi-udlx-ru. j>t'i'/ntona, Tel., is a small 
tree of the western coast, used for fuel. ("Ithodtcton contains 3 evergreen 1; 
C. ffrandifloms, Km-/, i. 21(3. Veni. T///7/v//^//r/, Burin., with a pale brown, rather 
heavy, hard and close-grained wood, and C. dysoxylifolius, Kurz i. 215, are from 
Burma; while C'. i>>iicnl<il HX, II i< TH. ; I look. Fl. Ind. i. 552; Kurz i. 216. (Guarea 
jiftitirtihtta, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 2-1-2) Vern. Kalikoitru, Syllu-l, is a tree of the Khasia 
II ills and Eastern Bengal. Aglaia contains about 10 species, chiefly Burmese or 
East Himalayan trees, anioiiy; which A. Roxburghiana, W. and A.; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 555; Beddome t. 130, a large tree of the Western Ghats, with a strong u>eful 
timber; and A. edntix, A. Gray; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 556; Gamble 16. (Milnea 
edulis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 637.) Vern. Lati mahwa, Nep. ; Sinakadang, Lepcha ; 
Gumit Sylhet, a tree of Northern and Eastern Bengal with edible fruit, are chiefly 
noticeable. Lansium anamallayanum, Beddorne t. 131, is a handsome tree of 
the Western Ghats. Heynea trijnga, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 390 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
565; Brandis 70; Gamble 16 (H. affinis, Juss.; Beddome t. 134. Walsura 
Irijuga, Kurz i. 225) Vern. YaJcushi, akhaterwa, Nep. ; Limlara, Mar., is a 
tree of the Outer Himalaya and Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ganges eastwards, the 
Khasia Hills, South India and Burma. Beddomea contains two species : B. indica, 
Hook, f ., a large shrub, and B. simplicifolia, Beddome t. 135, a tree of the Western 
Ghats. Most of the Meliacese give a good timber, and some of the species are among 
the most important of Indian forest trees. 

Wood red (yellow in Chloroxylon, dark reddish brown in Soymida). 
Heartwood generally hard, and dark coloured, not distinct in Cedrcla, 
in several species of Melia and Dysoxi/lon. Pores varying in size, often 
subdivided, always prominent on a vertical section. Medullary rays 
fine, numerous and sharply marked in Chloroxylon, Sandoricum and 
Melia ; broader and often less prominent in the other genera. Con- 
centric bands of softer texture in Amoora Rohituka and IValsura robnsta. 

1. MELIA, Linn. 

Besides the three species, the wood of which is here described, M. excelsa, Jack ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 544 ; Kurz i. 212 ; and M. birmanica, Kurz i. 213. Vern. Tau-ta~ma- 
kha, Burm., are evergreen trees of Burma. 

The wood of M. dubia and M. Azedarach resembles that of Cedrela 
in structure, but differs in having fine and numerous medullary rays. 
M. indica has a distinct hearfcwood, which is hard and close-grained, 
but the pores and medullary rays are similar to those of the two species 
first named. 

1. M. indica, Brandis For. Fl. 67. M. Azadirachta, Linn.; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 544; Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 394; Beddome t. 13 (14 by mistake); 
Kurz i. 212. The Neem or Margosa Tree. Vern. Azad-darakht, neb, 
Pers. ; Nim, Hind.; Betain, Kumaon ; Agas, Palamow; Limbo, C.P. ; 
Kohumba, Guz. ; Nimuri, Sindi; Veypam, Tarn.; Yapa, yepa y tarnka, 
vtmpa, Tel. ; Limb, nimbay, Mar. ; Bevina, bevu, heb-bevu, Kan. ; Thimbau- 
ta-ma-kha, Burm. 

A large tree. Bark grey, with numerous scattered tubercles. Sapwood 
grey ; heartwood red, very hard. Annual rings doubtful : the wood 
shews alternating bands with numerous and with fewer pores; also 
white concentric lines, whether these are annual rings is a matter for 
further enquiry. Pores moderate-sized and large, often oval and sub- 
divided; visible on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine, numerous 



70 MELIACEJE. [ Me.lla. 

white, prominent, bent outwards where they touch the pores ; the distance 
between the rays less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Planted and self-sown throughout the greater part of India and Burma. 
The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments : 

Weight. Value of P. 

Puckle in 1859, three experiments, with bars 2' X 1" X 1", found 49 Ibs. 539 
Skinner in 1862, No. 19 50 720 



Cunningham in 1854, two experiments, with bars 2' X 1" X 1", 
Fowke in Catalogue, South Kensington Museum, 1859 

Wallich 

Srnythies in 1878, the mean of our three specimens 



52 
45 
46 
53 



587 
315 



The wood is used for the construction of carts, in ship-building and for making agricul- 
tural implements, and in South India for furniture. It is held sacred by Hindus, and idols 
are made of it. The bark is bitter and is used as a febrifuge. The leaves are made 
into a poultice for ulcers. The gum is clear, amber-coloured and used as a stimulant. 
The seeds are employed to kill insects and for washing the hair. The fruit gives a fixed, 
acrid, bitter, yellow-coloured oil which is used to burn, but smokes badly in burning : it 
is also used in medicine as an antiseptic and anthelmintic. 

Ibs. 

P 463. Ajmere (sapwood) 48 

D 1053. Salem, Madras 53 

No. 11. Salem Collection 59 

2. M. Azedarach, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 544; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
395 (also M. sempervirens, Sw.) ; Beddome 1. 14 (13 by mistake) ; Brandis 
68; Kurzi. 212; Gamble 16. The Persian Lilac, Bastard Cedar or Bead 
Tree. Vern. Ckein, kachein, Sutlej; Drek, bakain, bakdyan, detain, deikna, 
bakarja, Hind.; Maha limbo, malla nim, muhli, C. P. ; Bakainu, Nep. ; 
Mallay vembu, Tarn.; Taraka vepa, makdnim, Tel.; Bevu, chik bevu, 
Kan. ; Ta-ma-kha, Burm. 

A tree with smooth grey bark. Sapwood yellowish white ; heartwood 
soft, red. Annual rings marked by a broad belt of large pores, the 
outer part of each animal ring containing a few smaller-sized pores which 
are joined by irregular, wavy, concentric bands of soft tissue. Medullary 
rays moderately broad ; visible on a radial section as long rough plates. 
Pores very prominent on a longitudinal section. 

Commonly cultivated throughout India, and believed to be indigenous in the outer 
Himalaya, Siwalik tract and the hills of Beluchistan. 

Growth rapid, 3 to 4 rings per inch of radius; it coppices freely. Weight, 30 Ibs. 
according to Skinner, No. 92 ; our specimens give an average of 38 Ibs. Skinner gives 
the value of P at 596. 

Wood used for furniture. Beddome, Brandis and Kurz all say it warps and splits, 
but Mr. Halsey of Madhopur writes to say that it is equally useful either greeu or 
seasoned. Our specimens split only very slightly, and we are inclined to think it is 
better than it has been supposed to be. The wood is very handsomely marked :m<l 
polishes well. The bark is extremely bitter and is employed as an anthelmintic. The 
fruit yields an oil, and the nuts arc Frequently strung as beads. The loavs and pulp 
of the fruit are used in native ni.-dicin.-. 

Ibs. 

P 340. Sainj, Giri Valley, Punjab 38 

P 946. Lahore, Punjab 35 

P 1201. Madhopur, Punjab 40 

3. M. dubia, Cav. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 515.- M. cotnposUa, 
Beddome t. 12; Brandis 69; Gamble 16. M. superba and M. 

Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 390-7. Voru. Eixur, Vimharra, nimbarra, Bombay; 
lj<i/mhi t Nep. ; Dinf/fairf-diiy, Klia-ia Hills; Mallay vembtt, Tain.; Been, 
fjcctt, kad bunt, Kill). 



Melia. ] MKI.I.U \ 71 

A large deciduous tree, with smooth, dark-brown bark. Sapwood 
grey; hcartwood reddish white, soft. Pores large, generally round, 
visible on a vertical section. Medullary rays white, Hue, scanty, pro- 
minent on a radial section. The structure resembles that of Toon, but 
all the pores are of the same size and the wood is softer. The annual 
rings are marked by more numerous, but not larger pores. 
K;i>t.>ni Himalaya, South India, Ceylon and Hurnm. 

Growth rapid ; 2 to 3 rings per inch of radius in tin.- Madras specimen; that from 
Bengal was moderate. 7 rings per inch. Roxburgh says that a tree of M. robusta 
grown in the Calcutta Botanic Gardens from Malabar seed produced in 7 years, trees 
1() feet high, with a girth of 41 inches at 4 feet from the ground, which is equivalent 
to about 1 ring per inch of radius. Also that another, of M. superba, from seed sent 
by Dr. Berry from Snnda, reached in G years a height of 40 to 50 feet with a girth 
of 48 inches. Weight, 26 to 33 Ibs. per cubic foot; used Cor building in South India. 
The wood will probably be found useful for tea-boxes and similar purposes, and the 
tive should In- cultivated on account of its rapid growth. 

Ibs. 

E 705. Great Rangit Valley, Darjeeling 33 

D 1093. Madura, Madras 26 

No. 49. Ceylon Collection 26 



B 507 (28 Ibs.) sent from the Andauians under the name of Barringtonia speciosa. 
Vern. Kyaigyee, Burin. ; Doddd, And., has a wood in every respect similar to that of 
M. d tibia, but that tree has not yet been reported from the Andaman Islands. 

2. DYSOXYLUM, Blume. 

Besides the three species here described, the following occur in India: D. grande, 
Hiern ; Hook. PI. Ind. i. 547, a tree of Sylhet; D. pallens, Hiern ; Hook. PI. Ind. i! 
548, a tree of Sikkim and the Khasia Hills; D. malabaricum, Bedd. ; Hook. PI. 
Ind. i. 548. (Dysoxylum sp., Beddoine liv.). Vern. Porapd, Kaders; and D. Bed- 
domei, Hiern ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 548, trees of Southern India. The leaves of several 
species give out a strong odour of garlic ; the leaves are compound, with oblique often 
large leaflets, and the capsules are generally large, containing large brightly coloured 
seeds. 

Wood reddish, rough, moderately hard. Pores prominent on a verti- 
cal section, moderate sized to large, often subdivided. 

1. D. binectariferum, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 546; Kurz i. 
215; Gamble 16. D. macrocarpum, Bl. ; Beddome liv, t. 150. Guarea 
binectarifera, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 240. Vern. Katongzu, Lepcha; Rangi- 
rata, Cachar; Boror/otodhara, Ass. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood reddish-grey, rough and close- 
grained, hard. Pores large and moderate-sized, often subdivided. Medul- 
lary rays moderately broad, red, wavy, irregularly distributed; the 
distance between the rays generally larger than the transverse diameter 
of the pores. 

Sikkim ascending to 2,000 feet, Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong and the Western 
Ghats. 

Weight, our specimens give 44 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood 'worthy of notice. 
Kyd (Guarea Gotodkara, Ham.) gives 40'5 and P = 290. 

E 644, Khyrbani Forest, Darjeeling Terai 44' 

2. D. procerum, Hiern; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 547; Kurz i. 214. 

Vern. Dingori, govorpongyota (Wall.), Ass. 

An evergreen tree. Wood bright red, moderately hard. Pores large, 



72 MELIACEJB. [Dysoxylum. 

often oval and subdivided, prominent on a vertical section. Medullarv 
rays fine, numerous, wavy, not prominent; the distance between the 
rays generally equal to the transverse diameter of the pores. 
Assam, Khasia Hills and Cachar to Pegu and Tenasserim. 

Kyd (G-uarea Golara, Ham.) gives weight 47 Ibs., P = 617 ; our specimens weigh 
from 37 to 40 Ibs. It is a handsome wood, well deserving of more extensive notice. 
It is said by Hamilton to be used for canoes. 

Ibs. 

E 631. Eastern Diiars 40 

E 1434. Assam . 37 

B 2484 (44 Ibs.), B 2250 (40 Ibs.) and B 2255 (31 Ibs.) from the Andaman Islands 
(1866) have been put under this species on account of their structure, although Dysoxy- 
lum has not been described from the Andamans. 

3. D. Hamilton!!, Hiern; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 548; Gamble 16. 
Vern. Bauriphal, Nep. ; Genddli poma, bosuniya poma (Wall.), Ass.; 
J$olaskin t Garo. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood red, hard, close-grained. Pores 
moderate-sized, subdivided. Medullary rays fine, uniform and equidis- 
tant ; the distance between the rays greater than the transverse diameter 
of the pores. 

Darjeeling Terai, Assam and Sylhet. 

Growth moderate, 6 rings per inch of radius. Kyd (Guarea Alliaria, Ham.) 
gives weight 40'51bs., P = 523; our specimens average 40 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood 
used in Assam for boats and planks, said not to be durable. 

Hamilton says it is used for canoes. 

E 1259. Tezpur, Assam 47 

E 2189. Nowgong, Assam 36 

3. SANDORICUM, Cav. 

1. S. indicum, Cav.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 553; Roxb. Fl.-Ind. ii. 392; 
Beddome Iv. ; Kurz i. 217. Vern. Thitto, Burm. 

An evergreen tree with grey, not very rough, bark. Sapwood grey ; 
heartwood red, moderately hard, close-grained, takes a beautiful polish. 
Pores small, oval and subdivided. Medullary rays fine, undulating, not 
prominent ; marked on a radial section as long narrow bands, giving the 
wood a beautifully mottled appearance. 

Burma, introduced in Southern India. 

Weight, our specimen gives 36 Ibs. per cubic foot; Wallich, No. 175, gave 28 Ibs. 
Used for carts and boat-building. 

Ibs. 

B 804. Burma 36 

4. AMOORA, Roxb. 

Besi<l( .- tin- three we have described below: A. Chittagonga, Hiern ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 559 (Afftaia Chittagonga, Miq. ; Kurz i. 218) Vern. Thilptixainci, Magh; 
is a large tree of the North-Eust Himalaya and Ka-trm Bengal do wn to Chittagon* and 
Arracan, whose wood is largely used in Chittagonff; A. Lcticii, Bth. and Hook. f. 
Beddome t. 133. Vern. Burumb, Bombay, is a live ot the IJoiuhay and Kanara (iliats; 
A. decandra, Ilii-rn ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 562; datable 16, ia a tree of Sikkim and NYpal, 
from 2,000 to 6,000 ft. ; and A. ruminant, Btli. and Hook, f., a tree of the Western 
' 



Wood hard, close-grained, red, with a darker coloured heartwood. 
Pores small to large, often subdivided, visible or prominent on a vertical 
section. In. A. Rohituka the pores are joined by wavy concentric bands 
of soft texture. 



Amoora. ] MELIACI. ?;3 

1. A. Rohituka, W. and A.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 559; Beddome t. 
132; Brandis 69; Kurz i. 220; Gambit 16. Andersonia Rohiluka, 
Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 213. Vcrn. Rohituka, Sans.; Harm harra, harin 
hhana, Hind. ; Sohdga, Oudh ; Tikta-raj, pitraj, Beng. ; Bandriphal, 
Nep. ; Tangar&k, Lepcha ; Lota amari, amora amari, Ass. ; Okhioungza, 
okhyang, Magh.; Chem-maram Mai.; T/iitnee, Burm. 

An evergreen tree with thin grey bark. Wood reddish, close and 
even-grained, hard. Pores small and moderate-sized. Medullary rays 
moderately broad, uniform and equidistant, distinctly visible on a radial 
section. Pores joined by reddish, soft, wavy, concentric lines. The 
concentric bands in this species are remarkable, as they are absent from 
the two other species here described. 

Oudh, Assam, Northern and Eastern Bengal, Western Ghats and Burma. 
Average weight, 40'5 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Wood good, but little used, in Chittagong canoes are sometimes made of it. In 
Bengal an oil is expressed from the seeds. 

Ibs. 

O 1362. Gonda, Oudh 42 

E 2331. Mangwa, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet 36 

E 1261. Tezpur, Assam 39 

E 711. Chittagong . . 45 

2. A. CUCllllata, Roxb.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 560; Beddome Iv. ; 
Kurz i. 221. Andersonia cucullata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 212. Vern. Amur, 
latmi, natmi, Beug. ; Thitnee, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree, with thin grey bark. Wood red, 
hard, close-grained, but apt to split. Pores small and moderate-sized. 
Medullary rays very fine, uniform, very numerous. 

Coasts of Bengal and Burma. 

Weight, 44 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used for posts and other purposes in Lower 
Bengal, and for firewood in the Sundarbans. 

Ibs. 

E 414. Sundarbans 44 

3. A. spectabilis, Miq. ; Hpok. Fl. Ind. i. 561 ; Kurz i. 221. Vern. 
Amari, Ass. 

An evergreen tree. Wood red, hard, close-grained. Pores moderate- 
sized and large, often oval and subdivided, distinctly visible on a longi- 
tudinal section. Medullary rays fine, uniform, equidistant, prominent on 
a radial section, the distance between them less than the traverse 
diameter of the pores. 

Eastern moist zone. Assam and Burma. 

Average weight, 48'5 Ibs. Wood durable ; takes a good polish. Used for boat-building 
and furniture in Assam. This is probably Kyd's Guarea ( 'Amari) , Weight, 47 Ibs. 

A = ^ / &2l. 

Ibs. 

E 1255. Tezpur, Assam 49 

E 2192. Nowgong, Assam 48 

5. WALSURA, Roxb. 

B 1986 is a specimen collected by Kurz in the Andaman Islands in 
1866, marked Walsura robusta, Roxb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 565 ; Kurz. i. 
223. Vern. Uppldng, Sylhet; Gt/op?io, tsoukmayba, Burm. Wood li^-ht 
red, very hard. Pores small, joined by numerous, prominent, \M- 
concentric lines. Medullary rays very fine, numerous. Weight, 63 Ibs. 
per cubic foot. 



74 MELIACEJE. [ Walsura. 

Six other species of this genus occur in India: W. tulmlata, Hiern. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 563, is a tree of Sikkim and the Khasia Hills ; W. temata, Roxb., occurs in 
the Circars and northern part of Madras ; W. piscidia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 389 ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 563 ; Beddome Ivi. Vern. Walsura, Tarn. ; Wallursi, Tel., is a small tree 
of South India with good wood and bark used to poison fish ; W. villosa, Wall. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 564 ; Kurz. i. 223. Vern. Gyobo, Burm. and TF. pubescens, Kurz, are 
evergreen trees of Burma ; while W. hypoleuca, Kurz i. 224 and W. oxycarpa, Kurz i. 
224 occur in the Andaman Islands. 

6. CARAPA, Aubl. 

1. C. moluccensis, Lam.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 567; Beddome t. 136. 
C. olorata, Bl. ; Kurz i. 226. Xylocarpus Granatum, Kon. Vern. Pos/iiir, 
dhundul, Beiig. ; Kandalanga, Tarn. ; Pinlayoung, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark thin, grey, peeling off in 
regular flakes. Wood white, turning red on exposure, hard. Pores 
small, often in short radial lines. Medullary rays prominent, moderately 
broad, numerous, uniform and equidistant. Annual rings distinctly 
marked by a continuous line of pores. 

Coasts of Bengal, Malabar, Burma and Ceylon. 

Growth moderate, 6'6 rings per inch of radius. Weight, our specimens give 41 Ibs. ; 
Brandis, No. 24, Burma List, 1862, gives 47 Ibs. ; Wallich 47 Ibs. Used in Burma for 
house posts, handles of tools and wheel spokes. Gives a clear, brown, brittle resin. 
The fruit yields an oil used for burning and for the hair. 

Ibs. 

E 402. Sundarbans 41 

B 2514. Burma (1862) 42 

B 2239. Andamans (1866) . 41 

7, SWIETENIA, Linn. 

1. S. Mahagoni, Linn. ; Brandis 70, The Mahogany Tree. 

A large evergreen tree. Heartwood reddish brown, seasons and 
works well, hard. Annual rings marked by a continuous line of pores. 
Pores moderate-sized, scanty, uniformly distributed, subdivided. 
Medullary rays very short, very numerous, moderately broad, uniform 
and equidistant. 

Jamaica and Central America. 

Cultivated in Bengal and as far north as Saharanpur. The tree was introduced 
into the Botanic Gardens at Calcutta in 1795 (plants from the West Indies), and 
although it was largely propagated by layers, no further new introductions 
were probably made until 1865, when about 8,000 seeds were sown in Calcutta 
by Dr. T. Anderson. A number of these seeds did not succeed, but in the end 
460 plants were procured, three-fourths of which were planted in the Mohur- 
j^ong Forest in the Darjeeling Terai, and the remainder at Calcutta. The plant- 
ation at Mohurgong was a failure, but the growth of mahogany at the Calcutta 
Botanic Gardens, and at other places in Bengal to which it was distributed, 
has been very satisfactory. The experiment is now being continued, both in 
Bengal and in Burma, and in time it may be hoped that the tree will be cultivated 
successfully as an adjunct to teak. In a report submitted to Government by 
Dr. T. Anderson, of 27th December 1866, ho states that 3 trees presumably 
73 years of age gave, at 4 feetfrcm the ground, girths of 14 feet 3 inches, 12 feet '.\ inches 
and 13 feet respectively, equivalent to a growth of ;M 1 rings per inch of radius. In the 
great cyclone of 1864 a number <>f th" breefl m-i^mally introduced in lTl'"> were blown 
down; they had then, most of them, attained li_ J li-i-t in u-irlh at L feet from the grountl, 
and logs cut from them sold at \\ to annas per siipn liei;il foot one inch thick, or 
;tt about Ks, 3-6 per cubic foot. 



Sicielenia. ] MELIACEJB. 75 

The following measurements of Suhuranpur trees are taken from an article in the 
Indian Agriculturist, of the 1st June 1876: 

Trees planted in 1827-28 measured in .May 1873, at 3 feet from ground: 
No. 1 . . .90 inches. \ 
2 . . . 77 /Height, 80 to 100 fert. 
3 . . . 72 V Average girth, 88 
4 . . . 101 \ inches. 
5 . . . 101 ) 
Trees planted in 1839 measured in May 1873, at 3 feet from ground : 

No. 1 . . .57 inches. Height, 55 feet. 

2 . . . 40 } 50 

Trees planted in 1842-43 measured in May 1873, at 3 feet from ground : 
No. 1 . . .40 inches. ) 
2 . . . 33 [ Height, 50 to 70 feet, 
3 . . . 24 ) 

The first five vary from 3 to 4 rings per inch of radius, averaging 3 '41 rings. 
second pair 4 to 6 478 

third three 5 to 8 6'09 

from which it would seem that the growth gets faster as the trees get older. As the 
1827-28 and 1839 trees were from plants sent up from Calcutta, the age has been 
taken at 47 and 36 years respectively, the 1842-43 plants were from seedlings, and were 
consequently 30 years old. Taking the Calcutta and Saharanpur trees together, we 
have a mean growth of 4 ! 94 rings per inch of radius as the mean of 13 trees, or an 
age of 58 years corresponding to a girth of 6 feet. The growth in Calcutta is much 
faster than this, as the Calcutta average gave 36 years corresponding to a girth of 
6 feet. 

The weight of Mahogany varies much. Tredgold gives for Honduras wood 
35 Ibs. and for Spanish Mahogany 53 Ibs., and Fowke gives 52 Ibs. as the weight of 
Jamaica mahogany. Our specimen cut from one of the trees destroyed in the 1864 
eye-lone gave 45 Ibs. Tredgold gives for the value of P. for Honduras wood 637, 
for Spanish Mahogany 425 ; Fowke gives for Jamaica wood 546. Laslett's experi- 
ments give the following results : 

Weight. Value of P. 
Cuba Mahogany, 6 experiments, bars 7' X 2" X 2" (6 

feet between supports) . . . . .48 Ibs. 642 
Honduras Mahogany, 6 experiments, bars 7' X 2 lf 

X 2" (6 feet between supports) . . . . 41 601 
Mexican Mahogany, 6 experiments, bars 7'x2" 

X 2" (6 feet between supports) . . . . 42 587 
In Europe the wood is, perhaps, used more extensively than any other for furniture ; 
it is also used in ship-building. On account of its rapid growth and the great value 
of its wood, the tree should be grown whenever practicable in the tropical regions of 
India. In the Calcutta market it fetches from 6^ to 8 annas per superficial foot of 
planking one inch thick ; and in London from 4>d. to 1*. 6d. 

The difficulty in propagating Mahogany in India arises mainly from the want of 

seeds. In the Saharanpur gardens the trees, as stated above, have never seeded. As 

-, far as it is now known, one or two trees in private gardens near Barrackpore, and two 

- or three trees belonging to Government on the Barrackpore road, have been seeding 

-ionally for many years past. One tree in the Barrackpore Park, and an ola. 

damaged and gnarled tree in the Calcutta Botanic Gardens, which, however, was 

blown down in the cyclone of 1864, have also seeded, but not freely. Whenever these 

trees did seed, the seeds have been regularly collected and sown. 

All attempts to propagate the Mahogany by cuttings have failed. It has, how- 
ever, been propagated to a considerable extent by means of layers, and trees raised 
from layers are believed to be much more likely to produce seed early than seedlings ; 
but from their tendency to form low branching bushes, it is feared that they will 
not yield much valuable timber. It has, therefore, been found necessary to depend 
upon the West Indies for supplies of seed as yet, and for some years past supplies 
have been received and the seedlings regularly distributed, chieily in Bengal. 

Ibs. 
E 1361. Calcutta Botanic Gardens 45 



76 WELTACE^E. [Soymida. 

8. SOYMIDA, Adr. Juss. 

1. S. febrifuga, Adr. Juss.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 567; Beddorae t. 
8 ; Brandis 71 ; Kurz i. 228. Swietenia febrifuga, Willd. ; Koxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 398. Indian Red Wood. Vern. Rohan, Hind.; floAina, Beng. ; Shem, 
wond, Tarn. ; Sumi, Tel.; Sohan t Uri}^a; Soimi, Gondi ; Royta, Bbil. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark J to ^ inch thick, bluish grey or 
dark brown. Sapwood small, whitish ; heartwood extremely hard and 
close-grained, reddish black, very durable. Pores moderate-sized, 
scanty. Medullary rays moderately broad, distinctly visible on a radial 
section as dark, shining, horizontal plates. Numerous fine, concentric 
lines of lighter colour, often closely packed and forming broader bands. 

Central India and Dekkan. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 117, and Fowke, 661bs- ; E. Thompson gives 71, 
and Bombay specimens gave 76 ; Wallich (Swietenia febrifuga) 551bs. ; onr specimens 
give an average of 73'5 Ibs. According to Skinner's experiments, the value of Pis 1024, 
Fowke gives 626. The wood is durable. Skinner says that a piece taken out of the 
workshop at Fort Saint George, which had been erected in 1803 and pulled down in 185&, 
stood 1,232 Ibs. without breaking a scantling 3' X l^X 1$." It is not much attacked 
by white ants. It is used for construction, well-work, ploughshares and oil-mills. 
The bark is bitter, and is used as a febrifuge and in diarrhoea and dysentery. 

Ibs. 
C 194. Mandla, Central Provinces, 1871 ...... 73 

C 1123. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 72 

C 1240. Gumsiir, Madras 74 

D 2113. Mysore 75 

9. CHICKRASSIA, Adr. Juss. 

Besides these species, Kurz describes C. velutina, Roemer. Vern. Yimmah, as 
occurring in Pegu. 

1. C. tabularis, Adr. Juss. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 568; Beddome t. 9; 
Brandis 73 ; Kurz i. 227. Swietenia Chickrassa, Roxb. FL Ind. ii. 399. 
Chittagoug Wood. Vern. Chikrassi, Beng. ; Boga poma, Ass.; Aglay, 
agal, eleutharay, Tarn. ; Madagari vembu, Tel. ; Gauti malle, Salem ; Dal- 
mara, Kan. ; Pabba, Mar. ; Main, Hyderabad ; Saiphra, sev barasi, Magh; 
Qhegarasi Chakma; Yimmah, yengma, Burm. ; Arrodah, And. 

A large tree. Bark reddish brown, deeply cracked. Heartwood 
hard, varying from yellowish brown to reddish brown, with a beautiful 
satin lustre, seasons and works well; sapwood of a lighter colour. Pores 
moderate-sized, often oval and subdivided, isolated, uniformly distributed. 
Medullary rays fine, uniform, mostly equidistant, slightly undulating; 
the distance between the rays generally equal to the transverse diameter 
of the pores. Annual rings distinctly marked by a sharp line. 

Eastern Bengal, Assam, Chittagong, Burma and South India. 

Growth, moderate, 8'6 rings JXT inch of radius. Weight, according to Skinner, 
No. 46, 42 Ibs.; our specimens give an average of 45'5 Ibs. Skinner's experiment! 
give P=614. The wood is used for furniture and for carving. The bark is a 
powerful astringent, and the flowers give a red or vellow dye. 

E 1260. Tezpiir, Assam 40 

E 2197. Nowgcmg, Assam 45 

E 1401. Chittagong 49 

W 764. South Kanara 43 

W1218. North K;m:.r;i 44 

B 2516. Burma (1862) 53 



Chlorosylon.'] MELIACE^E. 77 

10. CHLOROXYLON, DC. 

1. C. Swietenia, DC.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 569; Beddome t. 11; 
Brandis 74. Sioietenia Chloroxylon, lloxb. .PL Ind. ii.400. Satin Wood. 
Verti. Behra, giri/a, behru, bihri, C. P. ; Mududad, Tarn. ; Billu, bilgu, 
Tel. ; Burus,purush, Tarn. ; Behru, Uriya; llalda, l/ieria, Mar.; Uuragalu, 
Mysore; JJurute, mal lurute, Cingh. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark -J inch thick, soft, spongy, 
light grey or yellow. Wood very hard, yellowish hrown, the inner wood 
of a darker colour, but no distinct heartwood, with a beautiful satiny 
lustre, seasons well. Annual rings distinct. Pores very small. Me- 
dullary rays fine, uniform and equidistant, very numerous, distinctly 
visible on a radial section as shining irregularly-shaped plates ; the 
distance between the rays is greater than the transverse diameter of 
the pores. 

Central and South India and Ceylon. 

Growth slow, 16 rings per inch of radius. The following experiments have been 
made to determine the weight and transverse strength : 

Weight. Value of P. 
Baker, in 1829, with Madras wood, 3 experiments, 

with bars 6' X 2" X 2" found 651bs. 744 

A. Mendis, No. 8, with Ceylon wood, with bars 

2' X 1" X 1" 65 ],042 

A. Mendis, No. 52, with Ceylon wood, with bars 

2'X 1"X 1" 57 504 

Skinner, No. 47, with Madras wood 60 870 

Puclde (Balfour, p. 317) with West Mysore wood, 

3 experiments, with bars 2' X 1" X 1" . . 812 

The Catalogue of the Paris Exhibition, 1862, 

Central Provinces wood, with bars 3' X 1" X !'', 61 620 to 1,059 

Wallich, No. 187, with Ceylon wood . . . 51 

Smythies in 1878 found the average of our specimens to 

give . 57 

The wood is used for agricultural implements, cart building, furniture and picture 
frames. In Madras it is prized for ploughs and oil-mills, and is found to stand well 
under water. It has been tried as a substitute for boxwood in engraving, but has not 
been found suitable ; it is however good for turning. It is imported into England for 
cabinet work and the backs of brushes. 

C 1153. Ahiri, Central Provinces 54 

C 1412. Seoni, Central Provinces . . . . . . . .49 

C 2742. Jarnui, Berar 52 

C 1239. Gumsur, Madras 56 

C 1304, 56 

D 1069. North Arcot 61 

No. 20. Salem Collection 61 

No 52 ] ^ e ^ lon Collection 56 

11. CEDEELA, Linn. 

Besides these two species, Kurz gives C. multijuga, Kurz i. 228. Verc. Toung da-ma, 
as a large, rather rare, evergreen tree of Pegu. 

Wood light, soft, red ; no heartwood. Annual rings marked by a 
continuous belt of larger pores. Pores prominent on a vertical section. 
Medullary rays distant. 

1. C. Toona, Roxb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 568; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 635; 
Beddome t. 10; Brandis 72 ; Kurz i. 228; Gamble 16. The Toon Tree! 



78 



MELIACE^E. 



[ Cedrela. 



Vern. Tutt, tuni. Urn, maha nim, Hind. ; Tuni, tun y lud, Beng-. ; Maha limbu, 
Uriya; Mahlun, Satpuras; Drawi, Pb. ; Tuni, bobich, labshi, Nep. ; Simal, 
Lepcha ; Poma, hendurl poma, Ass.; Suli, mdli, Salem ; Kal kiting I t Nil- 
giris ; Sandani vembu, Tiuneveliy ; Tundu, Ttempu gandagkeri, Kan. ; Noge, 
belandi, Coorg; Deodari, ktiruk, Mar,; Chikado, tseetkado, Magh ; 
Shumzbed, Chakma; Thitkado, Burra. 

A large tree. Bark thin, dark grey or reddish brown, exfoliating when 
old in irregular woody scales. Wood brick-red, soft, shining, even but 
open-grained, fragrant, seasons readily, does not split nor warp. Annual 
rings distinctly marked by a belt of large and numerous pores. Pores fre- 
quently double or subdivided, unequally distributed, scanty in the autumn 
wood, somewhat unequal in size, prominent on a vertical section ; those 
in the spring wood larger. Medullary rays red, fine and moderately 
broad, uniform ; the distance between the rays generally equal to the 
transverse diameter of the pores. 

Sub-Hiuialayan forests, Bengal, Burma, South India ; ascending in the North-West 
Himalaya to 3,000 feet, in Sikkim to 7,000 feet. 

Growth rapid : Brandis says that in 1863 he measured the following trees on the 
Eastern Jumna Canal near Saharanpur : 

Age 30 years, girth 58 inches, mean of 6 trees. 
35 86 5 . 

This would give a growth of 2 to 3 rings per inch of radius, which is very fast. 
Our specimens shew a growth varying from 3 to 9 rings per inch of radius, shewing 
that some have come from fast-grown trees, while others have had only a moderate 
growth. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments : 



Experiment by whom 
conducted. 


Year. 


Wood whence 
procured. 


Number of 
experiments. 


Size of bar. 


1 


Value of P. 


Clifford 


1862 


Bengal . 




Ft. in. in. 

6x2x2 


34 


369 




1831 


Morung . 


1 


6x2x2 


35 


423 (unseasoned). 


Kyd .... 


1831 


Assam . 


2 


2x1x1 


33 


465 


Cunningham .... 
Skinner, No. 46 . 


1854 
1862 
1829 


Gwalior . 
Travancore 
Chittagong 


2 
3 


2x1x1 
6x2x2 


34 
31 
40 


641 
660 
560 




1859 








35 


420 


Brandis, No. 26 . 
E. Thompson .... 

Wallich, Nos. 39 and 40 
Hamilton 


1862 
1868 

1878 


Burma . 
Central Pro- 
vinces. 
Assam & India 

Different pro- 


2 
17 


'.'.'.'. 


28 
35 

34 
36 
36 








\ inc.-;. 











The wocd is durable and is not eaten by white ants ; it is highly valued and univer- 
sally used for furniture of all kinds, and is also einploj'ed for door panels and carving. 
From Burma it is exported under the name of * Moulinein Cedar,' and as such is 
known in the English market. It there fetches about Rs. 65 per ton, the cost of 
cutting and delivery being Rs. 44, according to Major Seaton. In North-West India, 
it is used for furniture, carvings and other purposes. In Bengal and Assam it is the 
chief wood for making tea-boxes, but is getting scarce on account of the heavy demand. 
The Bhutias use it for shingles and lor wood carving, they also hollow it out for rice 
pounders. It is, or rather used to be, for very large trees are now rather scarce, hol- 
lowed out for dug-out canoes in Bengal and Assam. In Bengal, Assam and 15m ma 
it grows to a very large size, trees 20 feet girth with a heignt of 80 to 1(X) feet of 
clear stem being not uncommon in forest* \\-liieh have been only little worked like 
in Dumsong and in some parts of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. At pa^e !_>] of 



Cedrela.] .MKI.IACKJE. 79 

the ' Indian Forester,' Vol. i., the cubic contents of 4 trees in the Reyang Valley, 
Darjeeling, are given as 211, H75, 7^<> and /UK) caibic IVd respectively; the third of 
these had a mean girih ol' 12 I'.-ct an<l a length of 80 feet, while the second had a girth 
of 20 feet. It is easily propagated from seed, but the seeds being very small and light, 
the seed-beds must be sheltered till the seedlings have well eomo on. It also coppices 
freely. The leaves are used to teed cat'le, and the llowers yield a red or yellow dye 
(Gulnari). The bark is astringent and gives a resinous gum, it is also used as a 
febrifuge. 

Ibs. 

P 1191. Madhopur, Punjab 35 

H 8. Simla, Punjab ' 37 

11 5. Sirmur, Punjab 

O 214. Garhwal, 1868 36 

C 177. Mandla, Central Provinces, 1871 . . . . . .37 

E 360. Tukdah, Darji-eling, 5,000 ft 34 

E 2333. Darjeeling, 6,000 ft 34 

E 655. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 3<) 

E 2332. Sukna, Darjeeling, 2,000 ft 36 

E 640. Kami-dp, Assam 44 

E 1266. Tezpur, Assam 34 

E 1229. Sibsagar, Assam 31 

E 712. Chittagong 

D 1054. Salem, Madras 39 

W 763. South Kanara 29 

B 272. Burma, 1867 35 

B 803. Tharrawaddi, Burma 38 

No. 18. Salem Collection .... .... 35 

No. 19. (marked ChicJcrassia tabularis) . . .37 

2. C. serrata, Royle; Brandis 73; Kurz i. 229. C. Toona, Roxb. ; 
Hook. Ft. Iiul. i. 568 (in part). Vern. Draivi, dalli, ddl,dauri, kkishing, 
Jcliiiiam, N. W. Him. 

A tree. Bark dark grey, \ inch thick,, with regular longitudinal fur- 
rows. Heartwood light-red, even, but open-grained, fragrant. Annual 
rings distinctly marked by broad belts of numerous large pores. Pores 
often double or divided into three compartments, unequal in size, and 
unequally distributed, very prominent on a vertical section, scanty and 
small in autumn wood, large and very numerous in spring wood. 
Medullary rays fine and moderately broad. 

North-West Himalaya up to 8,000 ft. 

Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radius, consequently slower than that of 
Toon. 

Average weight, 31 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used for many purposes about Simla, 
also for the hoops of sieves and for bridges. The shoots and leaves are lopped for 
cattle fodder. 

Ibs 

H 3181. Dungagalli, Hazara, 6,000 ft. 



H 920. Hazara, Punjab, 6,000 ft. 

H 897. Murree, Punjab, 7,000 ft. 

H 782. Salan, Chamba, 5,000 ft. 

H 25. Matiyana, Simla, 7,000 ft. 

H 430. Deobau, Jaunsar, 5,500 ft. 



38 
29 
28 
31 
30 



B 505, sent from the Andaman Islands under the name of Diospyros unduJata, 
Vern. Thilcado, Burm. ; Pddd, And., has a reddish, moderately hard, even-grained wood 
which seasons well. Pores large, scanty, often subdivided; very prominent on a 
vertical section. Medullary rays numerous, fine, uniform ; the distance between the 
rays many times less than the transverse diameter of the pores. It evidently belongs 
to Meliacece, but cannot at present be identified. 



80 OLAC1NE.E. 



ORDER XXVIII. CHAILLETIACEJE. 

An Order containing one Indian genus, Ckailletia, with three species : C. gelo- 
nioides, Hook. f. ; Hook. PI. |Ind. i. 570 ; Beddome lix. ; Kurz i. 230 (Moacurra 
gelonioides ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 69.) Vern. MoaJcurra, Beng., is a small tree of Eastern 
Bengal, South India and Burma ; C. Helferiana, Kurz ; and C. longipetala, Turcz 
(C. macropetala, Turcz; Kurz i. 231), are evergreen shrubs of Tenasserim. 



ORDER XXIX. OLACINEJE. 

An Order which contains about 19 or 20 genera of Indian trees/shrubs or climbers, 
including about 40 species. They are chiefly found in the moist zones of Eastern 
Bengal, Burma and the Western Ghats. But little is known of the qualities and 
uses of their wood. 

The Order is divided into 4 Tribes, viz. . 

Tribe I. Olaceae Ximenia, Olax, Erythropalum, 

Strombosia, Anacolosa and 
Schopfia. 
II. Opiliese ..... Cansjera, Lepionurus and 

Opilia. 

III. Icacinese ..... Gomphandra, At)odytes, Map- 

pia, Daphniphyllopsis and 
Phlebocalymna. 

IV.- Phytocrenese .... Phytocrene, Miquelia, Sarco- 

stigma, Natsiatum and lodes. 

Ximenia americana, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Itfd. i. 574 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 252 ; Kurz 
i. 232. Vern. Uranechra, Tel. ; Pinlaytsee, Burm., is a straggling shrub of South 
India, Tenasserim and the Andamans, with a yellow wood said by Eoxburgh to be 
sometimes used as a substitute for Sandal. Of Erythropalum, there are 3 species of 
climbing shrubs : JE. vagum, Mast. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 578, of the Eastern Himalaya ; 
JK. populifolium, Mast. ; Hook. PL Ind. i. 578, of Travancore ; and E. scandens, Bl. ; 
Hook. FL Ind. i. 578 ; Kurz i. 234; Gamble 18, of the North-East Himalaya, Khasia 
Hills, Eastern Bengal and Burma. Strombosia contains 2 large trees : S. javanica, 
BL ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 579 ; Kurz i. 235, of Tenasserim, and 8. ceylanica, Gardn. ; 
Beddome t. 187, of the Western Ghats. Anacolosa includes four trees : A. densiflora, 
Beddome t. 138, of the Anamalai Hills ; A. ilicoides, Mast. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 580, 
of the Khasia Hills ; A. GLriffithii, Mast. ; and A.puberula, Kurz i. 235, of Tenasserim 
and the Andamans. Schopfia fragrans, Wall. ; Hook. FL Ind. i. 581, is a small tree 
of Nepal and the Khasia Hills ; and 8. acuminata, Wall., of Assam, the Khasia Hills 
and Sylhet. 

Cansjera Rheedii Gmelin ; Hook. FL Ind. i. 582 ; Brandis 75 ; Beddome 
clxxix. ; Kurz i. 237 (under Thymelseaceac) (C. scandens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 441), is a 
large evergreen climbing shrub of Oudh, Southern India and Burma. Lepionunis 
oblongifolius, Mast.; Hook. FL Ind. i. 583; Gamble 18 [Z. sylvestris, Kurz 
ii. 330 (under Santalaceaj)] is a small tree of the North-East ' Himalaya and 
Eastern Bengal. Of ilia amentacea, Roxb. FL Ind. ii. 87;. Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 583; 
Beddome Ix. ; Kurz i. 238 Vern. Baleekoma, Tel., is a scandent shrub or small tree 
of South India and Burma. 

Of Gomphandra^ there are two South Indian trees: G. axillca'is. Wall. ; and 
G. polymorpha t Wight ; Beddome Ixi. : while 3 species, G. penangiana, Wall. ; 
G. affinis, Mast. ; and G. tomcntella, Mast , all under Stcmonurusin Kurz i. 339.:^ 10, 
occur in Tenasserim. Apodytes Benthamiana, Wight ; Beddome t. 140, is a tree of 
the Western Ghats; and A. andamanica, Kurz i. 239, a tree of the Andaman Islands. 
Mappia contains 4 species from South India, M.faetida, Miers ; Beddome t. 141, 
being common on the Nil^iris. J'lilcbocalymna (Gonocan/ion, Miq. in Kurz i. 
240-241) contains 2 Burmese trees. 

Phytocrenegigantea, Wall. ; I look. FL Ind. i. 691 ; Kurz i. 241, is a gipinlii- climber 
of the forests 01 Coittagonff and Burma, whoso stt-iu on lu-ingcut gives out si quantity of 
' wiiU-r good for drinking ; the .structure oi! its wood is very curious. Of J/ njut lia, 



Olax. ] OLACINEJE. 81 

there are two climbing shrubs: M. Kleinii, Meissn., of Assam; and JSef. dintata, 
Beddome, of the Anamalai Hills. Sarcostigma^&nd. lodes contain also climbing 
shrubs of little interest. Natsiatum herpeticum, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 595 ; 
Kurz i. 242 ; Gamble 18. Vern. Sungoo, Lepcha, is a common climber throughout 
Eastern Bengal and Burma. 

1. OLAX, Linn. 

Contains six species, of which, besides the one described, one is found in Southern 
India, O. Wightiana, Wall.; Beddome Ix. ; one, O. acuminata, Wall., in Eastern 
Bengal; two in Chittagong and Tenasserim; and one, O. nana, Wall. ; Jirandis 75, 
in the valleys of the North-West Himalaya. 

1. 0. scandens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 163; Hook. FL Ind. i. 575; 
Brandis 75 ; Kurz i. 2-33. Vern. Lheniani, Hind. ; Koko-aru, 
Beng. ; Kurpodur, mnrki malle, turka-vepa, Tel,; Harduli, urchirri, 
Mar. ; Lailoo, Burm. 

A large rambling shrub, sometimes a climber. Bark grey, J inch 
thick. Wood porous, yellowish white, soft. Pores numerous, large and 
moderately sized, uniformly distributed, often oval. Medullary rays 
fine, numerous, not prominent. 

Sub-Himalayan tract in Kumaun, Behar, Central and South India, Burma. 
Weight, 38 Ibs. per cubic foot. The fruit is used in Hazaribagh for making sherbet. 

ibs. 
C 1184. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces . . . . . .40 

C 2762. Moharli 36 

2. DAPHNIPHYLLOPSIS, Kurz. 

1. D. capitata, Kurz in Journal As. Soc. Calc., 1875, p. 201 ; For. 
Fl. B. Burma i. 240; Gamble 18. Ilex daphniphylloides, Kurz; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 606. Vern. Kalay, chilauni, Nep. ; Tumbr&ng, Lepcha. 

A large tree. Wood grey, soft, even-grained. Pores small, often 
in short radial lines between the fine and very numerous straight 
medullary rays. 

Forests of the Sikkim Himalaya above 5,000 feet, and of Martaban between 4,000 
and 6,000 feet. 

Weight, 39 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Used for house-building and other purposes about Darjeeling. 

Ibs. 
E 695. Chuttockpur, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet 39 



ORDER XXX. ILICINE^. 

An Order containing only one Indian genus. 

1. ILEX, Linn. 

A genus of 21 Indian species, of which 11 are found in the Eastern Himalaya and 
Khasia Hills, 3 in the North-West Himalaya, 6 in Burma, and 4 in South India. 
The following list is taken from the Flora Indica, pp. 598 to 606 : 

1. I. insignis, Hook. f. Sikkim, 7,000 ', 

2. L dipyrejia,'\\Q\\ Himalaya, Simla to Sikkim. 

3. J. odorata, Ham Simla to Nepal. 

4. I. malalanra, Beddome Western Ghats. 

5. /. Walkcri, Wight and Arn. ; Beddome Ixii. . 



IUC1NEJ5. 

6. 7. denticulata, Wall . . . . . . Western Ghats. 

7. /. theafolia, Wall Sikkitn, Khasia, Tenasserim. 

8. /. embelioidcs, Hook, f Khasia Hills. 

9. /. GriffithU, Hook, f Assam, Sylhet. 

10. J. Thomsoni, Hook, f Eastern Himalaya, Khasia. 

11. I. intricata, Hook. f. Eastern Nepal and Sikkim, 

10,000 to 11, 000 feet. 

12. Lfragilis, Hook. f. Eastern Himalaya, Khania, 

13. I. venulosa, Hook. f. .... Khasia Hills. 

14. I. Gardneriana, Wight ; Beddome Ixii. . . Nilgiris. 

15. I. Wightiana, Wall 

16. I. excelsa, Wall Himalaya, Khasia. 

17. L Godajam, Colebr Eastern Sub-Himalaya, 

Burma. 

18. /. sulcata, Wall. (I. Godajam, Kurz i. 245, 

part) Tcnasserim. 

19. J. macropkytta, Wall. ; Kurz i. 246 . 

20. J. cymosa, Bl. ; Kurz i. 246 .... 

21. I. Wallichii, Hook. f. ; Kurz i. 246 . 

I. excelsa, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 603 (/. exsulca, Wall. ; Brandis 76). Vern. 
Tumari, Hind., is a small evergreen tree of the outer Himala3 T a and Siwalik tract 
extending eastwards to Assam and the Khasia Hills. I. odorata, Ham. ; Brandis 77, 
is an evergreen tree of the outer Himalaya from the Sutlej to Sikkim, ascending to 
6,000 feet, I. Godajam, Colebr. ; Kurz i. 245 ; Gamble 18. Vern. Tirsam, Ass., is a 
good-sized tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract from Nepal eastwards. I. denticulata, 
Wall. ; Beddome 1. 142, with a good timber, which is said not to warp nor crack, is found 
in the Nilgiris and Anamalai Hills. I. Wigktiana, Wall. Vern. Horralu, Nilgiris, 
has a pale yellow wood useful for building and for bowls and platters. The European 
Holly is I. Aquifolium, Linn., while the Mate" or Paraguay Tea is made from the 
leaves of I. paraguayensis. 

Pores small, arranged in radial lines or irregular elongated patches. 
Medullary rays of two classes, fine and broad, prominent on a vertical 
section, and generally darker coloured than the fibrous tissue, giving the 
wood a mottled appearance. 

1. I. dipyrena, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 599; Brandis 76; Gamble 
18. Vern. Shangala, kandlar, kalucho, diusa, dodru, drtinda, Pb. ; 
Kaula, karaput, munasi, g?ilsima, Nep. ; Kandara, kadera, kateru, Simla. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark dark, rough. Wood white, hard, close- 
grained. Pores extremely small, in long irregular wavy radial lines. 
Medullary rays short, moderately broad to broad, prominent on a radiul 
section, giving the wood a mottled appearance. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, above 5,000 feet. 
Weight, 46 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

ibs. 
H 21. Matiyana, Simla, 7,000 feet 46 

2. I. theaefolia, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 601. /. gauUher'mfolia, 
Kurz i. 24-5. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Wood white, soft, close-graiiunl, 
with while concentric lines, which seem to correspond to annual rings. 
Pores v-ry small and numerous. .Medullary rays v< ry line and broad; 
the latter short, scanty, prominent, giving the wood on a vertical section 
a beautifully reticulate appearance. 

I):ii;jci'lmg mid Klinsia Hills :iii<l Ti-iiMssrrim. 
\Wi-lit, :;!> Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 

E Oin*. Ohuttookpur, Daijecling, 6,000 Aet 3'J 



.r. ] ILICINE*. S-'i 

3. I. insignis, Hook, f.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 599; Gamble 18. Vern. 
Lasuni, Nep. 

A small evergreen tree, with smooth grey bavk. Wood white, soft, 
close-grained. Pores very small, numerous, often in radial lines. 
Medullary rays very line and broad, the latter longer than in /. theafolia y 
prominent on a radial section, giving the wood a mottled appearance. 

Darjeeiing, above 6,000 feet. 

Weight, 40 Ibs. In winter it has clusters of bright red berries like common holly, 
and is used for similar purposes of decoration. 

Ibs. 

E 355. Gumpahar Forest, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet .... 40 



H 256, from the Garhwal Hills, is a specimen sent by Mr. R. Thomp- 
son in 1868. It has been much eaten by insects, but shews a structure 
similar to that of /. insignia. We refer it to /. odorctta, Ham. Weight, 
32 Ibs. per cubic foot. 



ORDER XXXI. CELASTEINEJE. 

An Order of trees, shrubs and climbers, sometimes thorny, and recognised by the 
flowers having a conspicuous disk. It contains 13 genera, 4 of which are found 
in North- West India, and the remainder in the Eastern and Western moist zones. 

The Order is divided into 2 Tribes, the first being subdivided into 3. These are 

Tribe I. Celastreae 

Sub-Tribe I. Euonymoa; . . Euonymus, Glyptopetal niii. 

Microtropis, Lophopctalu in 
and Pleurostylia. 

II. Celastreae . . Celastrus, Gymnosporia and 

Jurrimia. 

III. ElsBodendreao . . Elceodendron. 

Tribe II. Hippocrateae ..... Sippocratea, Salacla ;>iul 

Siphonodon. 

Glyptopetalum contains 3 shrubs or small trees, of which G. zeylanicum, Thw. 
and 6r. grandiflorum, Beddonie Ixv., are large shrubs of the Western Ghats; and G. 
sclerocarpum (Euonymus sclerocqrpus, Kurz i. 250), with a white, close-grained 
wood, of the Pegu Yoma. Microtropis contains 7 species, of which 4 occur in Southern 
India, 3 in Burma, and 2 in the Eastern Himalaya and Eastern Bengal. The chief 
species is M. discolor, Wall; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 614; Kurz i. 251; Gamble 18. 
(Euonymus garcinifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 628) Vern. Suglim, Lepcha ; Mori, 
Svlhet. Pleurostylia Wightii, W. and A., Hook. Fl. Ind. 'i. 617, is a small tree 
of Southern India. Kurrimia contains 3 trees, of which K. paniculata, Wall.; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 622 (Trochisandra indica, Beddome t. 120), is a handsome tree of 
the Anamalai Hills, said to yield a good timber, and K. pulcherrima, Wall. (K. robusta, 
Kurz i. 253) Vern. Kwaydouk, Burm., an evergreen tree of Burma with a brown , 
heavy, close-grained wood. Bippocratca contains 6 species of climbing shrubs, of 
which two, H. indica, Willd. Vern. Kurzati, Bombay; and H. arborea, Koxb. 
Fl. Ind. i. 167 ; Brandis 83. Vern. Katha-paharia, Beng., reach to Northern India. 
Salacia contains also 14 species of climbing shrubs, of which 8 occur in Burma and 6 in 
South India: while Siphonodon celastrinens, Griff'. , Hook. Fl. Ind. i, 629; Kurz i. 254. 
Vern. Myoukopshit, is an evergreen tree of Burma, with a pale yellowish heavy wood. 

Wood even-grained, not very hard; generally without heartwood 
(except Elceodendron) . Pores uniformly distributed, very or extremely 
small. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. 



84 CELASTRINE^. 

1. EUONYMUS, Linn. 

A genus of about 24 Indian species, of which many are merely small shrubs or 
climbers. About 11 occur in the Eastern Himalaya, Assam and Eastern Bengal, 5 iu 
the North-West Himalaya, 5 in Burma and 7 in South India. Among them, 
E. crenulatiis, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 608 ; Beddome t. 144, of the Nilgiris, and E. 
fflaber, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 628; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 609 ; Kurz i. 248, of Chittagong and 
Burma, may be mentioned as most important. E. echinatus, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 611 ; Brandis 80 ; Gamble 18, is a small climbing or epiphytic shrub of the Hima- 
laya from the Jhelum to Sikkim at 7,000 to 12,000 feet. The wood of some species may 
be worth trying as a substitute for boxwood. 

Wood compact, even-grained, white. Pores very or extremely 
small. Medullary rays very fine and very numerous. 

The first four species here described are common in the North- West Himalaya, and 
may thus be distinguished : 

T ( Leaves deeply cut . . . E. lacerus. 

Leaves membranous [ ^ s ligM y C ut . . . . E. Hamiltonianus. 

< Leaves long, sharply serrate . . E. pendulus. 
Leaves coriaceous [ ^ ^ oU *^ y gerrate ^ ^ E ting ens. 



1. E. lacerus, Ham. ; Brandis 78. E. grandiflorus, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 608. Vern. 8iki, pattali, papar, banchir, dudhapdr, hanchu, 
pash, tnara, chikan, rangchul, kioch, Punjab ; Gule, grui, Simla. 

A small deciduous tree with smooth grey bark. Wood white, 
moderately hard, exceedingly compact, close and even-grained. Annual 
rings visible, but not very distinct. Pores extremely small, barely 
visible under the lens. Medullary rays extremely fine. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Sikkim, between 6,000 and 11,000 feet, 
Weight, 48 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used for carving. The seeds are strung as 
beads in Bassahir and used for necklaces. 

Ibs. 

H 67. Nagkanda, Simla, 9,000 feet ....... 48 

H 2883. ....... 46 

H 3011. ....... 49 

H 3187. Dungagalli, Hazara, 8,000 feet ......... 

2. E. Hamiltonianus, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 612; Brandis 78. 
E. alropurpurens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 627. Vern. Siki, singi, chual, 
watal) papar y rithu, randi, brahmani, banchor, kamn, skioch, sidhera, naga, 
Pb. ; Agniun, agnu, Kumaun. 

A large deciduous shrub, or small or occasionally moderate-sized tree. 
Bark thick, grey, corky, with deep irregular fissures. Wood white, 
with a slight yellow tinge, soft, close-grained. Annual rings marked 
by a narrow belt of firm wood with fewer pores. 

Outer Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, Khasia Hills, from 4,000 to 8,000 feet. 
Weight, 35 Ibs, Wood used for carving into spoons. 

Ibs. 

H 3173. Dungagalli, Hazara, 8,000 feet ......... 

H 919. Hazara, Punjab, 8,000 feet ...... 36 

H 172. Murree, Punjab (1866), 7,000 feet ........ 

H 778. Kalatop Forest, Punjab, 7,000 feet ..... 34 

II S012* ) Nagkanda, Simla, 9,000 feet ...... 44 

3. E. pendulus, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. C12 ; Brandis 79. Vern. 
a, pincha, ynrtr, kunku, N.-W. P. 



Euonymus.~\ CELASTIUNEJE. ^0 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree with grey, rather corky bark, 
\ inch thick. Wood white, moderately havd, compact, with a light red 
tinge, very close and even-grained. Annual rings marked by an almost 
continuous line of pores. Pores very small, very numerous. Medullary 
rays extremely fine, very numerous. 

Himalaya, from the Jhelum to Nepal, between 2,500 and 7,500 feet. 
Weight, 35 to 41 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

H 86. The Glen, Simla, 6,000 feet 35 

H 2837. 41 

4. E. tingens, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 610; Brandis 79. Vern. 
Kungku, N.-W. P. ; Neivar, Jcasuri, Nepal ; Chopra, mer mahaul, Simla. 

A small evergreen tree with dark, rather corky outside and yellow 
inner bark. The structure and appearance of the wood are the same as in 
Euonymus lacerus, except that the wood of this species has a slightly 
reddish tinge. 

Himalaya, from the Sutlej to Nepal, between 6,500 and 10,000 feet. 
Weight, 47 Ibs. per cubic foot. This is easily recognised from the other 3 species 
by its large flowers with pretty brown markings on the petals. 

Ibs. 

H 32. Madhan, Simla, 7,000 feet 48 

H 2844. Mahasu, Simla, 8,000 feet 46 

H 2881. Nagkauda, Simla, 8,000 feet 

5. E. theaefolius, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 612; Gamble 18. 
A shrub with wood of structure similar to the rest, but the medullary 
rays are somewhat broader and the annual rings more distinct. 

E 3308. Kangbul, Darjeeling, 7,500 feet. 

2. LOPHOPETALUM, Wight. 

A genus containing 7 species of Indian trees, of which 6 are Burmese, 1 from 
Northern and Eastern Bengal, and 1 from South India. L.fimbriatum, Wight, is a 
tall cylindrical-stemmed tree of the valleys of the Sikkim Himalaya, Sylhet and Tenas- 
serim; and L.Jloribundum, Wight, is a tree of Tenasserim. 

Wood light, soft to moderately hard, even-grained, somewhat shin- 
ing. Pores small to moderate-sized. Medullary rays very fine, very 
numerous, traversed by concentric bands of softer texture. 

1. L. littorale, Kurz i. 255. Kokoona littoralis, Lawson ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 617. Vern. Moondein, Burm. 

A tree. Wood grey, moderately hard, even-grained. Pores small 
and moderate-sized, often oval and subdivided. Medullary rays very fine, 
uniform and equidistant, very numerous ; the distance between the rays 
much less than the transverse diameter of the pores. Medullary rays 
traversed by numerous parallel, concentric, wavy lines, which have the 
appearance of interrupting the rays, thus forming a succession of wavy, 
concentric bands. 

Pegu and Tenasserim. 

Weight, on an average, 35 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 

B 278. Burma (1867) 27 

B 2513. (1862) 36 

B 2300. Andaman Islands (18GG) .... 41 



SO cKi.Asi i IM,.I:. [ Lopkopetalwm. 

2, L. Wightianum, Arn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 615, ; Beddome t. 145. 
Vern. Bolpale, Kan. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood reddish grey, moderately hard, close- 
grained, structure similar to that of L. litforale. Pores somewhat 
larger, and less numerous. Medullary rays prominent on a radial 
section. 

Western coast from the Konkan to Cape Comorin. 

Weight, 28 to 29 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is much esteemed in South Kanara 
where it is used for house-building. 

Iba. 

W 723. South Kanara ......... 29 

W 853. ......... 28 

3. L. Wallichii, Kurzi. 255; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 615. Vern. Mong- 
taing, moondein, Burm. 

To this species we refer B 1947 (31 Ibs.) sent from Tavoy under the 
name Kanazo-ta-loo, Burm., and B 2248 sent in 1866 from the And am an s 
under the name of Toung-hmat/o. The structure is similar to that of 
L. littorale, but the pores are more scanty, moderate-sized and arranged 
in short radial lines. Medullary rays less numerous, slightly broader, 
and not of uniform width. 

The wood is moderately hard ; it is recommended by Kurz for furniture. It is said 
by Major Ford to be used in the Andamans for writing-boards, and the bark, root and 
fruit as a febrifuge. 

3. CELASTRUS, Linn. 

This genus includes 2 of the genera of the Flora Indica, Celastrus and Grymno- 
sporia ; of the former 4, of the latter Id, species are described. The 4 species of the 
section Celastrus contain, besides C. paniculatus, common to most parts of India, 3 
scandent shrubs of Sikkim, Assam and Eastern Bengal. The species of the section 
Gymnosporia are chiefly erect shrubs, often thorny, chiefly of the Eastern Himalaya 
and the Western Ghats. The only species of interest are those here described. 

Wood close-and even-grained. Pores small or very small. Medul- 
lary rays very fine and very numerous. Most species have concentric 
bands of soft tissue. This does not include C. paniculat-us, which has 
the structure of a climber. 

1. C. paniculatus, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 617 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 
621; Brandis 82; Gamble 18. Vern. Mai kakni, Oudh, Kumaun ; 
Kahundan, rangul, wahranyur, C. P. ; Kanyuni, Bombay; Ruglim, Lepcha. 

A scandent shrub, with yellow, corky bark. Wood pinkish yellow, 
soft. Annual rings distinctly marked by very large pores in the spring 
wood, which diminish in size, and are small in the autumn wood. Medul- 
lary rays very broad. 

Outer Himalaya from the Jhelum to Assam ascending to 4,000 feet, Eastern 
Bengal, Behar, South India :md Burma. 

The seeds give itn oil, which is used medicinally, as are also the leaves. 

ll.s. 

E 2334. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet ...... 51 



2. C. spinosus, Royle ; Brandis 80. (iyiihioxporia Jioy/c/ont, Wall.; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 62U. Vern. Dzaral, Trans-Indus; Kundit, AatH/itiri, 
'jut la Id, leij p/if'/Kiri, hud/o, k<n /< //<//, Pb. ; Kttro, /jiiyruci'tla d<iriui, yi'\i/it 
farm, N.-W. P. 



CELASTEI1 N 

A thorny shrub, with thin, irrey, corky bark. Wood lemon-coloured, 
hard and close-grained, with numerous white, concentric bands. Pores 
very small. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. It cuts like 
boxwood, for which it may become a substitute. 

Outer North-West Himalaya. 

Weight, 49 Ibs. The wood deserves attention as possibly suitable for carving and 
engraving. 

Ibs. 

P 913. Salt Range, Punjab 49 

P 2932. Suni, Simla, 3,000 feet 49 

3. C. senegalensis, Lam. ; Beddome Ixvi. ; Brandis 81 ; Kurz i. 252. 
C. mow tana, Koxb. Fl. Ind. i. 620. Gymnosporia montana, Lawson ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 621. Vern. Sherawane, Trans-Indus ; Talkar, tlajkar, 
mareila, kingaro, khardi, Pb. ; Baikal, gajachinni, C. P. ; Mdl kanyoni, 
Bombay; l)anta, balur, Gondi; Dhatti, Bhil; Bharatti, yekal, Mar. ; 
Danti, dantdnsi, pedda c/iintu, Tel. 

A tall spinescent shrub. Bark -i- inch thick, grey, with longitudinal 
cracks, exfoliating in small scales. Wood pinkish white, soft but close- 
grained ; no heartwood ; no annual rings. Pores small, numerous, 
uniformly distributed. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. 
Faint concentric bands. 

Northern dry and intermediate zones. North-West India, ascending to 4,000 feet, 
Central India and the drier parts of the Peninsula. 

"Weight, 46 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood durable, but not used. The leaves are used 
for fodder, and the branches as dunnage for the roofs of houses. 

Iba. 

C 1162, Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces ..... 
C 2752. Moharli 46 

4. EL^ODENDRON, Jacq. fil. 

1. E. Roxburgh!!, W. and A.; Beddome t. 148; Brandis 82 
Gamble 19. E. glancum, Pers. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 623 ; Koxb. Fl. Ind. i 
638. ' Neerija dichotoma, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 61<6. Vern. Mirandn, pad nun 
la kra, j'anwa, Pb. ; Bakra, shauria, chauli, daleri, mdmri, N.-W. P. 
C/taiirl, -mcf-kiir, Oudh ; CMkyenff,Ijepoh&; Jamrdsi, kola mukha,rohi 
C. P. ; D/iakka, nisur, Gondi; Niru, Kurku ; Aran, tamruj, Mar. ; Bata 
karas, Bhil; Karkava,irknli, sehipa, siri, Tam. ; Nirija, neradi, l>otanskam } 
ktiiiciiiis, boot igi, Tel. ; Bkutraktii, Hyderabad; Nerrelu, Cingh. 

A tree. Bark -^ inch thick^ grey, often blackish, exfoliating in 4- 
sided very small scales. Wood moderately hard, even- and close-grained, 
works and polishes well, light brown, often with a red tinge; the outer 
wood white, but no distinct sapwood ; no annual rings. Numerous, wavy, 
concentric, lighter-coloured bands. Pores small, numerous. Medullary 
rays fine, very numerous, visible on a radial section. 

Sub-Himalayan tr;iet from the Ravi eastwards. Central and South India. 

Weight, 40 to 50 Ibs. (I'vandis) ; 46 (Skinner and Fowke) ; 53 (R. Thompson) ; 40 
(C. P. List) ; our specimens give tin average of 53 Ibs. Skinner, No. 65. 
P = 513 ; Fowke P = 511. 

The wood is often beautifully envied and flaked ; it is used for cabinet work, combs 
and picture frames. The root is said io be a specific against snake-bite, and the bark 
is used in native medicine, said to be a virulent JKM 



88 CELASTiiiNEJJ. [Eltfodendron 

Ibs. 

235. Garhwal (1868) 56 

O 2991. (1874) 48 

183. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 50 

C 1182. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 55 

C 2781. Melghat, Berar 49 

E 2335. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 57 

No. 63. Ceylon Collection 56 



ORDER XXXIL EHAMNE^. 

Contains twelve Indian genera, of which six are climbing or straggling shrubs 
and the remainder shrubs or small trees. The Order is subdivided into four Tribes : 

Tribe I. Ventilaginese . . . Ventilago and Smythea. 
II. Zizyphese .... Zizyplius and Berchemia. 
III. Khamnese .... Rhamnus, Hovenia, Scutia, Sa- 

fferetia, and Colubrina. 
IV. Gouaniea? .... Apteron, Gouania, and Selinus. 

Of the genera not here described, Smytliea and Apteron are scandent shrubs 
of Tenasserim. Hovenia dulcis, Thunb. ; Rook. Fl. Ind. i. 640 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 630 ; 
Brandis 94. Vern. Chamhun, Punjab, is a tree commonly cultivated throughout the 
Himalaya, with a light-coloured, coarse and open-grained wood, and an edible fruit 
with a flavour like that of the Bergamot Pear. Scutia indica, Brongn. ; Hook. Fl. End. 
i. 640 ; Kurz i. 268, is a straggling shrub of Burma and South India. Colubrina 
contains three species, of which Colubrina asiatica, Brongn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 642 ; 
Beddome Ixix. ; Kurz i. 268. (Ceanothus asiaticus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 615.) Vern. 
Kway-nway, Burm., is a large shrub of the coast forests of Burma and Malabar. 
Gouania contains three climbing shrubs, commonest among which is G. leptostachya, 
DC. ; Hook. Fi. Ind. i. 643 ; Kurz i. 269 ; Gamble 19. Vern. Kalalag, Kumaun ; 
Batwasi, Nep. ; Khauta, Orissa; Tayounyonway, Burm., a large climber of the 
Eastern Himalaya, Burma and South India. ' Selinus lanceolatus, Brandis 574, is a 
slender twining shrub of the outer North-West Himalaya, ascending to 4,000 feet. 

Wood hard or moderately hard. Pores small or moderate- sized. 
Medullary rays fine or very fine, numerous, equidistant. 

1. ZIZYPHUS, Juss. 

A genus containing 13 Indian species, 7 of which come from Northern 
and Central India, about 6 from South India, 4 from Burma, and 6 from the 
North-East Himalaya and Assam. Six species are here described. Of the remainder, 
the chief is Z. vulgaris, Lamk.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 633; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 609 ; 
Brandis 85. Vern. Sinjli, simli, ban, ber, kandika, kandidri, Hind., a small tree 
of the arid and northern dry zones. It is found in the outer Himalaya from the 
Indus to the Ravi, ascending to 6,500 feet, cultivated in the Punjab, Beluchistan, and 
Bengal, and semi-wild as far as Italy and the south of France Mathieu FL For. 
p. 60. Its fruit is eaten. 

Wood reddish, moderately hard or hard ; no heartwood. Pores small 
to moderate-sized, often subdivided, between numerous fine or very fine 
medullary rays, the distance between the rays being less than the 
diameter of the pores. 

1. Z. Jujuba, Lam.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 632; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 608; 

Beddorne t. 149 ; Brandis 8(5; Kurz i. 2(i<; ; Gamble 1J). Vern. Ber, 

bacr, ben, Hind. ; A'///, far, Hi'ii^, ; Zccbcn, Burin. ; l\nigJia, rcffi, Tel. ; 

nide, Tarn,; Bhor, Mar.; iieiig<t, Bhil ; Klcnthn, Mai; YclM, Kail. 



Zizyphus. ] RIIAMNEJE. 89 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree, almost evergreen. Bark J inch 
thick, dark grey, nearly black, with long 1 , deep, irregular cracks. Wood 
hard, reddish ; no heartwood ; no annual rings. Pores small or moderate- 
sized, scanty, often oval and subdivided. Medullary rays fine and very 
numerous, uniform and equidistant; the distance between two rays much 
less than the transverse diameter of the pores. Pores frequently joined 
by very fine, wavy, interrupted, concentric lines. 

Cultivated throughout India and Burma. Its original habitat doubtful. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 135, 58 Ibs. ; Cunningham, 57 Ibs. ; our speci- 
mens give from 43 to 52 Ibs. Cunningham gives the value of P as 495 ; Skinner 072. 

Wood used for saddletrees and agricultural implements, oil-mills, and other 
purposes. The fruit is commonly eaten and is much improved by cultivation. 

O 265. Garhwal (1868) *'. 

C 2815. Melghat, Berar 

C 1128. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 43 

1) 1071. North Arcot, Madras 52 

P 885, from Multan, sent under the name of Z.flexuosa, has the same structure 
as Z. Jujuba, but the pores are round and moderate-sized. Weight, 48 Ibs. 

2. Z. mmmmlaria, W . and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 633 ; Beddome Ixix. ; 
Brandis 88. Z. microp/iylla, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 613. Vern. Karkanna, 
Afgh.; Malta, ber, birdr, jhari, kanta, N.-W. P.; Gangr, jangra, Sind; 
Parpalli gidda, Kan. 

A thorny shrub with grey bark. Wood yellow, hard, compact. 
Structure similar to that of Z, Jujuba, except that the pores are larger and 
the medullary rays are somewhat further apart; the distance between 
the rays is less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Drier parts of North-West India and the Dekkan. 

Growth : No. P 2931 shews well-marked annual rings and a fast growth of 2 to 
3 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 43 Ibs. per cubic foot on an average. It is used 
to make fences round fields and gardens. The leaves are threshed out and used as 
fodder for sheep and goats. The fruit is eaten. 

Ibs. 

P 2931. Bhajji, Simla, 3,000 feet 41 

p |^- j Sabathu, Punjab, 3,000 feet 42 

P 442. Ajmere 46 

3. Z. oxyphylla, Edgw. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 634; Brandis 86. Vern. 
Kurkan b6r, Afgh. ; Pitni, Kokan der } amldi, amnia, beri, shamor, Pb. ; 
Giggar, N.-W. P. 

A thorny shrub with thin brown bark. Wood white, moderately hard. 
Pores small, somewhat larger and more numerous on the inner edge of 
each annual ring. Medullary rays equidistant, very fine ; the distance 
between the rays equal to the diameter of the pores. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to the Ganges from 2,000 to 6,000 feet. 
II 2947. Suni, Sutlej Valley, 3,000 feet. 

4. Z. (Enoplia, Mill.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 634; Beddome Ixix.; 
Brandis 86; Kurz i. 266. Z. Napeca, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 612. Vern. 
Makai, Hind. ; Shyakul, Beng. ; Barokoli, Uriya ; Irun, C. P. ; Paranu, 
paramie, porki, Tel. ; Tauzeemvay, Burm. 

A straggling or climbing shrub with rough, dark-grey bark. Wood 
reddish with the structure of a climber. Concentric bands consisting 



90 RHAMNE^. [ ZizypliUS. 

of a great mass of moderate- sized to large pores, often subdivided, 
between closely packed medullary rays, which bend outwards where they 
touch the pores, presenting a reticulate appearance. 

Bengal, Burma, Central and Southern India, 

Used for hedges. The fruit is eaten. 

C 2753. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces. 

5. Z. Xylopyra, Willd.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 634; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 
611 ; Beddonie Ixviii. ; Brandis 90. Vern. Kal-ber, b<'ri, goti, got ah a, 
kakor, chittama, sitaber, ghont, Hind. ; Goti, Tel. ; Goti, bhorgoii, Mar. ; 
Challe, Kan. 

A large scrambling shrub. Bark grey or reddish brown. Wood 
yellowish brown, hard. Pores small and moderate-sized, in patches of 
soft tissue which are often confluent, forming oblique bands. Medullary 
rays fine, equidistant, very numerous, the distance between the rays 
being less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ganges to Nepal, Central and Southern India. 
Weight, 60 Ibs. per cubic foot (Skinner, No. 136) ; our specimen gives 49 Ibs. Skinner 
gives P = 800. Used for carts and agricultural implements. The bark is used for 
tanning ; the shoots and leaves for fodder. The fruit is not edible, but is used to give 
a black dye to leather. 

J Ibs. 

C 2736. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces 49 

C 2764. Melghat, Berar 

6. Z, rugosa, Lam. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 636 ; Beddome Ixvii. ; 
Brandis 89 ; Kurz i. 265 ; Gamble 19. Z. latifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 607. 
Vern. Dhaura, dhauri, Oudh ; Suran, churna, C. P. ; Suran, Mar. ; 
RuJch baer, Jiarray baer, Nep. 

A large scrambling shrub or small evergreen tree, with rough, dark 
bark. Wood reddish, moderately hard, warps. Pores large and 
moderate-sized, oval and subdivided. Medullary rays fine, extremely 
numerous, uniform and equidistant, the distance between the rays much 
less than the transverse diameter of the pores. Pores frequently joined 
by very faint, wavy, concentric lines. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ganges eastwards, Burma, Central and Southern India. 
Weight, 45 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood only used as fuel ; often attacked by insects. 
Fruit eaten. 

Ibs. 

E 2336. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 45 

2. BERCHEMIA, Neck. 

A genus which besides this species contains several erect or climbing shrubs, of 
which the chief is B. lineata, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 638; Brandis ( J1, of the North- 
West Himalaya. 

1. B. floribunda, Brongn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 637; Brandis 91; 
Kurz i. 264 ; Gamble 19. Vern. Kala lag, Kumauu ; Chiaduk, Nep. ; 
Jlungyeong rik, Lepcha. 

A large erect or climbing shrub or small tree. Bark whitish, exfo- 
liating and shewing a purple inner layer. Wood yellow, turning grey 
on exposure, porous. Pores large, oval, subdivided, between undulating 
moderately broad medullary rays. 

Himalaya from the Jhelum to Bhutan. Kha.shi Hills. 

E 2804. Tukduh, Diirjeeling, 5,000 iV-l. 



Vcnlilayo. ] nil A M M 91 

3. VENT1LAGO, Gaortn. 



I 1 ontains 5 speeies of scanaent shruhs. llrsidcs the one described, 2 s 
occnr in Northern and Central India, I in l>unna, 2 in Southern India and 1 in 
ihe Eastern Himalaya and Ui-ngal. V. cl >/rnlat<i. Tul. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 631 ; 
H.andis <)<j. (V. madraspatana, Roxb. Fl. 'ind. i. 629.) Vern. Papri, C. P. ; 

I{(tkfaj>i(a, kala lag, Kuinaun ; 8k<tl >/<l. Mar., is a large climber of the outer Hima- 
laya from Kimiaun eastwards. Southern India and Burma. 

1. V. maderaspatana, Gaertn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 631; Beddome 
Ixviii. ; Brandis 90; Kurz i. 2(12. Vern. Raktapita, Beng. ; Yerra 
cfiicatlif Tel.; Papli, Turn., Kan.; Lokandi, kanwail, Bombay; 
Chorgu, Hyderabad. 

A large climbing shrub. Bark dark grey with vertical cracks, 
exposing the inner surface which has a vermillion colour. "Wood 
greyish yellow, porous, soft; structure similar to that of Berchemia 
Jloribunda. 

Central and Southern India and Burma. 

The bark is made into cordage, and a red dye is extracted from the root. It is said 
also to give a gum. 

C 2920. Central Provinces. 

4. RHAMNUS. 

Contains 7 Indian species, indigenous to the Himalaya and the mountains of the 
Western coast. Besides those here described, R. pensions, Boissier ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
i>:38 ; Brandis 93. Vern. Sherawane, ivurak, Afgh. ; Kukei, nar, nikki kander, 
jalidar, knchnl, Pb., is a small tree of the Suliman and Salt Ranges, and th,- 
Himalaya from the Jhelum to Garhwal ; R. nepalensis, Wall.; Hook. FJ. 
Ind. i. 640, Gamble 19. Vern. Achal, Nep., is a large shrub of the Central and 
Eastern Himalaya and Khasia Hills; while R. Wightii, W. and A., is a large 
shrub of the higher hills of the Western Ghats. 

Wood generally with a brown heartwood, close-grained. Pores very 
small, arranged in oblique tails and bands which generally anastomose. 
Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

1. R. virgatus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 604 ; Brandis 92; Gamble 19. 
R. dahuricns, Pall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 639. R. hirsntus, W. and A. ; 
Beddome Ixx. Vern. Pkipai, ddd&r, tadru, seta pajja, kdnji, mamrdl, 
shomfol, releoHj gogsa, sindrol, mutni, nior, chair, romusk, Pb. ; Thalol, 
chetain, Simla; Tmpo, mail, Tibet, Spiti ; Chato,chedwala,chadub } Hind. 

A shrub or small tree, deciduous. Bark thin, grey, smooth. Sap- 
wood whitish ; heartwood brown, very hard and close-grained. Annual 
rings distinctly marked. Pores very small, arranged in oblique anasto- 
mosing irregular bands of soft texture, forming an irregular net-work. 
Medullary rays line, very numerous, prominent in the meshes of the 
not- work. The structure of the wood is the same as that of R/iamnus 
catharlicus, Linn. 

Throughout the Himalaya and Western Ghats. 

Weight, 56 lb*. per cubic foot. Wood not used, except as firewood. The fruit is 
bitter, emetic and purgative, and is given in affections of the spleen. 

Ibs. 

11 7 ( .. Mashobra, Simla, 7,000 feel ..... 57 

11 2-S77. Nagkanda, Simla. 8.000 ..... 55 

H 3168. Dungagalli, ILuaru, 7,000 .... 



92 RHAMNfc^:. [ RJiamnua. 

2. R. purpureus, Eclgew. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 639 ; Brandis 91. Vern. 
Bat sinjaly iunani zanani, tadra, tundhl y mimarari, kunjij chatcrni, Pb. 

A large deciduous shrub, with thin smooth bark. Wood brownish 
grey, close-grained. Annual rings marked by an interrupted belt of 
pores. Pores very small, in narrow irregular radial belts of softer tissue, 
which often anastomose and have a reticulate appearance. Medullary 
rays fine, numerous, straight, prominent. 

North-west Himalaya from the Indus to Nepal, between 4,500 and 10,000 feet. 
Weight, 411bs. Fruit used as a purgative. 

Ibs. 

H 70. Mashobra, Simla, 7,000 feet 41 

H 2848. Mahasu, Simla, 8,000 

3. E. triquetrus, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 639 ; Brandis 92. Vern. 
'ij Simla; Fagora, gardhan^phulla t Pb. ; Gogsa, ghant^.-^N. P. 

A shrub or small tree, deciduous, with thin grey bark. Wood 
yellowish white, moderately hard, close-grained. Annual rings distinctly 
marked by an interrupted belt of larger pores. Pores very small to 
small, arranged in irregular branching bands of softer tissue, which 
form fantastic patterns. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, short. 

North- West Himalaya from the Jhelum to Nepal, between 3,000 and 6,000 feet. 

H 75. Mashobra, Simla, 7,000 feet. 
H 2903. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 

4. R. procnmbens, Edgew. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 640 ; Brandis 93. 

A small procumbent shrub. Wood yellowish, with the same struct- 
ure as that of R. virgatus. 

Western Himalaya from Simla to Kumaun, between 7,000 and 8,000 feet. 
H 2952. Naldehra, Simla, 7,000 feet. 

5. SAGERETIA, Brongniart. 

Besides the two species described, S. opporitifolia, Brongn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 641 ; 
Brandis 95. Vern. Kanak, gidurddk, drange, girthan, Pb. ; Aglaia, Kumaun, is 
a large shrub of the N.-W. Himalaya. 

Wood close-grained, hard. Pores small, round. Medullary rays 
fine and very fine. 

1. S. theezans, Brongn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 641 ; Brandis 95. Vein. 
Dargola, Simla; Drangu, ankol, kanli, karur, phomphli, kdnda, brinkol, 
chauushy katrain, thum, Mm, Pb. 

A large spinescent shrub. Bark thin, grey. Wood very hard, 
white, with irregular dark-coloured heartwood. Annual rings (?) 
marked by white lines. Pores round, small, in rings of softer texture, 
uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine and very fine, numerous. 

Salt Range and Suliman Range. Wustorn Himalaya from Kashmir to Simla, 
from 3,000 to 8,000 feet. Fruit eaten. 

Ibs. 

H 2946. Bom, SutUa Valley? 3,600 feet 

H 2951. Naldehra, Simla, 7,000 

H 3129. Koti, Simla, 6,000 , 56 

2. S. Brandrethiana, A itch. ; llok. n. Ind. i. 01:2 ; Brandis 95. 

Vern. 'intfyttr, f/u/tcr, Pb. ; Mnintuitii^ Al'y. 



93 

A small dt-cicluous shrub. Bark grey, with long wrinkles. Wood 
yellow,, very hard, close-grained. Annual Brings distinctly marked by 
white lines and by an interrupted belt of pores. Pores small, round, 
numerous, between the white, line, short, very numerous medullary 
rays ; the distance between the rays equal to the transverse diameter of 
the pores. 

Suliman Range and Salt Range, and North-West Himalaya between the Indus and 
the .Jht'lum. 

The i'ruit is sweet and much eaten by Afghans and in the frontier districts. 

P 914. Salt Range, Punjab. 



ORDER XXXIII. AMPELIDE^E. 

The Vines. A large Family containing two genera : Vitis, climbing shrubs, often of 
large si/c ; and Leea, large perennial herbs or shrubs, with large pith. The Vines are 
found in most parts of India, but especially in the moist zones, some of them climbing 
extensively over lofty trees; they have a soft porous wood, with very large vessels 
often filled with water, which runs out on their being cut. V. lanata, Roxb. ; V. 
repanda, W. and A., and V. latifolia, Roxb., are the chief species of the forests 
of the plains of Northern India, while V. himalayana, Brandis. Vern. Phlan- 
kur, Simla ; Zcmardachan, zemaro, Sutlej ; Chappar tang, Kumaun, is a well- 
known large climber of the forests of the Himalaya (H 2913, Simla, 7,000 feet, 
33 Ibs.). Many have curiously twisted or flattened stems. The Grape Vine, V. 
mnifcra\ Linn., Vern. Dakh, dakJci, drdksha, angur, Hind. ; Lanang, Kanawar, has 
been introduced and successfully cultivated in Kashmir and other parts of India. 

The species of Leea are found in the undergrowth of the forests of the Himalaya, 
Eastern Bengal, Burma and the West coast. Some species have fluted stems and very 
large pith, such are, L. macropkylla, Roxb. ; L. aspera, Wall. ; L. robvsta, Roxb. ; 
L. crispa, Willd. ; L. sumatrana, Kurz ; and L. sambucina, Willd. L. robusta, 
Roxb. Vern. Galeni, Nep. ; Pantom, Lepcha (Nos. E 879 and E 2860, Darjeeliug), 
has a moderately hard wood, with broad medullary rays, and is used for fencing and 
temporary huts: L. hirta, Roxb., is a small tree of valleys in the Eastern Himalaya; 
and L. gigantea, Griff. ; Kurz ; i. 280 (No. E 3278 Muraghat, W. Duars), is a small 
tree with moderately hard wood, pores small, radially distributed, and medullary rays 
of two kinds, very broad and fine. 



ORDER XXXIV. SAPINDACEJE. 

Contains about 20 genera of Indian trees or shrubs. Most of these come from 
Burma or Southern India, but the largest genus Acer, the Maple, is almost exclu- 
sively found in the Himalaya. 

The Order is divided into 4 Tribes, viz. 

Tribe I. Sapindeae . . ILemigyrosa, Dlttelasma, Erioglossum, Allo- 

phytlvs, JEsculuf!, Scyphopetalum, Cupania, 
Lepisanthcs, ScJiIcicha'ct, Su}>in<lns, Xcro- 
sj>crin.nm, Nephclium, Pumclia, JIarpulliu, 
ZolUn (/a- iu. 

IT. Acerineue . . Acer and Dolimcu. 

III. DodoQieen . . Dodoncea. 

IV. Stiiphyk'jc . . Staphylea and Turpini<i. 

Hemigyrosa contains two species: //. canescens, Tliwaites Ennm. 5^. .J.08 ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. i. 671 ; Bed dome 1. 161 ; Kurz i. 200 (M'^imra cu,i<>-tim, l\oxl>. Fl. I ml. 
ii. 243). Vern. Nefcota, karadipongan^am. ; Noriri, Td.; Kaluyefte, Kan.; Lohmcli, 
knrjHt, Mar., is a live of Southern India, esprrially tin' C 1 tnmainli'l ('cast and Tenas- 
scrim j and II, dcjicicns, Beddome t. 231 ; Hook. Fl, Ind. i. 071, is a tree of tho 



94 SAPINDACE.E. 

Anarnalai Hills. Ditivhismu Rarak, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 672 ; Kurz i. 297, is 
an evergreen tree of the Pegu Yomas and Tcnasserim. Erioglossum edule, Blume ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 672 (E. rubiginosum, Bi. ; Brandis 108. Sapindus rubiginosa, Bl. ; 
Beddome Ixxiii. ; Roxb. Fl. hid. ii. 282. Pancovia rubiginosa, Baill. ; KUTZ i. 296) 
Vern. Bitha, Hind. ; Ishi rashi, Tel. ; Manipangam, Tarn. ; Tseikchay, Burm. (No. 
23 Brandis' Burma List, 1862, marked Sapindus, 66 Ibs. ex Kurz' MSS.), is a 
large tree of Sikkim, Assam, South India and Burma, said by Roxburgh to have a 
strong durable wood with a chocolate-coloured heartwood. Scyphopetalum rami- 
Jlorum, Hiern. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 676, and Zollingeria macrocarpa, Kurz i. 288. 
Vern. Wetkyotbeng, Burm., are trees of Burma. Cupania contains 9 species, the chief 
of which are C. glabrata, Kurz i. 284 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 676 (Sapindus squamosus, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 282) of Burma and C. pentapetala, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
678. (Schleichera pentapetala, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 275) Vern. Koiki-pura $ ; Purakoi $ . 
Sylhet, a large tree of Sylhet; the rest are small Burmese trees. Of Lepisanthes 
there are two Burmese species ; Xerospermum Noronhianum, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
686 ; Kurzi. 295, is a tree of the Khasia Hills, E. Bengal and Burma, while Harpullia 
cupanioides, Roxb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 692 (H. imbricata, Bl. ; Beddome t. 158), is a 
large tree of the Western Ghats. Dobincea vulgaris, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 696 ; 
Gamble 23. Vern. Samli, Nep., is a large shrub of the Eastern Himalaya. 

Wood generally soft or moderately soft, even grained ; no distinct 
heartwood except in Schleichera. Pores small, or very small, generally 
uniform and uniformly distributed. Medullary rays very line or fine 
rarely moderately broad, often closely packed. Apart from the annual 
rings, no concentric bands except in Allophyllus and Sapindus. 

]. ALLOPHYLLUS, Linn. 

A genus containing 2 large shrubs : that here described, which has trifoliolate leaves, 
and A. zeylanicus, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 673 ; Gamble 22, a shrub or small tree 
of the Eastern Himalaya and Assam, with unifoliolate leaves. 

1. ACobbe, Bl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 673 ; Kurz i. 299. Omitrophe 
Cobbe, Willd. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 268. Schmidelia Cobbe, Beddome Ixxiii. 
Vern. Thaulcjoi, Burm. 

A deciduous shrub. Wood grey, soft. Pores small, scanty, medul- 
lary rays moderately broad, short, joined by numerous white parallel 
and equidistant concentric lines ; prominent on a, radial section. 

Eastern Bengal, South India, Burma and Andaman Islands. 

Lb8. 

B 1988. Andaman Islands (Kurz 1866) l<> 

2. ^ESCULUS, Linn. 

A genus containing two Indian species. The Horse-chestnut, commonly plan toil 
in Europe, i the JE. llippocastanum, Linn. 

Wood white, soft to moderately hard. Annual rings distinct. Pores 
numerous, small or very small, generally abundant in the spring wood. 
Medullary rays uniform, equidistant) very line, very numerous. 

1. JB. indica, Colebr. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 075; Brandis 103. Tho 
Indian Horse-chestnut. Vern. Torjaya, Trans-Indus ; lldne, hani'<li''if, 
Kashmir; Bank/tor, yugu, kanor, pan bar, Hind. 

A large deciduous tree. Hark gn i y, with long horizontal cracks, 

exfoliating in long flakes. Wood white, with a pinkish tinge, si|'t, 

grained. Annual rings marked by a line and sometimes by fewer 



;.VI>ACE;E. 95 

pores in the autumn wood. Pores very small. Medullary rays very 
fine, very numerous. 

North-West Himalaya between 4,000 and 10,000 feet, from the Indus to Nepal. 
AVeight, 34 IKs. per cubic foot. Woo<l used for building, water troughs, platters, 

piirlciiii;- e;ise> and tea boxes. The Tibet drinking cups are sometimes made of it. 

The twi^s and leaves are lopped For I'oddcr. The fruit is given as i'ood to cattle and 

goats, and in times of scarcity is soaked in water and then ground and eaten mixed 

with Hour, by the hill people. 

Ibs. 

H 31. Matiyaua, Simla, 7,000 feet 34 

H 166. Kangra, Punjab (18G6) 

II '.):}<;. Hazara, Punjab 35 

II 770. Kalatop, Punjab, 7,000 feet 34 

2. JE. punduana, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 675 ; Gamble 22. 
JK. ass arnica, Griff.; Kurz i. 286. Vern. Cherinangri, Nep. ; Kunkir- 
kola, ekithca, As. ; Dingri, Duars ; Bolnawak, Garo. 

A moderate-sized, deciduous tree. Wood white, soft, close-grained. 
Pores small, in short radial lines between the very fine, closely packed, 
medullary rays. Aniiiial ring's marked by a faint white line. 

Northern Bengal, Khasia Hills, Assam and Burma, ascending to 4,000 feet. 
Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 36 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
Wood rarely used. 

Ibs. 
E 3139. Buxa Reserve, Western Diiars 30 

3. SCHLEICHERA, Willd. 

1. S. trijuga, Willd.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 681; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
277; Beddome t. 119; Brandis 105; Kurz i. 289. Vern. Kosnm, 
gmsam. Hind.; JRusam } Uriya ; P&sku, may, roatanga, Tel.; Pdva, pn, 
pulachij zolim-buriki, Tarn. ; Sagdi, sctgade, chakota, akota, Kan. ; 
Chendala, Coorg; Puvatti, Kaders; Kassumar, koham, kocham, Panch 
Mehals; Kusumb,peduman } Mar.; Komur,pusku, Gondi; Baru, Kurku ; 
Gyoben, Burm. ; Cong, conghas, Cingh. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark ^ inch thick, grey, exfoliating in 
small rounded plates of irregular shape and size. Wood very hard. 
Sapwood whitish; heartwood light, reddish brown. Pores scanty, 
moderate-sized, often oval and subdivided. White, wavy, concentric 
lines, which may possibly indicate the annual rings. Medullary rays 
very fine, very numerous, wavy, uniform and equidistant, closely packed ; 
the distance between the rays less than the transverse diameter of the 
pores. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards, Central and South India and 
Burma. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments : 

Weight. Value of P. 

Brandis, 1862, No. 22. Burma found 70 Ibs 



1864, 8 experiments with bars 3' X 1" X 1" 
Baker, 4 experiments, 1829 7' X2"x2 v 
Wallich, No. 179 (Scytalia trijuga) 
Smythies, 1878, with our 8 specimens 
A. Mendis, Ceylon Collection, No. 47 



68 

68 

60 

67'5 

57 



1160 
618 



The wood is very strong and durable ; it is used for o 1, i oe and sugar mills, and 



96 SAPINDACE.E. [ SchleicJiera. 

for agricultural implements and carts. The la 
The fruit is often eaten, and the seeds give an 



for agricultural implements and carts. The lac produced on this tree is highly prized. 

jive an oil used for burning in Malabar. 



Ibs. 

O 206. Garhwal (1868) 65 

O 536. Dehra Dun 65 

C 191. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 66 

C 1110. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 66 

C 2769. Melghat, Berar 62 

W 732. South Kanara 70 

B 319. Burma (1867) 75 

B 2515. (1862) 72 

No. 47. Ceylon Collection 57 

4. SAPINDUS, Plum. 

Four species according to the Flora Indica, but the nomenclature of Beddome and 
Brandis has been altered by Hiern ; it will be convenient to use Brandis' names 
instead of those given in the Flora Indica. S. Danura, Voigt ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i. 684; Kurz i. 298 (Scytalia Danura, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 274). Vern. Nancha, 
danura, Beng., is a small tree of Northern India, Northern and Eastern 
Bengal, Burma and the Andamans, chiefly in the tidal forests. The wood is said by 
Home (Sundarbans List, 1872-73) to be white, and to be used in Lower Bengal 
for boat and house building. 

1. S. emarginatllS, Vahl. ; Beddome t. 154; Brandis 107; Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 279. S. trifoliatus, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 682. The 
Soapnut Tree. Vern. Rit/ia, Hind. ; Bara-rit/ia, Beng. ; Miikta may a, 
Uriya ; Konkudu, Tel.; Pounanga, puvandi, Tarn. ; Thalay marat/iu, 
antaivdla, Kan. ; Areeta, Mai. ; Puvella, Cingh. 

A large tree. Wood yellow, hard. Pores large, joined by concentric 
bands of soft tissue, which contain numerous extremely small pores ; 
intervening are darker coloured bands of firmer tissue, in which the 
very fine, numerous medullary rays are prominent. 

Bengal, South India and Ceylon, often cultivated. 

Skinner, No. 114, gives the weight of the wood at 64 Ibs., and P = 682; it is 
sometimes used for building and carts, but the chief use of the tree is on account of its 
saponaceous berries, which are largely used as a substitute for soap. The root, bark 
and fruit are used in native medicine, and a semi-solid oil is extracted from the seed. 

D 3209. Cuddapah, Madras. 



B 2259 (51 Ibs.) is a white, moderately hard wood sent by Major Ford from the 
Andamans in 1866 : it perhaps belongs to this species. 

2. S. detergens, Roxb. Fl. Ind.ii. 280; Brandis 107. S. Mukorossi, 
Gaertn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 683. The Soapuut of North India, Vern. 
liitha, dodan, kanmar, Hind. 

A handsome deciduous tree with grey bark. Wood light yellow, 
rough, moderately hard, compact and close-grained; annual rings dis- 
tinctly marked by a band of white tissue, containing large pores; the 
pores in the outer portion of each annual ring are very small and unite 
by narrow, concentric, often interrupted bands of white tissue. Medul- 
lary rays not straight, short, fine, numerous, lighter coloured than the 
intervening tissue. Pores and medullary rays distinctly visible on a 
vertical section. 



Cultivated throughout North-Weit In'lh and 

(Jrmvlli Ao\\, \'.\ to 1-5 rin<-V- )"T iin-li nf iM-lins. Weighty il H>-:. Wood not used. 



Sapindus.~\ SAPINDACE2E. 97 

The fruit is very largely used and exported as a substitute for soap ; tlie leaves are 
given as fodder to cattle, and the seeds used in medicine. 

Ibs. 

H 117. Waziri Rupi, Kulu, 4,000 feet 44 

H 3050. Kepu, Sutlcj Vullry, 2,000 

3. S. attenuatus, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind., i. 684; Gamble 23. 
Sapmdus ruder, Kuiz i. 298. Scytalia rubra, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 272. 
Vcrn. Achattaj^Q^} SirhoofuHgchir, Lepcha ; Lai hoi-pura, Sylhet. 

A shrub or small tree with thin grey bark. Wood white, moderately 
hand. Annual rings marked by darker lines. Pores moderately Urge, 
scanty, often in short radial or wavy lines. Medullary rays short, 
white, very fine, numerous. 

Eastern Himalaya, Assam and Eastern Bengal, down to Chittagong. 
Flowers red. Fruit eaten in Sylhet. 

E 3272. Western Duars. 

5. NEPHELIUM, Linn. 

Four indigenous and two introduced Indian species. The Ramlutan fruit is tho 
produce of N. lappaceum, Linn., a tree of the Malay Archipelago. Of indigenous 
trees N. stipulaceum, Beddome t. 135, is found in the forests of the Western Ghats ; 
N. hypoleucum, Kurz i. 293 ; and N. rubescens, Hiern ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 688, in 
Burma. 

Wood red, hard ; prominent wavy concentric bands. 

1. N. Longana, Camb.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 688; Kurz i. 294. 
Euphoria Long ana, Lamk. ; Beddome 1. 156. Scytalia Longana, Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 270. The Longan. Vern. Ashphal, Beng. ; Poovatij Tarn. ; 
Puna, Courtallum ; Wumb, Bombay ; Mai ahcold, Kan. ; Kyetmouk, 
Burm. Morre, Cingh. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Wood red, moderately hard. Pores 
small, numerous, uniformly distributed; the transverse diameter equal 
to the distance between the fine and very fine medullary rays. Prominent, 
wavy bands, broader than the rays, divide the wood into a succession of 
concentric strata which may possibly indicate the annual growth. 

Mysore, Western Ghats and Burma. It is also found in China, where it is called 
Longan. 

Weight, 44 Ibs., Wallich, No. 179 ; 62 Ibs., A. Mendis ; . our specimens give 51 Ibs. 
per cubic foot. The wood is not used, though Kurz says it is good for furniture ; but it 
deserves notice. The fruit (the Longan) is eaten. 

Ibs. 

D 1278. Anamalai Hills, Madras 51 

No. 57. Ceylon Collection 62 

2. N. Litchi, Camb.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 687; Kurz i. 283. Scytalia 
Litchi, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 2(59. The Litchi. Vern. Litchi, Hind, 
(originally Chinese) ; Kyetmouk, Burm. 

A handsome evergeen tree with thin grey bark. Wood red, hard, 
heavy. . Pores small to moderate-sized, the transverse diameter usually 
greater than the distance bet;veen the rays. Medullary rays very line, 
very numerous. Prominent wavy bands, as in N. Longana. 

Introduced from South China, and now cultivated largely iu India for its 
delicious fruit. Weight, about 55 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

3260. Saharanpur. 



98 SAPiNDACE^E. [ Pometia. 

6. POMETIA, Forst. 

1. P. tomentosa, Bth. and Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 691 ; Kurz i. 
295. Pometia eximia, Beddome 1. 157. Vern. Thabyay, Burm.; J?afifo^, And. 

Under this name was collected by Kurz, iu 1866, in the Andaman 
Islands, No. B 1973. It has a red heartwood, large, scanty, uniformly 
distributed pores, prominent on a vertical section ; and closely packed, 
very fine medullary rays ; the wood is traversed by prominent concentric 
lines, which may possibly be annual rings. Weight, 48 Ibs. per cubic 
foot. 

7. ACER, Tournef. 

A large genus of European, Asiatic and American trees, which counts about 14 
Indian species. The species not here described are A. niveum, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind., 
i. 693 ; Kurz i. 289, a very large tree of Assam and Burma; A. stachyophyllum, 
Hiern ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 694, a small tree of Independent Sikkim ;A.isolobum, Kurz ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 694; Kurz i. 289, an evergreen tree of the Martaban Hills from 
5,000 to 7,000 feet elevation; and A. pentapomicum, J. L. Stewart; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 
694 ; Brandis 111. Vern. TeeJcan, kaklcri, kitla, tian, Tcilpattai, serdn, Pb., a tree of 
hot dry places in, the inner ranges of the North- West Himalaya from Kashmir to 
Kumaun. 

The species may thus be distinguished by characters taken almost exclusively from 
the leaves : 

Leaves undivided 
Basal nerves 3 

Leaves white beneath 

Cymes pubescent , A. ollongum. 

glabrous A. niveum. 

Leaves green beneath . . . . . . .A. Icevigatum. 

Basal nerves 5 

Leaves glabrous beneath 

Branches green, serratures of leaves none or very 

indistinct A. siklcimense. 

Branches red, leaves finely duplicate-serrate . . A. Hookeri. 
Leaves pubescent beneath . . . . . .A. stachyophyllum. 

Leaves 3-lobed 

Lobes less than half the length of the leaves . . . A. Thomsoni. 
Lobes deeper than half the length of the leaves 

Lobes lanceolate, acutely serrulate . . . .A. isolobum. 

Lobes ovate, obtusely serrate , . . . . A. pentapomicum. 

Leaves 5-lobed and nerved 

Leaves pale beneath . . . . . . . .A. caesium. 

Leaves green beneath 

Leaves large, serratures distant, simple . . . A. villosum. 
Leaves small, serratures close, sharp . . . A. caudatum. 
Leaves 5- to 7-lobed and usually 7-nerved 

Leaves serrulate A. CampleUii. 

Leaves entire ........ A. pictum. 

The wood of Acer is generally shining and mottled by the medullary 
rays being prominent on a radial section. It is soft and close-grained. 
There is no heartwood, and the annual rings are generally well marked. 
The pores are small and very small, uniformly distributed ; the medullary 
rays fine and very fine, often of two sizes. Concentric medullary patches 
are found in most species. The structure of the wood of the different 
species of Maple, European, Indian and American, is so similar that it 
is very difficult and perhaps impossible to distinguish the different 
by the structure of their wood. 



Acer. ] SAPINDACE^E. 99 

1. A. oblongum, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 693; Brandis 110; 
Gamble 22. Vern. Mark, Pb. ; Pharengala, patangalia, kirmoli, N.-W. P.; 
Mugila, buzimpdla, Nep. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark dark grey, smooth, with 
horizontal wrinkles. Wood light-reddish brown, moderately hard, 
close-grained. Annual rings faintly marked. Pores small, uniformly 
distributed. Medullary rays fine, red, distinctly visible on a radial 
section, giving the wood an elegantly mottled appearance. 

Himalaya from the Jhelum eastwards to Bhutan, up to 6,000 feet. 
Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 45 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
Wood used for agricultural implements and drinking cups. 

Ibs. 

H 221. Garhwal (1868) 45 

H 2944. Sutlej Valley, near Suni, 3,000 feet 

2. A. Isevigatum, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 693; Braudis 110; 
Kurz i. 289 ; Gamble 22. Vern. Saslendi, cherauni, thali kabashi, Nep. ; 
Tungnyok, Lepcha. 

A deciduous tree, with thick, smooth, grey bark. Wood white, 
shining, hard, close-grained. Pores small, scanty. Medullary rays 
short, not straight, fine and moderately broad, prominent. 

Himalaya from the Jumna eastwards to Bhutan, between 5,000 and 9,000 feet, 
Khasia Hills, Tenasserim. 

Weight, 43 Ibs. per cubic foot. Used for planking and tea boxes. 

Ibs. 

E 684. Sepoydura, Darjeeling, 5,500 feet 43 

3. A. sikkimense, Miq. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 694 ; Gamble 22. Verii. 
Palegnyok, Lepcha. 

A small tree, with thin grey bark. Wood shining, grey, annual 
rings distinct. Pores small, very numerous. Medullary rays fine, 
numerous. 

Hills of Sikkim and Bhutan, from 7,000 to 9,000 feet. Mishnii Hills. 
Growth slow, 10 to 15 rings per inch of radius. 

Ibs. 

E 3102. Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 37 

4. A. Hookeri, Miq. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 694; Gamble 22. Vern. 
Lai kabashi, Nep. ; Pale, Lepcha. 

A deciduous tree with brown bark, J inch thick, deeply cracked. 
Wood grey. Pores small. Medullary rays fine, red, very numerous. 

Sikkim and Bhutan, above 7,000 feet. 

Growth moderate, 8 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 37 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
Plants with copper-coloured foliage are not uncommon about Darjeeling. 

E 2338. Kangbiil, Darjeeling, 7,500 feet 3?' 

5. A. Thomsoni, Miq. ; Gamble 22. A. villomm, Wall. var. ; Hook 
Fl. Ind. i. 695. Vern. Kabashi, Nep. 

A large tree, bark thin, grey. Wood greyish white, soft. Pores 
small. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, numerous. 

Hills of Sikkim and Bhutan above 4,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 16 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 44 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 

E 3103. Darjeeliug, 5,000 feet 41 



100 SAPINDACE2E. [ Acer. 

6. A. Caesium, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 695; Brandis 111. Vern. 
Trekhan, tarkhana, tilpattar, mandar, kawri, kalindra, salima, kanzal, Pb. ; 
Kanshin, Tibet; Jerimu, shumanjra, Simla; Kilu, Kumaun. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark grey, exfoliating in long vertical 
strips. Wood white, close-grained, less mottled than that of A. caudatum, 
soft to moderately hard; annual rings distinct. Pores small, numerous, 
uniform, between the fine, very numerous medullary rays. 

North -West Himalaya from the Indus to Nepal, between 7,000 and 11,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 9 to 31 rings per inch of radius, giving an average of 18. Weight, 
40 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood scarcely used ; drinking cups are sometimes made of it 

by the Tibetans. 

Ibs. 

H 33. Matiyana, Simla, 7,000 feet 40 

H 915. Hazara, Punjab, 7,000 41 

g JJ2^-] Nagkanda, Simla, 9,000 . 

H 431. Deoban, Jaunsar, 8,000 40 

7. A. villosum, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 695 ; Brandis 111. Vern. 
Karendera, Simla. 

A large deciduous tree, with thin grey bark. Wood white, moder- 
ately hard, close-grained, beautifully mottled and shining, annual rings 
distinct. Pores scanty, small, uniform, uniformly distributed. Medul- 
lary rays short, fine and moderately broad. 

North-West Himalaya from the Jhelum to Nepal, between 7,000 and 9,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 16 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 38 Ibs. per .cubic foot. Wood 

not used. Leaves lopped for fodder. 

Ibs. 

H 62. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 38 

H 3006. ) 

H 2899. ) " 

H 167. Kangra(1866) 

8. A. caudatum, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 695; Brandis 112; 
Gamble 22. Vern. Kanzla, kandaru, kanjara, Simla; KJiansing, kabashi, 
Nep. ; Yalishin, Bhutia. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree, with dark-grey bark. Wood white, 
with a faint pink tinge, shiny, compact, moderately hard, sometimes 
with small masses of heartwood near the centre. Annual rings distinct. 
Pores small, uniform and uniformly distributed. Medullary rays 
moderately broad, short, giving on a radial section a beautifully mottled 
appearance. 

Himalaya, from the Chenab to Bhutan between 7,000 to 11,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 26 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 43 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 

H 27. Matiyana, Simla, 7,000 feet 45 

H 41. Mahasu, 8,000 44 

H 74. Kalashi, 6,000 41 

H 3007. Nagkanda, 9,000 

9. A. Campbellii, Hook. f. and Th.; Hook. FL Ind. i. 696; 
Gamble 23. Vern. Kalashi, Nep.; Daom,yatli, Lepcha. 

A large deciduous tree, with smooth grey baric. Wood greyish 
white, moderately hard, shining, close-grained. Annual rings marked 
by a thin line. Pores small, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays 
numerous, fine and moderately broad, 



Acer, ] SALMXDA- 101 

Sikkim Himalaya, above 7,000 feet. 

Growth moderate, 8 to 15 rings per inch of radius, but rather faster when young. 
Weight, 38 Ibs. per cubic foot. The chief Maple of the North-East Himalaya. The 
wood is extensively used lor planking and for tea boxes. It reproduces freely either by 
seed or by coppice, and plays an important part in the regeneration of the hill forests. 

Ibs. 
E 436. Eangbiil, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet ...... 37 

E 2337. , ....... 40 

E 686. Sepoydura, Darjeeling, 5,500 feet ..... 37 



10. A. pictum, Thunb. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 696; Brandis 

Vern. Kilpaltar, Irekhan, tarkkana, kakrn, knnzal, kanjar, jerimit, laur, 
Pb. ; Kanckeli, N.- W. P. ; Dhadonjra, Simla. 

A moderate-sized tree, with thin grey bark. Wood white, soft to 
moderately hard, close-grained. Pores very small. Medullary rays fine 
and very fine. 

Outer and Middle Himalaya from the Indus to Assam, between 4,000 and 9,000 
feet. 

Growth moderate, 12 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 41 Ibs. per cubic foot. The 
commonest Maple of the North- West Himalaya. The wood is used for construction, 
ploughs, bedsteads, and poles to carry loads. Tibetan drinking cups are made of the 
knotty excrescences. The branches are lopped for fodder. 

Ibs. 

H 931. Hazara, Punjab, 8,000 feet ...... 41 

H 3008. Nagkanda, Simla, 9,000 ...... 43 

H 432. Deoban, Jaunsar, 7,000 ...... 38 



8. DODON^EA, Linn. 

1. D. viscosa, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 697; Beddome Ixxv. ; 
Brandis 113; Kurz i. 287; Gamble 23. D. dioica, Roxb. and D. angus- 
tifolia, Linn, f . ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 256. Vern. Sanatta, mendru, 
ban mendu, Pb. ; Banderu, C. P. ; Bandurgi, bandrike, Kan. 

An evergreen shrub, with thin grey bark exfoliating in long thin 
strips. Sapwood white ; heartwood extremely hard and close-grained, 
dark brown, with an irregular outline ; annual rings (?) distinctly marked 
by fine white lines. Pores very small, in short radial lines. Medullary 
rays fine, white, very numerous. 

North- West Himalaya from the plains up to 4,500 feet, Punjab, Sindh, South 
India ascending to 8,000 feet and attaining here the size of a small tree, Burma, 
planted throughout India for hedges. 

Growth slow, 11 to 12 rings per inch of radius. The wood is used for engraving, 
turning, tool-handles and walking-sticks, and the branches to support the earth of 
flat roofs. It is likely to be important in re-clothing denuded tracts like the Siwalik 
Hill of Hoshiarpur. 

P 894. Salt Range, Punjab. 

9. STAPHYLEA, Linn. 

1. S. Emodi, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 698; Brandis 114. Vern. 
MarcAob (Serpent Stick), Afg. ; Nagdaun, chitra, chual, ban-bakkru } ban- 
s/lag ali, guldar, kdghania, Hind. 

A large shrub or small tree. Bark grey, with darker longitudinal, 
anastomosing streaks. Wood soft, grey. Pores very small between the 
fine, closely packed, medullary rays. 



102 SAPINDACE^I, [Staphylea. 

North- West Himalaya, above 6,000 feet. 

Sticks are made of the wood which are sold in the hill bazars. They are supposed 
by the Afghans and frontier tribes to have the property of keeping off snakes. 
Weight, 44 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 

H 2900. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 41 

H 3189. Dungagalli, Hazara, 7,000 feet 47 

10. TURPINIA, Vent. 

Contains 2 Indian species, which in the Flora Indica are described as one. T. pomi- 
fera, DC., Kurz i. 292 ; Gamble 23. Vern. Nagpat, Nep. ; Singnok, Lepcha ; Toukshama, 
Burm., is a tree of the tropical forests of Bengal and Burma: while T. nepalensis 
comes from the hills. 

1. T. nepalensis, Wall. ; Beddome t. 159; Kurz i. 292; Gamble 23. 
T.pomifera, DC.; Hook. Fl. Lid. i. 698. Vern. Thali, Nep.; Murgut, 
Lepcha; Nila, Nilgiris. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark -^ inch thick, grey, smooth. 
Wood grey, soft, even -grained. Pores small, very numerous, uniformly 
distributed. Medullary rays of two classes, the first being moderately 
broad, scanty, short, and the second fine, very numerous. 

Himalaya from the Nepal Frontier eastwards, between 4,000 and 7,000 feet, 
Assam, Cachar, Chittagong and Burma. 

Weight, 30 Ibs per cubic foot. Wood not used, leaves given as fodder to cattle. 

Ibs. 

E 649. Sepoy dura Forest, Darjeeling, 5,500 feet .... 30 
E 3108. Darjeeling, 6,000 feet 



ORDER XXXV. SABIACEJE. 

Contains 2 Indian genera, viz. : Meliosma, which is here described, and com- 
prises trees or shrubs ; and Sabia, a genus of about 10 climbing or sarmentose shrubs. 
Among these latter S. campanulata, Wall. ; Hook. Fl, Ind. ii. i ; Brandis 116. Vern. 
Bakcdpata, Kumaun, of the Himalaya from Simla to Sikkim, above 5,000 ft. (H 3030, 
Nagkanda, 9,000 ft. ; H 3193, Theog. 7,000 ft.) ; S. paniculata, Edgew.; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 3 ; Brandis 117 ; Gamble 23 of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna to 
Sikkim and 8. leptandra, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 2; Gamble 23. 
Vern. Simali, Nep. ; Payongrik, Lepcha, of the Sikkim Hills, are the most noticeable. 
They have a soft wood, with large pores and broad medullary rays. 

1. MELIOSMA, Blume. 

A genus containing 7 species of Indian trees. Two are found in North-West 
India, four in the Eastern Himalaya, one in Burma and three in South India. Of 
those not here described , M. pungens, Wall. ; Brandis 116. Vern. Gardar, kharas, 
Kumaun, is a tree of the North- West Himalaya from the Indus to Nepal, but nuv 
west of the Sutlej; M. Wightii, Planch. (M. pungens, Bedd. Ixxvii). Vern. Tode, Nilgiris, 
is a tree of the Western Ghats often called Hill Mango by Europeans, but not used ; M. 
Arnottiana, Wight ; Beddome 1. 160. Vern. Hull makay, Nilgiris ; Massivtira, Mysore, 
is a large tree of the hills of South India, above 4,000 ft. elevation. Beddome says the 
heartwood of old trees is striped red and white, but that the timber is worthless. J\f. 
pinnata, lloxb. Fl. Ind. i. 104 ; Gamble 23. Vern. Bolay, Nep. ; Batiwa, Sylhet, is a 
Targe tree of the outer Eastern Himalaya and Khasia Hills, whose wood is used for 
house-building. 

Pores small, arranged in groups, or iu short radial lines. 



Meliosma.] UIACE.E. 103 

1. M. dillenisefolia, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 4 ; Brandis 115 ; Gamble 
23. Vern. Porda, parenga, philli, Simla; Gtoep, N.-\V. P. 

A small deciduous tree, with dark-grey bark. Wood white, soft, 
even-grained. Annual rings marked by a continuous line of pores. 
Pores small, in rounded groups of from ten to twenty, except along the 
annual rings. Medullary rays wavy, moderately broad and line, dis- 
tinctly marked on a radial section. 

Throughout the Himalaya, from 4,000 to 11,000 feet, from the Sutlej to Bhutan. 
Growth moderate, 4 to 6 rings per inch of radius ; weight, 35 to 38 Ibs. per cubic 

foot. 

Ibs. 

H 60. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet .38 

H 2892. 35 

2. M. simplicifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 103 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 5 ; Bed- 
dome Ixxvii. ; hrandisllG; Kurz i. 301; Gamble 23. Milling Ionia, Roxb. 
Vern. Kosru, Nep. j Hinyman, Lepcha; Kuko, Mechi ; Dilru, Ass.; 
Dantrungi, Sylhet; Rong, Chittagong ; Gokpak, Magh. 

An evergreen tree. Wood reddish, moderately hard, warps, Pores 
small and moderate-sized, single or in short radial lines, numerous, 
uniformly distributed. Medullary rays moderately broad, very numer- 
ous. 

Eastern Himalaya, Assam, Chittagong, Burma, South India and Ceylon. 
Weight, 36 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 
E 2339. Sivoke, Darjeeling Terai 36 

3. M. Wallichii, Planch. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 6 ; Gamble 24. Vern. 
DaMalli, nunewalai, Nep. ; Himan, Lepcha. 

A large deciduous tree. Wood white, very soft, spongy. Pores large, 
in scattered groups of five to ten. Medullary rays broad and fine, dis- 
tinctly marked on a radial section. 

Eastern Himalaya and Khasia Hills, above 5,000 feet. 

Growth moderate, 8 to 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 18 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
Wood used only for firewood and occasionally for boxes. 

Ibs. 
E 361. Rangbiil, Darjeeling, 7,000 ft 18 



ORDER XXXVI. ANACARDIACE^. 

Contains 19 Indian genera of trees, rarely shrubs or climbers. Many of the species 
are very important forest trees, and they are dispersed over the whole of India, but most 
particularly in Madras and Burma. They have often an acrid, milky juice, and 
several species give a varnish. Some species have only a soft wood, while others have 
a hard, often brightly coloured heartwood. The Order is divided into two Tribes, viz. 

Tribe I. Anacardieae . . . Rhus, Pistacia, Mangifera, Anacardium, 

ouea, Gluta, Buchanania, Melanor- 
rhoea, Swintonia, Solcnocarfits, Tapir ia, 
Odina, Parisliia, Scrnccarpus, Dri- 
my carpus, Roligarna and Nothopcgia. 
II. Spondiea3 . . . Spondias and Dracontomelum. 

Twelve of the genera are here described, while of the rest Tapiria contains only 
one climbing shrub of the Eastern Himalaya and Eastern Bengal down to Chittagong, 
T. Jitrsuta, Hook, f . ; Kurz i. 320; Gamble 24 Vern. Maskul-lara, Nep.; Rcnchilhn/- 
rilc, Lepcha. Swintonia contains three species, two of which are found in TeMMerim ; 



ANACARDIACE.E. \_RhltS, 

while of the third, 8. SchwencJcii, Teysm. and Binnend. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 26 ; Kurz i. 
316, herbarium specimens were sent from Chittagong accompanying E 1964. Vern. 
Boilam, boilsur, Beng. ; Sambung, sanginphroo, Magh ; Shibika, Chakma ; Thayet san, 
Burm., which has unfortunately been mislaid. It is a very large tree of the Eastern 
Peninsula from Chittagong southward and, especially in Chittagong, is remarkable by 
its tall straight, white stem and handsome foliage, which is tinged with red in the cold 
season. The wood is sometimes used for boats and is said by Major Lewin to last 
better than other woods in salt water. Solenocarpus indica, W. and A. ; 
Beddome t. 233, is a tree of the Western Ghats. Parishia insignia, Hook. f. is a 
large handsome evergreen tree of Tenasserim and the Andaman Islands. Nothopegia 
contains three small trees of the Western Ghats ; and Dracontomelum mangiferum, 
Bl. Vern. Gunradah, And., is a large evergreen tree of the Andaman Islands. 

According to the structure of the wood the genera of this family 
may be divided into two series. The first series which comprises Mela- 
norrhcea, Gluta, Bouea and Mangifera is characterized by closely packed 
medullary rays and somewhat scanty pores, of these the first three genera 
have hard and dark-coloured heartwood. The second series comprises 
HJius, Pistacia, Anacardium, Semecarpus, Odina, Buchanania, Spondias, 
and Drimyvarpus, and is marked by numerous fine, medullary rays, which 
are not closely packed, and numerous small or moderate-sized pores. The 
wood of the genera of this group is soft, and except that of Pistacia, R/ius 
and Odina, has no heartwood. The heartwood of Pistacia is hard and 
that of Odina moderately hard. 

1. RHUS, Linn. 

Contains 11 species, chiefly Himalayan. Rhus parviflora, Roxb. Fl. lud. ii. 100; 
Brandis 119. Vern. Tunga, rai tung, dungla, tumra, ranel, Hind., is a shrub of dry 
slopes of the N.-W. Himalaya and of the hills of Central India, with a yellowish, close- 
grained wood. R. Ichasiana, Hook. f. and R. Griffithii, Hook. f. are small trees of 
the Khasia Hills and Chittagong, while R. paniculata, Wall., is found in Bhutan 
and in Burma. R. Coriaria, Linn., is the Sumach tree of Europe, whose leaves are 
used in tanning in the preparation of Morocco leather. 

Wood grey, soft except in R. mysorensis, often streaked, with a yellow 
or brown heartwood. Pores small, often large and in continuous porous 
belts in the spring wood,- Medullary rays fine and moderately broad. 

1. R. Cotinus, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 9; Brandis 118. Vern. 
Padn, Ihdn, manu, banthra, tung, tilri, Pb. ; Tunga, tuny, chanidt, ami, 
N.-W. P. 

A shrub or small tree, deciduous. Bark thin, reddish brown, rough. 
Wood moderately hard ; sapwood small, white ; heartwood mottled, of a 
rich dark yellow colour. Annual rings marked by a belt of moderate- 
sized and large pores, the pores in the autumn wood very small, arranged 
in long, irregular j radial groups. Medullary rays fine, short. 

Suliman Range, North-West Himalaya to Kumaun, ascending to 6,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 32 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 56 Ibs. per cubic loot. Used 
in South Europe for inlaid and cabinet work. In the Himalaya the twigs aiv used 
for basket-making, and the bark and leaves for tanning. 

Ibs. 

H 85. Bhajji, Simla, 6,000 feet 

II 3182.. Dofigagalli, H;i/.ara 

2, R. mysorensis, Hcyne ; Hook. Fl, Ind. ii. 0; Beddome Izxviii. j 

Brandis 11U. Vern. Dasttnii, Ajmere. 



AXACARDIACi l()5 

A small shrub with thin browii bark. Wood hard, pinkish yellow, 
close-grained, heavy. Pores moderate-sizecl, evenly distributed. Me- 
dullary rays fine, very numerous, wavy, bent where they touch the pores. 

Suliman Range, Sind, Punjab, Rajputana and the Dekkan. Wood used only for 
fuel. 

P 3231. Nagpahar Forest, Ajmere. 
P 3248. Ajmere. 

3. R. semialata, Murray; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 10; Braudisll9; 
Gamble 24. R. buckiamela, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 99. R. javanica. Linn. ; 
Kurz i. 319. Vern. Tatri, titri, chechar, arkhar, arlcol, frakri, diidla, 
kakkeran, wdnsh, hulashing, Pb. ; Rashtu, Sutlej ; DaJchmildy ddsivila, 
N.-W. P. ; Bakkiamela, bhagmili, Nep. ; Takhril, Lepcha. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, rough, with 
deep vertical furrows. Wood soft, shining, grey with darker streaks. 
Annual rings marked by a broad belt of closely packed large pores, the 
outer belt of each annual ring being often very narrow, with patches of 
very small pores. Medullary rays fine. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Assam, ascending to 7,000 feet ; Khasia Hills. 
Growth variable : the Simla specimens had a slow growth of 16 rings per inch, 
while the Daijeeling specimens had grown very fast, 2-3 rings per inch of radius. 
Weight, 26 to 27 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood not used. Fruit eaten by Nepalese and 
Lepchas, who make a wax of it called Omlu, Nep. 

Ibs. 
H 89. Bhajji, Simla, 5,000 feet ....... 26 

H 2942. Suni, Sutlej Valley, 3,000 feet ...... 27 

H 3079. Annandale, Simla, 6,000 feet ......... 

E 2340. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet ...... 27 

4. R. punjabensis, J. L. Stewart ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 10 ; Brand is 
120. Vern. Titri, arkhar, palai, choklu, kangar, kakkrein, dor, rashtu, 
Punjab. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree, with rough dark-grey bark and 
scented aromatic leaves. Wood consisting of alternate layers of soft, 
porous spring wood and hard autumn wood. Heartwood yellowish 
grey, with dark longitudinal streaks, moderately hard. Annual rings 
marked by a broad belt of closely packed large pores ; the pores in the 
rest of the annual rings scattered, small or very small, in groups or 
patches of soft tissue. 

North-West Himalaya, ascending to 8,500 feet. 

Growth slow, 14 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 34 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 

H 19. Matiyana, Simla, 8,000 feet ...... 33 

H 3051. Kotgarh, Simla, 7,000 feet ...... 35 

H 3170. Dungagalli, Hazara ........ - 

5. R. insignis, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 11 ; Gamble 24. Vern. 
Kagphulai, Nep. ; Serh, Lepcha. 

A moderate-sized tree, with thin grey bark. Wood grey, soft heart- 
wood yellowish brown. Pores small and moderate-sized, uniformly 
distributed. Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

Sikkim and the Khasia Hills, v above 4,000 feet. 
Growth fast, 3 to 4 rings per inch of radius. 



T^ o"i r\A *\ 

E 3105.' ] Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 



Ibs. 



106 ANACARDIACE^l. [RhllS. 

6, R. Wallichii, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 11. R. vernicifera, DC. ; 
Brandis 120. Vern. Kambal, gadumbal, rikhali, arkhar, arkol, lohdsa, 
harkii, Punjab ; Akoria, kaunki, bhaliun, N.-W. P. ; Bhdlaio, chosi, Nep. 

A small or moderate-sized tree, exuding, from between the bark and 
the wood, a black acrid varnish, which draws blisters. Sap wood white, 
soft ; heartwood reddish brown, yellow when dry (Brandis) . Structure 
similar to that of R. semialata. 

N.-W. Himalaya, from 2,000 to 7,000 feet. 

The wood is used in the Sutlej Valley for saw frames and axe handles. The juice 
of the leaves is corrosive and blisters the skin. 

H 3078. Annandale, Simla, 6,000 feet. 

7. R. SUCCedanea, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 12 ; Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
98; Brandis 131. R. acuminata, DC. ; Gamble 24. Vern. Tatri, arkol, 
litar, lakhar, rikhul, shash, hurku, Pb. ; Raniwalai, Nep. ; Serhnyok, 
Lepcha ; Dingkain, Khasia. 

A small deciduous tree, with thin bark. Wood white, shining, soft, 
with a small darker-coloured heartwood. Structure similar to that of 
R. semialata. 

Himalaya, from the Jhelum to Assam, Khasia Hills, from 2,000 to 8,000 feet. 
The wood is not used. The juice is acrid and causes blisters, the seeds give a good 
wax, and the tree is planted in Japan along roads and regularly worked for this wax, 
which is of a snow-white colour and is made into candles, 

Ibs. 

H 2907. Nagkanda, Simla, 7,000 feet 32 

H 3167. DuDgagaUi, Hazara 



2. PISTACIA, Linn. 

Contains only one Indian species. The pistachio nuts (pista), which are imported 
into India from Afghanistan, are the produce of Pistacia vera, Linn., a small 
tree of Western Asia, cultivated in South Europe. P. Lentiscus, Linn., a shrub of 
the Mediterranean region, is the true Mastic of Chios. P. Terebinthus, Linn., the 
Terebinth Tree, gives the Chio or Cyprus turpentine, and the galls found on it are 
used in tanning. 

1. P. integerrima, J. L. Stewart ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 13; Brandis 
122. Vern. Kaka, kakkar, kakrangche, kakring, hangar, tungu, Pb. ; 
Kakar singi, Kumaon ; Shue, sarawan } masua, Afg. 

A deciduous tree, with rough grey bark. Sapwood white ; heartwood 
yellowish brown, beautifully mottled with yellow and dark veins, very 
hard. Annual rings marked by a belt of closely packed pores. Pores 
of two classes : those in the spring wood moderate-sized, while those in the 
greater portion of the wood are very small, forming interrupted, wavy 
lines, and grouped in irregular, narrow patches, which are frequently 
arranged in zigzag lines. Medullary rays fine, very numerous. 

Suliman and Salt Eanges, outer North-West Himalaya, ascending to 6,500 feet and 
extending east as far as Kumaon. 

Growth moderate, 8 to 9 rings per inch of radius. AWight, 54 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
The wood is u^ed for furniture, carvings and all kinds of ornamental work. It is 
iiMially sold in the hill bazars and particularly at Simla, in the form of thick short 
planks. The leaves are lopped for fodder for buil'alocs and camels, and the galls are 
used in native medicine. 



Pis/ada.] ANACAIIUIACEJJ. 107 

Ibs. 



H 6. Julung, Simla, 4,000 feet . 

H 11. Komharscn, Simla, 6,000 feet 

H 160. Hazara, Punjab (1866) 

H 926. Hazara, Punjab 

H 898. Murree, Punjab, 7,000 feet 

H 227. Garhwal (1868) 

H 2930. Simla, 6,000 feet 



50 
52 
46 
56 
60 
63 



3. MANGIFERA, Linn. 

Besides the 3 species here described: M. longipes, Griff. ; Kurz i. 303. Vern. 
T7iayet-thee-nee, Burin., is an evergreen tree of the swamp forests of Burma ; and 
M.fcetida, Lour. Vern. Lamote, Burm., a large tree cultivated in Southern Tenas- 
serirn for its fruit. 

No heartwood. Wood soft, somewhat spongy. Pores large, promi- 
nent on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine, generally closely packed. 
Numerous, fine, wavy, concentric lines. 

1. M. indica, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 13; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 641; 
Beddome t. 162; Brandis 125; Kurz i. 304; Gamble 24. The Mango 
Tree. Vern. Am, Hind. ; Ghari am, Ass. ; Jegac/iu, Garo ; Marka, Gondi ; 
Ambe, Kurku; Amba, Mar.; Mad, mangas, Tarn. ; Mamadi, mamul, Tel. ; 
Mavena, mdvu, Kan.; Maca, Mai.; Thayet, Burm. 

A large evergreen tree. Bark thick, dark grey, nearly black, rough 
with numerous small fissures and exfoliating scales. Wood grey, coarse- 
grained, soft. Pores scanty, moderate-sized and large, distinctly marked 
on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays fine, wavy, closely packed. 

Wild on the Western Gliats, cultivated all over India. 

Weight, 41 Ibs. per cubic foot (our specimens); 37 (Puckle) ; 42 (Skinner, No. 90) ; 
44 (Cunningham); 41 (Baker) : the average giving about 41 Ibs. 

Puckle's three Mysore experiments with bars 2' X 1" X 1" gave P = 587 ; 
Cunningham's two experiments with similar bars gave P = 650 ; Skinner's P = 632 ; 
and Baker's with bars 6' X 2" X 2" ; P = 471. The wood is used for planking, doors and 
window frames, in Calcutta for packing cases, and in Behar for indigo boxes ; canoes 
and Masula boats are made of it. The tree is, however, chiefly grown for the sake of 
its fruit ; its bark gives a gum, and its seed contains gallic acid, is used in medicine 
and is sometimes eaten. It is generally propagated by layers and grafts ; plants raised 
from seed will sometimes produce good fruit, but there is no dependence to be placed 
on the quality of the fruit of such trees. The seeds do not retain their vitality long, 
but germinate well if sown when quite fresh. 

Iba. 

E 637. Goalpara, Assam 48 

B 2302. Assam 38 

E 3131. Calcutta 41 

E 1957. Chittagong 39 

D 2053. Mysore 39 

2. M. caloneura, Kurz i. 305; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 14. Vern. 1'au- 
thayet, Burm. 

An evergreen tree. Wood light brown, moderately hard. Pores 
large, scanty, prominent on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine, 
very numerous. Fine, wavy, concentric lines. 

Burma. 

Weight, 35 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs 

B 294. Burma (1867) 38 

B 2519. (1862) 32 



108 ANACARDIACE^I. \_Manffifera. 

3. M. sylvatica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 644; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 15^ Kurz 
i. 304; Gamble 24. Vern. Bun am, Ass.; Lakshmi am, Sylhet; 
Chuchi am, Nep. ; Katur, Lepcha ; Hseng neng thayet, Burm. 

A large evergreen tree with a thick grey bark. Wood grey, moder- 
ately hard. Structure the same as that of M. caloneura, but the 
medullary rays are less distinct and less numerous. Numerous wavy, 
concentric lines. 

Nepal, Eastern Bengal and the Andamans ; rare in Burma. 

Weight, 34 to 41 Ibs. Wood not used, but worth trial for tea boxes. The fruit is 
sometimes eaten fresh or dried. It is also used medicinally. (Roxb.) 

ibs. 

E 594. Kookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai . . . . . .41 
E 952. Golaghat, Assam 34 



4. ANACARDIUM, Rottb. 

1. A. occidental^ Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 20; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 312; Beddome t. 163 ; Kurz i. 310. The Cashew Nut Tree. Vera. 
Knju, Hind. ; Hijuli, Beug, ; Kola mava, mundiri, Tarn. ; Jidi mamidi, 
Tel. ; Jidi, Ketnpu geru, Kan. ; Thee-hoJi thayet., Burm. 

A small evergreen tree, with rough bark. Wood red, moderately hard, 
close-grained. Pores large, prominent on a vertical section. Medullary 
rays indistinct. 

Originally from South America, now established in the coast forests of Chittagong, 
Tenasserim, the Andaman Islands and South India. 

Growth moderate, 8 to 11 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 38 to 39 Ibs. per cubic 
foot. The wood is used for packing cases in Burma, for boat-building and charcoal. 
The nuts are roasted and eaten as dessert, they also give, by expression, a yellow 
oil similar to almond oil. The pericarp of the fruit gives a black acrid oil which is 
called ' cardol ' and gives an acid called ' anacardic acid.' The oil is very caustic, raises 
blisters and is used for warts, corns, and ulcers ; it is also used to prevent the attacks of 
white ants to wood-work and of insects to the binding of books, and in the Andamans to 
colour and preserve fishing lines ; the enlarged pedicels of the fruit are eaten. 

ibs. 

B 2227 38 

B 2229. Andamans (1866) . 39 

5. BOUEA, Meissner. 

1. B. burmanica, Griff. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 21. J5. opposilifolia, 
Meissn. ; Kurz i. 306. Mangifera oppositifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 640. 
Vern. Meriam, may an, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree with dark -grey bark. Wood grey, 
hard, with a dark reddish brown heartwood. Pores scanty, moderate- 
sized, prominent on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine, numerous, 
undulating. Wavy concentric lines dividing the wood into a succession 
of concentric bands, which may possibly be annual rings. 

Burma and Andaman Islands. 

Wright, 55 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is not specially used, but is said hy 
Roxburgh to be very durable. The tree has an edible fruit, for which it is often 
cultivated. 

MM, 

B 2213. Andamans (1866) 55 



GlllUt.'] .CARDIAC^ 109 

6. GLUTA, Linn. 

Contains 3 species: one (that ln-iv described) from South India, and two from 
Burma, viz. : G. tavoyana, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 22 ; Kur/ i. 309. Vern. Thayet- 
tliifx>/, Burin., and G. dci/anx, Wall. ; Kur/, i. 3<> ( .), small trees of the Tenasserini coast. 
Kurz says that the wood when steeped in ferruginous mud turns jet black, looking like 
ebony, and that it is used for building, for boxes and for dyeing. 

1. G. travancorica, Beddome t. 60 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 22. Vern. 
Shencurungi, Tinnevelly. 

A very large evergreen tree, bark J inch thick, grey. Sapwood light- 
reddish grey ; heartwood dark red, very hard and close-grained, beauti- 
fully mottled with dark and light streaks. Pores moderate-sized, 
scanty, filled with resin. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous, promi- 
nent, visible on a radial section as narrow bands. Numerous white, 
undulating, concentric lines and bands, of lighter colour in the wood. 

Ghats of Tinnevelly and Travancore. 

Growth moderate, 12 rings per inch of radius. Weight, according to Beddome, 
40 Ibs. per cubic foot ; our specimens give 46 and 58 Ibs. The wood is little used, but 
its splendid colour and markings should rapidly bring it to notice as a valuable wood 
for furniture. It seems to season very well, and works and polishes admirably. 

Ibs. 

D 1066. Tinnevelly (some sapwood) 46 

D 3155. (heartwood only) 58 

7. BUCHANANIA, Roxb. 

A genus of 7 Indian species, most of which are trees from Tenasserim and the 
Andaman Islands. B. angustifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 386; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 23 ; 
Beddome Ixxix. Vern. Sara, chara, pedda morali, Tel., is a small tree of South India. 

1. B. latifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 385; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 23; Bed- 
dome t. 165 ; Brandis 127 ; Kurz i. 307. Vern. Chiranli, Pb. ; Pidl, 
paydla, murid, katbhilawa, Garhwal ; Piar t peirak } Oudh; Achdr, char, 
chironji, C. P. ; Saraka, herka, Gondi ; Taro, Kurku ; Cham, Uriya ; 
Kat mad, aima, Tarn. ; Chara, chinna moral, morli, Tel. ; Charwari, 
Hyderabad-; Nuskul, murkalu, Kan. ; Sir, Bhil ; Pyal, charoli, Bombay; 
Lamboben, lonepho, Burm. 

A tree, leafless only for a very short time. Bark J inch thick, dark 
grey, sometimes black, rough, tesselated with deep irregular cracks. 
Wood greyish brown, moderately hard*, with a small dark-coloured 
heartwood. Pores large, round or oval, frequently subdivided, uniform 
and equidistant, prominent on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays 
very numerous, fine, reddish, uniform and equidistant, bent outwards 
where they touch the pores ; marked on a radial section as long, narrow, 
dark-coloured plates, the distance between the rays being less than the 
transverse diameter of the pores. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards, ascending to 3,000 feet. Through- 
out India and Burma. 

Weight, 36 Ibs. (Brandis' Burma List, 1862, No. 10S) ; the average of our specimens 
gives 33 Ibs. The wood seasons well and is fairly durable if kept dry; it is used for 
boxes, bedsteads, bullock-yokes, doors, window frames, tables and the like. The bark 
is used for tanning. The fruit is eaten by the hill tribes of Central India, its kernels 
resemble pistachio nuts ; they are largely used in native sweetmeats, and an oil is 
extracted from them. 



110 ANACARDIACE^J. [Buchanania. 

245. Garhwal (1868) 35 

C 1124. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 29 

C 2751. Moharli 36 

C 2763. Melghat, Berar 

C 1249. Gumsiir, Madras 32 

8, MELANORRHCEA, Wall. 

Contains 2 species : that here described and M. glabra, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 
25 ; Kurz i. 317. Vern. Thitseeben, Burm., a tree of Tenasserim. 

1. M. usitata, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 25; Kurz i. 318. The 
Varnish Tree of Burma. Vern. Kheu, Manipur ; Thitseeben, Burm. ; 
Soothan, Talcing; KiaAonp, Karen. 

A deciduous tree, with dark -grey bark. Wood dark red with yellow- 
ish streaks^ turning very dark after long exposure; very hard/ Pores 
moderate-sized, not numerous, often subdivided. Each pore or group of 
pores enclosed in a small patch of light tissue. Medullary rays very 
fine, wavy, numerous. Numerous white, undulating, concentric lines 
of softer tissue, unequally distributed in the wood. 

Munipur and Burma. 

The following experiments have been made to determine the weight and transverse 
strength : 

Weight. Value of P. 
Benson, in Burma, with hars 3' X T4' 7 X T4". . found 61 Ibs. 526 

Skinner, in 1862, No. 91, 61 514 

Brandis' Burma List, 1862, No. 44 . . . . 54 

Smythies found the average of our two specimens . . 59 
The wood is used for tool handles, anchor stocks, and has lately been recommended 
for building, railway sleepers, gun-stocks and other purposes. It gives a black 
varnish, used to cover buckets to make them watertight. This varnish is used by the 
Burmese in lacquer work, as size in gilding, for writing in palm-leaf books, and for 
many other purposes. It has been used in medicine as an anthelmintic with great success. 

Ibs. 
B 551. Moulmein, Burma ........ 56 

B 2518. Burma (1862) 62 

9. ODINA, Roxb. 

1. 0. Wodier, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 293; Hook. PI. Ind. ii. 29; 
Beddome t. 123; Brandis 123; Kurz i. 321; Gamble 24. Vern. 
Kiamilj kimul, kamldij kashmala, jhingan, mowen, mohin, moyen, 
ginyan, Hind. ; Garja, Bijeragogarh ; Bara dabdabbi, halloray, Nep. ; 
Jiyal,loharbhadi, 1 &Qiig.; Gob, Ajmere; Wodier, wude, Tarn.; Gumpini, 
gumpna, dumpini, dumpri, dumper, Tel. ; Kaikra, gumpri, gharri, Gondi ; 
Kekeda, Kurku ; Shimti, punil, gojal, Kan. ; Moi, moja, moyc, Mar. ; 
Hneingpyoing, Magh; Nabhay, Burm. 

A moderate-sized or large deciduous tree with few branches. Bark J- 
inch thick, compact, grey, smooth, exfoliating in small irregular plates. 
Sapwood large ; heartwood light red when fresh cut, turning reddish 
brown on exposure, moderately hard, close-grained, seasons well and does 
not warp, not very durable. Pores moderate-sized, uniformly distributed, 
often subdivided. Medullary rays fine, numerous, short, bent where they 
touch the pores. 

Suli-lI'mwLiyan tract from the Indus eastwards, ascending to 4,000 feet. For, 
nl' Iii'li;) and Burma. 



Odin a. ] 






111 



The following experiments have been made to determine the weight and transverse 
strength : 



Skinner, No. 101, 1862 

Benson, Burma wood, bars 3' X 1'4" X I'l" 
Brand is, No. 46, Burma List, 1862 . 
Smythies, 1878, our specimens (omitting the very old 
pieces and sapwood) ...... 



Weight, 
found 50 
60 
65 

50-5 



Value of P. 

821 

281 



The wood is used for spear-shafts, scabbards, wheel-spokes, cattle-yokes, oil-presses 
and rice-pounders ; it might be good for cabinet work. It has been tried for sleepers 
both in Madras and in the Oudh and Rohilkhand Line, but has not succeeded. The 
tree is pollarded for fodder, especially for elephants ; its bark is used for tanning ; it 
gives a brown, clear, brittle gum used by the Nepalese as paper-sizing, by weavers in 
cloth-printing, and in native medicine. With regard to this gum, Captain Campbell, 
writing from Kumaun, says : " It sells at Rs. 2 per maund, and is used in mixing with 
lime when white-washing ; it is also used for pasting, and is exported annually to the 
amount of about 100 maunds from Garibolchand forest in the Kuinaon Bhabar." 

Ibs. 
35 
43 

38 
41 
38 
48 
46 
48 
44 
61 
64 
35 
60 



H 3049. 


Kumharsen, Sutlej Valley, 


2,500 feet (sapwoo 


P 447. 


Ajmere 


. 


P 3225. 
226. 


Nagpahar, Ajmere 
Garhwal (1868) . 









O 2992. 


(1874) . . 


. 






C 202. 


Mandla, C. P. (1870) . 


, 






C 1103. 


Ahiri Reserve, C. P. 


, 






E 661, 


Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 






E 2342. 












E 3399. 


Chittagong 








E 1965. 


s 


. 






B 1414. 


Tharrawaddy, Burma . 








B 2517. 


Burma (1862) 








B 516. 


Andaman Islands 


. 







10. SEMECARPUS, Linn. fil. 

Contains about 6 Indian species, mostly Burmese. Amongst them, besides the 
species described, the most important are : S. travancorica, Beddome t. 232 ; Hook. 
El. Ind. ii. 31. Vern. Natu shengote, Tarn. ; and S. aur iculata, Bedd., large handsome 
trees of the Tinnevelly and Travancore hills. 

1. S. Anacardium, Linn, f.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 30; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 83.; Beddome t. 166; Brandis 124; Kurz i. 312; Gamble 25. The 
Marking-nut Tree. Vern. Bhilaiva, bheyla, Hind. ; Bhalai, Nep. ; Bhela, 
bhelatuJei, Beng. ; Bhallia, Uriya; Kongki, Lepcha; Bawara, Garo ; 
kohka, biba, Gondi ; Shaing, Shayrang, Tarn. ; Jiri, jidi, nella-jedi, Tel. ; 
Gheru, Kari gheru, Kan. ; Bibwa, bibu, Mar. ; Chyai beng, Burm. 

A deciduous tree, bark J inch thick, dark brown, rough, exfoliating 
in very irregular inner patches; inner bark fibrous. Wood greyish 
brown, often with yellow streaks, soft, no annual rings. Pores scanty, 
moderate-sized, frequently subdivided, well marked on a vertical sec- 
tion. Medullary rays numerous, moderately broad, reddish ; prominent 
on a radial section as long, narrow, dark-coloured plates. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej eastwards, ascending to 3,500 feet ; forests of 
India, extending to Chittagong but not to Burma. 

Weight, 42 Ibs. per cubic foot (Brandis) ; 37 Ibs. (Wallich, Anacardium httifofium, 
No. 4) ; 27 Ibs. (Kyd) ; the average of our specimens gave 37 Ibs. Kyd's experiments 
with bars of Assam wood 2' X 1" X 1" gave P = 197. The wood contains an 
acrid juice which causes swelling and irritation, and timber-cutters object to felling 



112 ANACARDIACEJ:. [Semecarpus, 

it ; it is not used. The ripe fruit is much used ; the fleshy cup is eaten, but is best 
either dry or roasted. The pericarp contains an acrid juice which is universally used 
in India for marking ink and in medicine. The ink is improved by the addition of 
lime water. The green fruit is pounded and made into bird-lime. 

ibs. 

C 1157. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 44 

C 2746. Moharli 40 

E 578. Kookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 39 

E 627. Bamunpokri 30 

E 2341. 33 

The Ahiri specimen, C 1157, has pores joined by irregularly-shaped soft tissue across 
the medullary rays, and has a harder and closer-grained wood than the Darjeeling 
specimens ; the bark is, however, that of 8. Anacardium, and there is no reason to 
doubt its identity. The specimens from Darjeeling are marked by the absence of 
the lines of softer tissue joining the pores, and it may be suggested for investigation 
whether they do not come from a different species of Semecarpus. 

11. DRIMYCARPUS, Hook. f. 

1. D. racemosus, Hook, f . ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 36; Kurzi. 314; 
Gamble 26. Holigarna racemosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 82. Vern. Kagi, 
Nep. ; Brong, Lepcha ; Telsur, Beng. ; Amdali, Ass. ; Chengane, 
sangaipru, sangryn, Magh ; Amjour, Sylhet. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood greyish yellow, hard, close-grained. 
Pores large and moderate-sized, sometimes subdivided, each pore in a 
narrow white ring. Medullary rays short, moderately broad, uniform 
and equidistant, joined by innumerable faint, transverse lines. 

Eastern Himalaya from 2,000 to 6,000 feet, Khasia hiUs and Sylhet to Chitta- 
gong, Pegu. 

Weight, 61 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used occasionally in Assam for canoes and 
planking ; in Chittagong for boats, for which it is one of the woods most employed. 
Major Lewin says that boats 50 feet long and 9 feet in girth are sometimes cut. 

Ibs. 
E 722. Chittagong ... .... 61 

12. HOLIGARNA, Ham. 

Seven species. H. Arnottiana, Hook. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 36. (H. longifolia, 
Wt. and Arn. ; Beddome t. 167). Vern. Kagira, kutngeri, Kan. ; Hulgeri, Bombay, 
is a large tree of the Western Ghats, where also are found H. ferruginea, Marchand. 
S. Grahamii, Hook. f. (Semecarpus Grahami, Wight; Beddome Ixxix.) and H. 
Beddomei, Hook. f. ; H. Helferi, Hook. f. ; Kurzi. 315 and H. albicans, Hook, f., are 
trees of Burma. 

1. H. longifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 80; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 37. 
Vern. Barola, Beng. ; Khreik, Magh. 

Wood grey with yellowish streaks, soft. Pores moderately large, 
sometimes subdivided, uniform, scanty, prominent as dark lines on a 
vertical section. Medullary rays fine, white, short, equidistant. 

Chittngong and Burma. 

Wood not used. It, like all the other species, gives a black acrid exudation which 
raises blisters and is much dreaded by the hill people. 
E 3287. llinkheong Forest, Chittagong. 

13. SPONDIAS, Linn. 

Contains 3 species, including, besides the one described, S. nt'iimhmttt. Koxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 453, of South India : and S. a.nUaris. K,, x b. Fl. Ind. ii. -15.% of 



Spondiat.] ANACARDIACE^E. 11:> 

1. S. mangifera, Pers. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 42; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 451 ; Beddome t. 1G9 ; Brandis 128 ; Kufz i. 322-; Gamble 25. The 
Hog Plum. Vcrn. Amra, amara, ambndha, Hind. ; Amara, Nep., Ass. ; 
Amtia, Beng. ; Ronchilhiff, Lepolia ; Tonrjroiuj, (Jjiro; Kaf, maa, Tarn. ; 
Aravimamddi, amalum, Tel.; K<itam!)l<tni, Mai. ; Amh, ..lar. ; Atnfe, Kan. ; 
Hamdra, Gondi ; Ambera, Kurku ; Puli Ufa, Kaders; Gway, Burin. 

A deciduous tree, with smooth, grey bark. Wood soft, light grey. 
Pores large, numerous, often subdivided. Medullary rays fine and 
moderately broad, at unequal distances, white, prominent, distinctly 
marked on a radial section as long narrow plates. 

Sub-Himalayan tract, ascending to 3,000 feet in Sikkim ; dry forests of South India 
and Burma ; rare in Central India. 

Weight, 43 Ibs. (Skinner, No. 116) ; our specimens gave an average of 26 Ibs.; Skinner 
gives P = 614. AVood soft, of no value. It gives a gum somewhat like gum arahic. 
The fruit is eaten, and is pickled and is preserved or made into curries; the leave 
acid. 

C 2800. Melghat, Berar 

E 499. Kookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 30 

E 1296. Cachar (Vern. Tundur) 21 

E 1497. Sylhet (Vern. Sutrung] 25 

B 560. Burma 29 



ORDER XXXVII. 
An Order containing one Indian genus of a single species. 

1. CORIARIA, Linn. 

C. myrtifolia, Linn., a shrub of South Europe (Corroyere, French), has leaves 
which are used for tanning and dyeing leather ; its fruit is poisonous. C. sarmentosa 
is a New Zealand shrub the fruit of which is made into wine by the settlers. 

1. C. nepalensis, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 44 ; Brandis 128. Vern. 
Ma8*ri,makola, Hind.; Raselwa^archarru ) pajerfa > Simla ; Bhojinsi Nep. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree. Bark reddish brown, rough. 
"Wood grey, hard, beautifully mottled; no heartwood. Annual rings 
distinct, marked by a belt of numerous moderate-sized pores ; the pores 
of the outer portion of the annual rings are small and often joined by 
interrupted concentric bauds of whitish tissue. Medullary rays very 
broad, short. 

Outer HimaUya from the Indus to Bhutan, ascending. to 8,000 feet in the North- 
West, and to 11,000 feet in Sikkim. 

Growth moderate, 5 to 6 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 47 Ibs. per cubic foot 
The wood takes a good polish, and is very handsomely marked, so it might he used 
for boxes and small articles. At present it is only used for firewood, and is often used 
as such about Simla, 

Ibs. 

H 68. Mnshobra, Simla, 7,000 feet 

H 2853. Mahasu, 7,500 53 

H 2885. Nagkanda, 8,000 41 



] 1 1 MORINGE^:. [ Kloriiiga, 

ORDER XXXVIII. MOEINGEJE. 

1. MORINGA, Juss. 

Wood soft, white. Pores large, scanty, usually in groups of two 
or three. Medullary rays short, moderately broad. 

1. M. pterygosperma, Gaertn.; Hook. PI. Ind. ii. 45 ; Beddome t. 
80; Brandis 129; Kurz i. 68. Hyperanthera Moringa, Roxb. Fl. lud. ii. 
36b. The Horse Radish Tree. Vern. Soanjna, sanjna, senjna, sejna, 
soliajna, sainjan, Hind. ; Sujuna, Beng. ; Swanjera, Sind. ; Munigka, 
Uriya; Morunga, Tarn. ; Saihan, sejan, munga, mulaka, Tel.; Nuggee, 
Kan. ; T)ainfJia } dan-tha-lone, Burm. 

A tree. Bark one inch thick, grey, corky, with longitudinal cracks. 
"Wood soft, white, spongy, perishable. Wood cells large, prominent. 
Pores large, scanty, often in groups or short radial lines of two or three. 
Medullary rays short, fine to moderately broad ; the distance between 
them less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Wild in the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to Oudh ; commonly culti- 
vated in India and Burma. 

The tree is pretty ; it is generally grown on account of its fruit, which is eaten as a 
vegetable and is pickled. The root has a strong flavour of horse radish, and is used 
in medicine as a vesicant. It yields an oil similar to the Sen oil of watch-makers, 
which is not the produce of this but of another species, M. aptera^ Gaertn., of Africa. 
It also gives a reddish gum used in native medicine. The leaves aud flowers are 
eaten as well as the fruit, and the branches are lopped for cattle fodder. 

E 3214. Calcutta. 

2. M. concanensis, Nimmo; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 45; Brandis 130. 
Vern. Sainjna, Rajputana. 

A tree, bark thick, soft, corky. Wood white, soft, in structure resem- 
bling that of H. pterygosperma^ except that the pores are more variable 
in size and the medullary rays rather finer. 

ttajputana, Sind, Konkan. 

Wood apparently not used. The unripe fruit is eaten. 

E 3226. Nagpahar, Ajmere. 



ORDER XXXIX. CONNARACEJE. 

An Order of little importance, containing 4 genera of Indian trees and shrubs, 
found in Ka stern Bengal, South India and Burma. Sourea contains 6 species, four 
being scandent shrubs from Eastern Bengal, Teoasserim, and tbe Andamans ; and one, 
R. santaloides, Vahl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 47; Beddome Ixxxi. from South India. 
Connarus contains (j .Burmese and two South Indian species: one, C. paiiiculntua, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 139 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 5*2. extruding to Chittagong, Syllu't and 
the Klmsia Hills. Cnestls rain'tjloru, Grill'. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 54. (C. platantka, 
(iriir. ; Kur/ i. 328.) Vern. Tankyct Ionic, Burm., is a large climbing shrub of 
Uurnui ; and JMijtanlhus contains three Burmese shrubs or small trees. 



ORDER XL. LEGUMINOS^]. 

The largest Order of Indian trees, shrubs or rlimbers. It contains about 70 genera 
contnininu- spcri.s (lisdibuted over the whole of Icdiii, <-<nuilly in the arid regions ( ,f 



LEflUMINOPJE. 115 

the Inner Himalaya and in the tropical forests of Malabar and Tenasserhn. Many 
of the largest and most important of our forest trees belong to this Order, and with 
few exceptions they produce valuable timbers. It is divided into three Sub-Orders, 
viz. 

I. Papilionacese. 
II. Cipsalpiui' 
III. Mimoseae. 

With the exception of the following- genera, Sesbania, Butea, Ery- 
tJirina, Pongamia, and a few species of Dalbergia (D. lanceolaria and pani- 
culata), the wood of the Leguminosse is characterised by a distinct, hard, 
dark-coloured heartwood. The pores vary in size, but are generally 
moderate-sized, large or very large, and enclosed in rings or patches of 
soft texture, which frequently are confluent, so as to form concentric 
bands. The medullary rays are generally sharply denned, moderately 
broad and equidistant (exceptions are Erythrina and Albizzia). 

As regards the structure of their wood, leguminous trees may be 
most conveniently divided into the following groups, which it will be 
seen do not correspond with the established division of the Order into 
genera : 

A. OUGEINIA GROUP. 

Pores enclosed in elongated patches of soft tissue, which are arranged 
in more or less concentric lines. Exceedingly prominent and straight 
medullary rays. To this group belong Ougeinia dalbergioides, Afzelia 
bijuga, Tamarindus indica, Cassia Fistula, maryinata and the new Cassia 
from the Andaman Islands. 

B. PROSOPIS GROUP. 

Pores enclosed in irregularly shaped patches of soft tissue, which 
are more or less united in concentric bands. To this group belong Pros- 
opis spicigera, and the following species of Acacia, viz. : Farnesiana, 
Catechu, leucophlota^ ebnrnea and pennata. Indigo/era, Piptanthus and 
Desmodinm are nearly allied to this group, but differ by having the patches 
of soft tissue more oblique and less concentric. 

To this group also belongs H&matoxylon campeachianum or <( Log- 
wood/' 

C. DALBERGIA GROUP. 

Numerous, narrow, wavy, concentric bands of soft tissue, sometimes 
interrupted. To this belong all species of Dalbergia, except D. nigres- 
cens, the identification of which is doubtful, all species of PterocarpuSj 
Derris robust a t Cfssalpinia crista or " Redwood, " and Bapkia nitida t the 
" Barwood" of the West African Coast. 



D. BAUHINIA GROUP. 

Numerous, regularly distributed, concentric bands of soft tissue, which 
are broader than those in the Dalbergia group. To this belong Ponga- 
mia glabra, all species of Bauhinia, Cynometra, Cassia Siamea and 
Mi lletlia pe n itu la . 



116 LEGUMINOS2E. 

E. HARDWICKIA GROUP. 

Pores isolated, not enclosed in patches of soft tissue, though they are 
generally surrounded by narrow rings. Concentric bands of soft tissue 
are either wanting entirely, or very scanty. The medullary rays are 
generally undulating. To this group belong Xylia dolabriformis , Hard- 
wickia, Adenantkera, Pipfadenitt, Mimosa, Acacia arabica, modesta 
and ferruginea, Ccesalpinia Sappan and echinala (Brazil or Pernambuco 
wood) . 

Jp F. ALBIZZIA GROUP. 

Pores isolated, generally large, not enclosed in patches of soft tissue. 
None or very few concentric lines of soft tissue. To this group belong 
all species of Albizzia, Acacia dealbata and Melanoxylon, Acrocarpus, 
Sesbania, &udjfialbergia nigrescens. 

G. ERYTHRINA GROUP. 

Pores large. Distinguished by broad medullary rays and broad 
bauds of soft tissue which do not always enclose the large pores. To 
this group belong all species of ISrytkrina, and Buteafrundvsa. 



SUB-ORDER I. PAPILIONACEJE. 

Contains 35 genera, divided into 8 tribes, viz : 

Tribe I. PodaJyriese .... Piptanthus. 

II. Genistese .... Priotropis and Crotalaria. 

III. Galegese Indigofera, Colutea, Millettia, 

Mundulea, Tephrosia, Sesbania 
and Caragana. 

IV. Hedysarese Lespedeza, Alhagi, JEiSchyno- 

mene, Ormocarpum, Ougeinia 
and Desmodium. 

V. Vicese Abrus. 

VI. Phaseoleae .... J^fucuna. Erythrina, Spatholo- 

bus, Butea, Dioclea, Puerana, 
Cajanus, Cylistaaxid. Fleminyia. 

VII. Dalbergiese .... Dalbergia, Plerocarpus, Ponga- 

mia and Derris. 

VIII. Sophorese .... Dalhousiea, Calpurnia, Sophora, 

Euchresta and Ormosia. 

Many of these, however, contain only small shrubs; such are Priotropis, Cro- 
talaria, Colutea, Mundulea, Tephrosia, Caragana, Lespedeza, Alhagi, 2Eschyno~ 
mene, Ormocarpum, Cajanus, Flemingia, Dalhousiea, and Calpurnia: others only 
climbing shrubs ; such are Abrus, Mucuna, Spatholobus, Dioclea, Pueraria and 
C'ylista. 

Of the genera not here described, Sophora contains about six species of which 
S. mollis, Wall. ; JIr:m<lis l.TJ. Vt-rn. Arghawan, Afg. ; Gojdr, Mn, mdlan, titun, 
kathi, brisari, Punjal); P<ili>' //////////, Kuinaun, is a yellow-flowered handsome shrub 
of the Punjab and North-West Himalaya; and Ormosia travancorica, Beddoine t. 45, 
is a tree of the Tinnevelly and Travancore Hills. 

1. PIPTANTHUS, D. Don. 

1. P. nepalensis, D. Don ; Hook. Fl. I ml. ii. 62 ; Bramlis 
Gamble iJ5. Vcni. Jj(tnkurn , Sutlcj ; Skalgari) Kuinaiui. 



Piptanthus.] LEGUMINOSJS. 117 

A shrub with greenish-grey bark. Wood white. Pores small, in 
wavy, oblique and concentric bands, except at the inner edge of the 
annual rings, which are marked by a continuous line of pores. Medul- 
lary rays fine, equidistant. 

II iinalnva from the Sutlej to Bhutan, above 7,000 feet. 

Has handsome, largo, yellow flowers, and is sometimes planted for ornament in the 
hills and in Europe. 

11, s. 

H 3024. Nagkanda, Simla, 9,000 feet 40 



Priotropis cytisoides, W. and A. ; Kurz i. 363 ; Gamble 25, is a yellow-flowered 
branching shrub of the Eastern Himalaya and Burma. Crotalaria contains numer- 
ous shrubs, of which the most important is C.juncea, Linn., the " Sunn Hemp Plant," 
commonly cultivated in India. 

2. INDIGOFERA, Linn. 

Contains a number of Indian species, about 16 of which are shrubs. Few of 
them are of any importance except the Indigo Plant, I. tinctoria. Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. iii. 379 ; Brandis 135. Vern. Nil, Hind, which is extensively cultivated in 
Bengal, the North- Western Provinces, the Punjab, Sind and South India. I. pulchella, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 382 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 101 ; Beddome Ixxxv. ; Brandis 136 ; Kurz i. 
361 ; Gamble 25. Vern. SaJcena, salcna haJcna, Hind.; Baroli, Mar. ; Togri, Bhil ; 
Balori, Kurku; Hikpi, Lepcha ; Taw maiyain, Burm., is a large, handsome, pink- 
flowered shrub of the forests of the Sub-Himalayan tract, South India and Burma; its 
flowers are sometimes eaten as a vegetable in Central India. 

1. I. heterantha, Wall. ; Brandis 135. /. Gerardiana, Wall.; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 100 (var.). Vern. Kati, khenti, mattu, kats, sfiagali,^.; KatU, 
theoi, Simla. 

A small shrub. Bark J inch thick, brown, with longitudinal anas- 
tomosing lines. Wood hard, white, with an irregular heartwood of dark 
colour. Annual rings distinctly marked by a white line and by a con- 
tinuous belt of pores. Pores small, enclosed in patches of softer tex- 
1ure, which frequently join, forming short, interrupted, concentric bands. 
Medullary rays fine, numerous, almost equidistant. 

North-West Himalaya and eastern skirts of the Suiiman Range, ascending to 
8,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 20 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 561bs. per cubic foot. The 
twigs are used for basket work and often form part of the twig bridges of the 

North-West Himalaya. 

Ibs. 

H 2825. Fagu, Simla, 8,000 feet 

H 2870. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 

H 2935. Mahasu, Simla, 7,000 feet 56 

2. I. atropurpurea, Ham. ; Brandis 136 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 101; 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 381. Vern. Bankati, kala sakena, sakna, Hind.; 
Ehe?iti,jand, Kaghan ; Kathi, gorkatri, Kashmir. 

A shrub of smaller size, but with wood of structure similar to that of 
I. heteraniha. 

Salt Range from 2,500 to 5,000 feet. Outer Himalaya from the Jhelum to Nepal, 
ascending to 9,000 feet, but found as low as 1,200 feet on the Siwalik Hills. 
The twigs are used for basket work and twig bridge*. 
H 2824. Cheog Forest, Simla, 7,000 feet. 



118 LEGUMINOS^:. [Tndigofera. 

Colutea nepalensis, Sims.; Brandis 136. (C. arlorescens, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 103). The Bladder Senna. Vern. Braa, Ladak, is a shrub of the arid valleys 
of the Inner Himalaya. 

3. MILLETTIA, Wight and Arn. 

Contains about 22 species of trees, shrubs or climbers chiefly from Eastern 
Bengal and Burma, The genus may be divided into 2 sections; 

1. Trees, containing 7 Burmese and 1 Eastern Bengal species. 

2. Climbers, containing 8 species from Burma, 7 from Northern and Eastern 
Bengal, 3 from Southern India, and 1 from North-West and Central India. 

M. pulckra, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 104 ; Kurz i. 355. Vern. Thitpagan, Burm., 
is an erect tree of the forests of the Khasia Hills and Eastern Bengal ascending to 4,000 
feet. M.pendula, Bth. ; M. tetraptera, Kurz ; M. pubinervis, Kurz ; M. ovalifolia, 
Kurz; M. Brandisiana, Kurz; and M. atropurpurea, Bth.; Kurz i. 358. Vern. 
Kioay tanyenq, tanyengnee, Burm., are all trees of Burma. Among the climbers, 
M. auriculaia, Baker ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 108 ; Brandis 138 ; Gamble 26. (Bobinia 
macropkylla, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 329, Otosemma macrophylla, Bth.) Vern. Maudh, 
Oudh ; Gonjha, ganj, Kumaun ; Crurur, Gondi ; Murari, Kurku ; Cronjo, Nep. ; Brurik, 
Lepcha. (No. 3479, Sukna Forest, Darjeeling Terai) is a very common large climber 
of the Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Sutlej to Bhutan, ascending to 3,500 feet. M. 
cinerea, Bth. and M. pachycarpa, Bth., with 3 other species, are common in the forests 
of Sikkim and the Khasia Hills ; while M. monticola, Kurz, is only found in the 
forests of Sikkim above 6,000 feet and at Nattoung in Martaban, between 6,500 and 
7,200 feet. 

1. M. pendula, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 105. 31. leucantha, Kurz i. 
356. Vern. Thinwin, Burm. 

A deciduous tree, with small purplish black heart wood,, beautifully 
streaked, very hard. Pores few, moderate-sized, joined by narrow con- 
centric bands of soft tissue. Medullary rays fine, uniform and equally 
distributed. 

Savannah forests and dry lower hill forests of Burma, up to 2,000 feet. 

Weight, Brandis' Burma List of 1862, No. 41, gives 60 Ibs. ; our specimens 661bs. 
per cubic foot. The wood is used for cross pieces of harrows, and is worthy of attention 
for its beautiful grain and dark colour. 

Ibs. 

B 2520. Myodwin, Burma (1862) 66 



B 2249 (73 Ibs. ) from the Andamans and B 3141 (67 Ibs.) from Myodwin, Burma 
(1862). Vern. Chloani, Burm.; have a dark, reddish brown, very hard heart wood, in 
structure resembling that of M. pendula. It is doubtless a species of Millettia. 



Mundulea subcrosa, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 110; Beddome Ixxxv. is an orna- 
mental small tree of South India, and Tephrosia contains several shrubs, among which 
may be noticed T. Candida, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. Ill; Brandis 138; Gamble 26. 
Vern.*Lehtia, Kumaun ; Bodle, Nep., a handsome white-flowered shrub of the Sub- 
Himalyan tract, Eastern Bengal and Burma. Its leaves are used to poison fish. 

4. SESBANIA, Pcrs. 

Soft-wooded shrubs or trees. Wood white, soft. Medullary rays 
fine and closely packed. 

1. S. segpytiaca, Pcrs. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 114; Beddome Ixxxvi. ; 
Brandis 1)37 ; Kurz i. 362 ; Gambit; ^G. Ahchyrwmcnc Sesliui, Koxb. Fl. 
Ind. iii. o : -5:i, Vern. Jiii(,j/iijaii,jniij/i(tii, tUiatnliaiu, Hind. ; Jaynnti, Mi-n^-. ; 
tiaori, sewri, Berar ; S/tewari, Dukkan ; Stih/ihtfa/^l. ; Yuyt/tagt/cc, Harm. 



Seislaiiia.~\ 

A soft- wooded tree, 10 to 12 feet hi-h. Wood white, extremely soft. 
Pores small, in short, linear, radial iroups, between the very fine and very 
numerous medullary rays ; the distance between rays being less than the 
transverse diameter of the pores. 

Cultivated in many parts of India and Burma, wild in tropical Africa. 

Weitnit. '27 Ibs. per cubic foot. Not durable. 

Crown in IJrnir and tin- Drkkan to furnish poles as a substitute for bamboo; the 
bark is made into rope, the wood is used to boil jaggery , and the lea vea and branches are 
cut for cattle fodder. It is commonly planted in llen^al ;is a hedge-plant, for which pur- 
pose its very quick growth renders it suitable. It is also sometimes grown to support the 
plantations of the betel pepper. Roxburgh says the wood is said to make the best gun- 
powder charcoal, and Kurz that it is good for children's toys. 

Iba. 

C 870. Amraoti, Berar 27 

2. S. grandiflora, Pers. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 115 ; Beddome Ixxxvi. ; 
Brandis 137 ; Kurz i. 302. JEschynomene prandiflora, Roxb. Fl. Ind.iii. 
830. Agati grandijlora, Desv. ; W. and A. Prodr. 215. Vern. Basna, 
Hind.; Buka, bak, agasta, Beng. ; Bagfal, Sundarbans ; Hadga, heta, 
Berar; Agali, Tarn. ; Avesi, Tel. ; Agase, Kan. ; Poukpan,poukpyoo, Burm. 

A short-lived, soft-wooded tree, with large handsome flowers, at- 
taining 20 to 30 feet in height. Wood white, soft. Pores small and 
moderate-sized, often in radial groups of 3 to 5 between the numerous, 
fine, white medullary rays. 

Cultivated in Southern India, Burma, and in the Ganges Doab. 

"Weight, 32 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is not durable ; in Lower Bengal it is 
used for posts for native houses and for firewood (Home) ; in Berar and the Dekkan 
it is grown as a substitute for bamboo. The tender leaves, pods and flowers are 
eaten as a vegetable, and the tree is grown as a support for the betel pepper vine ; 
it is easily known by its very large, handsome, pink flowers and long narrow pods. 

Ibs. 

C871. Amraoti, Berar 32 



Car a g ana. Brandis, 133 contains several low spinescent shrubs of the arid region 
of the Punjab, Sind and Beluchistan, and the inner valleys of the Punjab Himalaya. 
Lespedeza contains a number of imdershrubs of Northern India and Burma. Arnons; 
these, L. eriocarpa, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 144, is a shrub of the Himalaya between 
3,000 and 9,000 feet, with handsome purple flowers and a hard red wood. Pores mode- 
rate-sized, scattered or in short concentric lines. Medullary raj^s fine. Few concentric 
lines of soft tissue. (H. 3192. Nowti Valley, Simla, 4,000 feet). Alhagi Maurorum, 
Desv. ; Brandis 144. (Hedysarum Alhagi, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 344.) The Camel Thorn. 
Vern. Jawdsa, Hind., is a widely-spread shrub of the Ganges Valley and the arid and 
northern dry zones, whose leaves are used as fodder for camels. JEschyfanene aspera, 
Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 152; Brandis 147; (Hedysarum lagena)mim,I{oxb. Fl. 
Ind. iii. 365.) Vern. Sola, phul-sola, Hind., Beng. ; Nirjiliiza, Tel., is the Solah 
plant of tanks and marshes in Bengal, from whose stems the well-known white pith 
is obtained which is used for making hats, toys, and for other purposes. Ormocarpnm 
sennoides, Kurz i. 390, is an evergreen shrub of the plains of Central and South 
India. 

5. OUGEINIA, Bth. 

1. 0. dalbergioides, Benth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 161 ; Beddome t. 36 ; 
Brandis 140. Dalbergia Oojeinensis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 220. Vern. 
Sandan, asainda, tinnas, timsa, Hind. ; Shdnjan, pdnan, Oudh ; Sandan 
pipli, Nep. ; BancUwna, Uriya ; Kala palds, tewas, Mar. ; Scr, shentunm, 
Condi ; Dargu, telli mutku, Tel.; Karl unit at, Kan. ; Tctova, Bhil; Ruiok, 
Kurku ; Tii/mia, Banswara; Tclnx, Khandeish. 



120 



LEGUMINOS2E. 



[ Ougeinia. 



A moderate-sized deciduous tree, under certain circumstances gre- 
garious. Bark J inch thick, light brown, sometimes with bluish patches, 
with regular longitudinal and horizontal cracks. Sapwood small ; 
Leartwood mottled, light brown, sometimes reddish brown, hard, close- 
grained ; annual rings indistinct. Pores moderate-sized, enclosed in 
irregularly-shaped, more or less concentric but interrupted patches and 
bands of white soft tissue. These patches, which are tapering and point- 
ed at the ends, are separated by irregularly-shaped belts of firm and 
darker-coloured shining tissue, in which the fine and numerous, white, 
uniform and equidistant medullary rays are distinctly visible. Pores 
marked on a longitudinal section. 

Chiefly in the intermediate zone. Sub-Himalayan tract from the Sutlej to the 
Tista, ascending to 5,000 feet ; Central India and the Western Coast. 

Weight, 57 to 60 Ibs. (Brandts) ; B. Thompson gives 58 ; our specimens give an 
average of 55 Ibs. The wood is tough and durable, and takes a beautiful polish. It 
is used for agricultural implements, carnage poles, wheels and furniture ; also for 
building. The tree gives an astringent red gum ; the bark is pounded and used to 
intoxicate fish ; and the branches are lopped for cattle fodder. A crystalline substance, 
probably magnesia, is sometimes found in the wood (see specimen E 601). 

Ibs. 



P 102. 
O 212. 
C 185. 
C 1152. 
C 2767 


Sutlej Valley, Punjab 
Garhwal (1868) .... 
Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) . 
Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 







52 
53 
54 
55 


C 1242. 
E 601. 
W1226. 


Gumsiir, Madras .... 
Lohagarhi, Darjeeling Terai 
North Kanara 







52 
67 
53 



6. DESMODIUM, Desv. 

Contains a number of shrubs found 'in the forests in almost all parts of India. 
D. pulchellum, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 162 ; Brandis 145; Kurz i. 383; Gamble 26 
(Hedysarum pulchellum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii, 361) Yern, Juta-salpani, Beng. ; Set 
kristinapani, Cuttack ; Toungtamin, Burm., is a common erect shrub with the 
flowers in the axils of bifoliolate bracts. Z>. gyroides, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 175 ; 
Kurz i. 388 ; Gamble 27. Vern. Bolu, Nep., is an erect, blue-flowered shrub of the 
Himalayas, Eastern Bengal and Burma ; and D.gyrans, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 174; 
Brandis 146 ; Gamble 27 (Hedysarum gyrans, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 351) Vern. Gora- 
chand, Beng., is common in India and Burma, and generally known as the " Telegraph 
Plant " from its small, sensitive, rotating, lateral leaflets. 

1. D. tilisefolium, G. Don.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 168; Brandis 145. 
Vern. Sambar, s/iamru, chamra,chamyar, chamkat, chamkul, mart an, motha, 
gurshagal,pri, mardra, muss, w.urt, laber, Hind. 

A large deciduous shrub, with thin, grey bark. Wood yellowish brown, 
with a darker centre. Pores small. Annual rings distinctly marked by a 
belt of small pores ; in the outer part of each annual ring the pores are 
very small, and generally arranged in short, linear, wavy, concentric lines. 
Medullary rays white, fine to very fine. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Nepal, between 3,000 and 9,000 feet. 
Growth ilow, 14 rings per inch of radras. Weight, 53 lb. per cubic foot. The 
bark is extensively us 1 for rope-making and paper. 

Ibn. 

H 3184. Dun- -;illi, II a/.ara, 8,000 feet 

II 01. Nagkanda, Simla, 7,000 feet 

H 2934. Mahasu, Simla 7,000 feet 5:1 

H 301'J. Kotgarli, Simla, 7,000 fed (var. >v/o<'fw, Wall.) 



DesmoditiM.] LEOIMIX 121 

2. D. Cephalotes, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 1G1 ; Beddome Ixxxvii.; 
Kurz i. 386; Gamble 26. lledt/xu nun Cephalotes and UHitjcllatuw, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. iii. 360. Verii. Bodlewrv, Nep. ; M&niphtyol } Lepcha ; C/u'tta/- 
ta, Tel. 

A shrub with grey bark and yellowish wood, which in struct u:-; 
resembles that of D. iilia/olium. 

Eastern Himalaya, South India and Burma. 
E 3281. Dainah Reserve, Western Duars. 



Abrns contains:} species, of which A. />/-<'<-itf<>/-i*\ Linn.; Hook, Kl. Ind. ii. 17-'* . 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. iu. 368; Brandis 139. Vern. Gumhi, rakfi. Hind.; J/t/.v/>^/, Xrj< ., 
is ;i wiry climber, whose seeds (rakti) are used as weights by jewellers ; they weigh 1 
to 2 grains each. 

Mucuna contains several large climbers of Bengal and Burma, amjng which the 
chief are M, imbricata, DC. Vern. Kasi, Beng., with large plaited pod, covered 
with stinging hairs (No E 483 Darjeeling Terai), and soft, very porous wood; M. 
mi(croc<(rj>tr, Wall. ; Gamble 28. Vern. Salengra, Nep., an enormous climber of the 
hills of Sikkiin, Khasia, Sylhet and Burma up to 7,000 feet; and M. pruricns, Dt\ 
The Cowhnge Plant. Vern. Alkusd, Beng. ; Kiivach, goncha, Hind. ; Kouatch, Nep., 
which is au annual climber, well known in the forests from its golden brown, velvety 
pod, covered with irritating hairs, which are used as a vermifuge. 

7. ERYTHRINA, Linn. 

Contains 7 species of Indian soft- wooded, handsome-flowered, deciduous trees. 
E. ovalifolia, Roxh. Fl. Ind. iii. '254 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 189 ; Beddome Ixxxviii. ; Kurz i. 
367. Vern. Hari-Jcekra, Beng.; Kone kathit, Burin., is a tree of the coast i'< 
of Chittagong, Arracan and Pegu, extending northwards to Sylhet and Assam. _'. 
lithosperma, Miq. Vern. Yca-kathit, Burin, and E. holosericea, Kurz i. 3(57. are 
trees of Burma, while E. renyrinafa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 257 ; Brandis 141, is a herb- 
aceous plant from a perennial root-stock found in the grass lands of the Himalayan 
Terai. 

Wood soft; no heartwood. Pores largo, medullary rays broad. 
Numerous concentric bands of soft texture, which, as a rule, have no 
connection with the pores. 

I.E. Sllberosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 253; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 189; 
Beddome Ixxxvii. ; Brandis 110 ; Kurz i. 369 ; Gamble 27. Vern. Pangra, 
dauldJidk, rungra, rowan-ray nasut, maddra, Hind.; (jidnashtar, paridrn, 
l/iubj Pb. ; FnlluUia, Nep. ; Aland at, Garo ; Katiang, Lepeha ; Muni, 
mndnga, Tarn.; Midn moduffti, Tel.; Pkatufera, Gondi ; Gada p/iassa, 
Kurku. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Outer bark corky, light grey, with 
deep, irregular, vertical cracks, varying in thickness up to 1 inch ; inner 
bark fibrous, inch thick. Wood very soft, spongy, white, fibrous 
but tough ; that near the centre of darker colour, but no regular heart- 
wood. Annual rings visible. Pores very large, scanty, often subdivided. 
Medullary rays short, broad ; the tissue between the rays consisting of 
narrow, hard, wavy and often interrupted, concentric bands of a darker 
colour, separated by alternate bands of white, spongy tissue. The tan- 
gential section presents the appearance of anastomosing fibres. On 
the radial section the medullary rays appear as long, wavy, shining hands, 
giving the wood a handsome mottled appearance. Pores prominent on 
a vertical section. 



LEGUMINOS2E. [Erylhrina. 

Himalaya from the Ravi to Bhutan, ascending to 3,000 feet. Oudh, Central and 
South India, Burma. 

Growth last, 4 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 13 to 201bs. per cubic foot. 
The wood is used for scabbards, sieve frames, and occasionally for planking. The tree 
is readily grown from cuttings. 

Ibs. 

O 530. Dehra Dun . 20 

C 1145. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces ......... 

E 668. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 13 

E. indica, Lam.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 188 ; Beddome Ixxxvii. ; Bran- 
dis 139; Kurz i. 368; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 249. The Indian Coral Tree. 
Vern. Pangra, panjira, pangara,farad> Hind.; Palita mandar, Beng. ; 
Murukd f Tarn. ; ModugUj Tel. ; Pangara, phandra, Mar. ; Hdliwdra, 
pdliwdra, Kan. ; Chaldua, Uriya ; Madar, Cachar ; Katheik, Magh ; Pen- 
lai/fcat/iif,'Bm'm.',Dudaj), Malay; Errabadu, Cingh. (Mvchi wood of 
Madras) . 

A deciduous tree. Bark yellowish, smooth and shining, peeling off 
in thin papery flakes, young stems and branchlets armed with prickles. 
Structure the same as that of E. suberosa. 

Cultivated throughout India and Burma ; wild in Oudh, Bengal, South India and 
Burma. 

Weight, 17 to 26 Ibs. per cubic foot according to our specimens, but 18 Ibs. is 
nearest the true weight. Wood rather durable, though it is so light and open-grained it 
does not warp or split, and it varnishes well. It is used for light boxes, toys, scabbards, 
trays, and is often grown as a support for and to give shade to the betel pepper vine. 
It grows readily from cuttings and is used for hedges. It gives a dark-brown gum 
of no value. 

Ibs. 

C 820. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar 17 

B 2343. Myanoung, Burma 18 

B2223. Andaman Islands (1866) 26 

3. E. arborescens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 256; Brandisl40 ; Gamble 27. 
Vern. llungara, Kurnaun; Rodinga, fullidha, Nep. ; Gyesa, Lepcha ; 
Dingsong, Khasia. 

The wood has a similar structure to that of E. suberosa and Indica, but 
it is more compacl;, less spongy, and has more numerous concentric bands 
of soft texture. 

Outer Himalaya from the Ganges to Bhutan, up to 7,000 feet ; Khasia Hills. 
It is very handsome when covered with its bright scarlet flowers ; it grows easily 
from cuttings, and is often planted for ornament, as in the avenues at Darjeeling. 

F 3106. Darjeeling, 7,000 feet. 

E 2344 (16 Ibs. per cubic foot) from Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai, has been 
identified as E. stricta, Roxb. ; Beddome 1. 175 ; Kurz i. 369 ; Gamble 27. Vern. Mouri- 
cou, kichige, Kan. ; Toung kathit, Burin., described from Western India and Burma. 
The structure is the same as that of E. suberosa. 



Spatholobus Roxlurghu, Bth. ; Brandis 143; Gamble 27. (Bittect parr(flora, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 248; Kurz i. 365) Veru. Mala, mula, mania, Hindi. ; DebrelarO) 
Nep.; Terolrik, Lepcha; Pouknway, Uunn.. is a very common gi^anlu- mu-prr of the 
forests of the Suh-1 1 iinalayan trad IV- nn the Jumna eastwards, Denial ami Uunna, 
with trilbliolate leaves, white ilowers and a soi't porous wood in concentric 1 
jjcjuiratcd by ;i ring of soft tissue exuding a rod gum resembling "kino" (E 
Durjeelin- ; O 2'J27, Garhwul, 1874), 



Bulea.] 



8. BUTEA, Koxb. 



Besides the species described below, B. superba, Roxb. PI. Ind. iii. 247 ; Brandis 
143 ; Kurz i. 365. Vern. Y&pardt, ^\Iar. ; 7V//e motku, Tel. ; Samttr, Gondi ; Tunang, 
Kurku ; Pouknway, Burin., is a large scarlet-flowered climber of India and Burma, 
giving a gum like that of B.frondosa ; and />. minor, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. lud. ii. 195 ; 
Gamble 27, is a shrub or climber of the Eastern Himalaya. 

1. B, frondosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 214; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 194; Bed- 
dome t. 170; Braudis 142; Kurz i. 36 i; Gamble 27. Vern. Dhdk,palds, 
kakria, kankrei, Chichra, Hind.; chalcha, Bandclkband ; Chiula, puro/ia, 
C. P. ; Palds, Beag. ; Paldsi, bulyetlra, Nep. ; Lahokung, Lepcha ; 
Pordsu, Uriya; Hurr, Gondi ; Pharsa, Kurku ; Porusan, Tarn. ; Modugu, 
mohtUy Tel. ; Muttuga, t/iords, Kan. ; Paras, Mar. ; Gasskeala^ calukeale, 
Ciugh. ; Pouk, Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, fibrous, grey, 
exfoliating in small irregular pieces ; exuding from cuts and fissures a 
red juice which hardens into a ruby-coloured gum similar to kino. 
Wood dirty white, soft, not durable ; no annual rings. Pores large, 
scanty. Medullary rays broad and moderately broad, white ; the 
darker tissue between the rays is broken up into oblong patches by 
broad concentric bands of white tissue similar in appearance to the 
medullary rays ; the latter distinctly visible on a radial section as long, 
irregular bands. 

Throughout India and Burma, extending in the North -West Himalaya as far as 
the Jhelum. 

The weight is given by Kyd as 32 Ibs. per cubic foot; by Adrian Mendis, 
Ceylon Collection, No. 11, 38 Ibs. ; the average of our specimens is 3G Ibs. Kyd gives 
p = 335. The wood is not durable, but is said to be better under wafer, and so is used in 
North- West India for well curbs and piles. The bark of the root yields a good fibre 
which is used for coarse cordage, for caulking boats and to make slow matches. The 
gum is sold as " Bengal Kino " and has the same properties as that obtained from the 
Pterocarpus Marsupium ; it is said to be used to purify indigo. The seeds are used 
as a purgative and vermifuge. In Oudh and Central India lac is collected on its 
branches. The leaves are used as plates and as fodder for buffaloes. The tree is well 
known from its handsome scarlet flowers, appearing in the hot season before the leaves ; 
they give a yellow dye, which treated with alum is used at the Holi festival. 

Ibs. 
237. Garhwal (1868) ........... 

C 1119. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces ........ 

C 2759. Mohavli Reserve, Central Provinces .... 36 

E 674. Rakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai . . . . . 31 

E 2345. Sivoke ..... 40 

Dioclea reflexa, Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 196, is a climbing shrub of the Andamans. 
Pucraria tuberosa, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 197 ; Brandis 141 ; Gamble 28. (Kedy- 
sarum tubcrosum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 363) Vern. Sidli, baddr, bilci kand, billi, pona, 
Hind ; Dari, gumodi, Tel., is a large tuberous-rooted, deciduous climber with bright 
blue flowers and soft, spongy wood. Cajanus indiciis, Spreng., is a shrub cultivated 
in most parts of India for its seed (Arhar, Beng. ; Paisigong, Burm.) and for its 
leaves which are given as fodder to cattle. Cylista scariosa, Ait., is a climbing 
shrub of South India and Burma. Flemingia contains a number of shrubs found in 
the forests of India, and Burma, among which one of the most common is F. scm'utfutti, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 3-11; Kurz i. 374; Gamble 28 (F. congests. Roxb. ar.; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 228.) Vern. Bhalia, Hind.; Batwnsi, Nep.; Mipitmuk, Lcpcli;i, a tall 
handsome-flowered shrub of Northern India with a white wood having rather broad 
medullary rays, scanty pores and concentric lines of white tissue like that of 
' Erythrma (E 3279, Dainah Forest, W. Dviars). 



124 i.Kr.r.Mi.v \_Dallery\tt. 

9. DALBERGIA, Linn. HI. 

Contains about 28 Indian species, of which one-half are trees and the other half 
climbing shrubs. About 8 species are found in North-West and Central India, 13 in 
Ihe Eastern Himalaya. Assam and Eastern Bengal, 8 in South India, and 18 in Burma. 
The lienus is divided into sections as follows: 

Pod flattened, winged at the edges 

Staminal bundle split on one side only . Sissoa. 

two sides . . Dalbergaria. 

Pod thickened, not winged, falcate . . . Selenolobium (Drepanocarpus 

Kurz). 

To the section Sissoa belong the trees D. Sissoo, latifolia, rimosa and cultrata and nine 
climbing shrubs. To the section Dalbergaria belong the trees D. lanceolaria, pur- 
jiurea,paniculata, glomeriflora and hircina and five climbing shrubs. To the section 
Selenolobium belong D. spinosa and reniformis, trees or erect shrubs and two climbers. 

D.rimosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 233 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 232; Brandis 148, Vern. 
Kaogrwto, Sylhet and D. hircina, Ham. ; Brandis 151. Vern. Saras, bandir, tantia, 
yogera, Hind., are trees found in the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ganges eastwards. 
I), reniformis Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 226 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 238. (Drepanocarpus re- 
nifurmis, Kurz i. 336). Vern. Kures, Sylhet; Htoukma, Burm.; and D. spinosa, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. iii. 233. Vern. Yaychinya, Burm., are small trees of the tidal forests of 
Burma, the latter species, according to Kurz i. 337, having : " Wood soft, beautifully 
silvery white, close and straight grained. The roots powdered absorb alcohol, and a 
spoonful of the powder in a tumblerful of water is said to be sufficient to destroy in 
less than half an hour the effects of alcohol, even in cases bordering on delirium 
tremens." D. glomeriflora, Kurz, is a tree of the upper forests of the Pegu Yomas. 

Among the climbers, which have mostly a hard wood, the chief are D. volu- 
biJ!.?, Roxb.; Brandis 152. Vern. JBhatia, banJchara, Hind., found in the Sub- 
Himalayan tract; and D. tamarindifolia, Roxb.; Gamble 29. Vern. Damar, 
Nep. ; Keti, Sylhet, of the outer Eastern Himalaya, Eastern Bengal, Burma and the 
Andamans. D. monosperma, Dalz. (Drepanocarpus monospermus, Kurz i. 337), is 
a scandent shrub of tidal forests in Upper Tenasserim. D. Cumingii, Bth., is a scandent 
shrub said by Kurz to give a dyewood, the Kayu-lakka of commerce. D. congcsta, 
Grab. ; and D. sympathetica, Nimmo, are climbing shrubs of the hills of South India. 

D. Sissoo, latifolia and cultrata have a hard, dark-coloured, heavy 
heartwood; while 2). stipulacea, lanceolaria and paniculata have white wood 
without heart wood. All Dalbergias, with the exception of nigrescent 
(the identification of which is doubtful), have scanty, moderate-sized 
pores, joined by narrow bands or lines of soft texture. Medullary rays 
fine, uniform and equidistant. 

1. Dalbergia Sissoo, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 223; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 231 ; 
Beddome t, 25 ; Brandis 149 ; Gamble 28. The Sissoo. Vern. Shisham, 
sissn, sissai, Hind.; Shewa, Pushtu; Tali, safedar, shin, nelkar, Pb. ; 
Sissdi, Oudh ; Yette, Tarn. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark between and J inch thick, grey, ex- 
foliating in narrow longitudinal strips. Sapw r ood small, white ; heart- 
wood brown with darker longitudinal veins, close and even grained, 
seasons well, very hard. Annual rings not distinctly marked, alternating 
dark and light-coloured bands, which run into each other. Pores large 
and moderate-sized, uniformly distributed, joined by irregular, narrow, 
wavy, white, concentric bands. Medullary rays white, very fine, uniform 
and equidistant* numerous. Pores well denned on a longitudinal section. 

Sub-IIimalaynn iraet from the Indus to Assam, ascending to 3,000 feet. V;in 
rivii, in his " List of I'tnv.st Tivcs of ,M VMMV and Coorg," ^ivrs it as oa'urrinij 



under tin- Kanaivsc iiaiin- ///>/<//, but it is probably not indigenous in those proviiKvs. 
Tin- amount of data available re^aidiiu;- tin- rate of growth of Sissii is a^ \ et 



liallertjlt. ] 



i.i.i a ML\- 



very small. In the " Forest Flora of the North-West and Central India," Bramli.- 
that it attains under i'avourablc circumstances, on an average, 2| feet girth iu 12, and 
4^ feet in 30 years. Since then a t''\v data have been collected, principally from the 
specimen saplings sent from the runjal) lor tin- Paris Inhibition of 1878. 

The annual lings in the sapwood arc, as a rule, fairly dUtinet; those in the 
lieartwood arc generally ill-defined : in either case a lens is re.piiml to make them out. 
The following statement exhibits the rings counted on sections from the Changa- 
Manga plantation, which were cut in 1877 : 



Known age. 


N'umlirr of rings 
Ibto, 


Average 

diameter >f 
section. 


Average diameter of 
heart wood. 


Kings per inch. 


5 years .... 
6 . 
7 , .... 
8 .... 


4 
6 
6 
6 
9 
6 


Inches. 

6-75 
3 
9 
12 
1075 
11 


Inches. 

0-75 
2 
3 
4-5 
3-2 
5 


2 
5 
3 

7 
1 


9 , .... 
10 , .... 


Average rings per inch of average radius 


1-3 



The calculation has, however, been based on the number of rings counted ; if we 
take the known age, the number of rings will be respectively 1'5, P5, 1'5, 1'3, 1*7, 1'8, 
giving an average of 1'55 year per inch of average radius. But these data refer to 
trees up to 10 years of age onl}', and grown in favourable conditions on irrigated 
land, so that no further calculation can be derived from them, the measurements of 
older trees being much wanted. But, assuming this rate of increase of 1'55 ring per 
inch, we should have at 12 years of age about 4 feet girth, which is a much faster 
growth than Brandis' estimate. 

The specimens from the Jhelum Sailaba plantations on non -irrigated land gave 
4 rings per inch of radius average. This would make 30 years to a girth of 4 feet, 
which is nearly Brandis' estimate. 

The Punjab plantations also give the following information : 



Changa-Manga plantation (Punjab Forest Report, 1876-77. p. 22). 



A Average Average 
Age - height. girth. 



Vhankara Circle Compartments 6, 5, 8, Block I 



YearH. 

. 6 



Manjoki 



77, to 87 & 99 to 111, Block I 



Ft. 

35 

20 



Inches. 

28 
9 



Chandra wal, Compartment I 
Kudsia, ... Ill 



Jaffar Khan, 



Delhi Eela plantation (Mr. M in nikin' s Report, Ib78). 

3 trees . . . . 71 25 to 30 15 

6 20 15 

. 2 12 6 



IV 6 trees 



6 



15-5 



This gives for the Changa-Manga plantation 1*35 to 2*8 rings por inch of radius, 
and for Delhi Bela 2 to 3 14, or an average of 2'5 rings per inch. This gives a girth 
of 30 inches at 12 years of age, which is Brandis' estimate. 

A specimen from the Darjeeling Terai, in the Bengal Forest Museum, gives 35 
rings on a mean diameter of 11 inches, 27 rings being heartwood. 



126 



LEGUMINOSJB, 



[ Duller gia. 



The weight and transverse strength have been calculated by the following experi- 
ments : 



Experiment by 
whom conducted. 


Year. 


Wood 
whence procured. 


Weight. 


1 Number of 
experiments. 


Size of bar used. 


Value 
of P. 












Ft. In. In. 




Cunningham 


1854 


Gwalior . . 


48 


4 


2X1X1 


697 


Campbell . 


. 


Bengal 


56 


1 


6X2X2 


923 


Skinner, No. 56 . 


1862 


it 


50 


... 


[ 3 X H X H 
(2X1 XI 


J870 


Russell 


M 


,, ... 


55-5 


... 


- X 1 XI 


967 


Baker . 


1829 


Northern Bengal (Cos- 


49 


9 


7X2X2 


762 


> 





sipore, 1819). 
Northern Bengal (Cos- 


45 


6 


6X2X2 


734 






si pore factory). 










n 


M 


Northern Bengal 


.. 


8 


3 X 11 X 1 


709 





H 


99 99 


... 


13 


2X1X1 


606 


Brandis 


1864 


Bengal 


49 


15 


6X2X2 


738 


99 * * 


N 





47 


18 


6X2 XH 


740 


99 * * 


1865-66 





46 


9 


6X2X2 


787 


99 


99 




47 


17 


3X1X1 


869 


y) * * 


j> 





44 


11 


2X1X1 


854 


99 + * 


n 





45 


14 


2X1 X0| 


919 


Smythies . 


1878 


Northern India, vari 


48 


8 





. . t 






ous places. 











The wood is very durable, seasons well and does not warp or split. It is highly 
esteemed for all purposes where strength and elasticity are required. Clifford says 
that " in strength it is only inferior to sal, while in many other useful qualities it 
surpasses it, and has the advantage of being lighter. For felloes and naves of wheels 
and carved work of every description, for framings of carriages and similar work, it is 
unsurpassed by any other wood, owing to its fine seasoning and standing qualities." 
It is extensively used for boat-building, carts and carriages, agricultural implements, 
in construction and especially for furniture. 

Formerly, it was more extensively used for gun-carriages than it can be at present, 
owing to the comparatively small supply. With regard to its durability and strength 
as a wood for wheels, Clifford says, " The wheels of our ordnance carriages have 
never failed, however arduous or lengthened the service has been on which they have 
been employed, of which no more striking example can be furnished than the campaign 
in Afghanistan, about the most trying country in the world for wheels. Some of our 
batteries served throughout the campaign, went to Baneean and even to the Hindoo 
Koosh and came back again to India without a break-down, while Koyal Artillery 
wheels built of the very best materials Woolwich could produce, specially for Indian 
service, almost fell to pieces after few months' exposure and service on the plains of 

It has been tried and found to be good for sleepers, and Mr. McMastor in the 
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, vol. xxiii. 1863, says it will be 
really good for that purpose. 

It is much planted as an avenue tree all over India and in forest plantations in 

the Punjab and Bengal. 

ibs. 

P 145. Giri Valley, Punjab, 3,000 feet 11, 

P 884. Multan, 52 

P 1205. Cbinga-Manga plantation (9 specimens) 

P 1347. Peraghaib and Saila plantations, Jheluni (8 specimens) 

O 205. Garhwal (1818) 52 

O 537. Dehra Dun 

O 1460. Babraich, Outlh 49 

O 1486. Klirn. , 52 



Dalbergia. ] 



LEGUMINOSJ:. 



127 



E 675. Rakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai 

E 2347. Sukna ^ 

E 634. Eastern Diiars, Assam . 



Ib9. 
47 
46 

42 



2. D. latifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 221 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 231 ; 
Beddome t. 24; 13ratidis 148; Gamble 29. The Blackwood or Rose- 
wood of Southern India. Vern. Siisal, Beng., Nep., Oudh; Shitfam, 
sisUy kalarnkh, bhotbeula, sissui, Mar. ; Sissu, Guz. ; Sirds, sissu, sirsa, 
sissa, Mandla;m#, Uriya; Iti, eruvadi, Tarn.; Jitegi, yeruguduj jitangi, 
Tel. ; Bitiytkodagatti, Kan. ; Bhoink, Bhil ; Sens, Gondi; Serisso, Kurku. 

A deciduous tree attaining a large size in South India, Bark i inch 
thick, grey, with irregular short cracks, exfoliating in thin fibrous longi- 
tudinal flakes. Sapwood yellow, small; hearbwood extremely hard, dark 
purple, with black longitudinal streaks; no distinct annual rings, but 
alternating concentric belts of dark and light colour, which, however, run. 
irregularly into each other. Pores mode rate- sized, uniformly distributed, 
generally joined by narrow, white, wavy interrupted, concentric lines. 
Medullary rays light-coloured, fine, numerous, uniform and equidistant. 

Oudh, Eastern Bengal, Central and South India. 

Growth moderate when young, 5 to 9 rings per inch of radius (Brandis) ; some of 
our specimens shew 8 rings. 

It coppices well, is easily raised from seed, and reproduces well naturally. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments : 



Experiment by whom 
conducted. 


Year. 


Wood whence 
procured. 


Weight. 


Number of 
experi- 
ments. 


Size of bar. 


Value 
of P. 












Ft. In. In. 




Wallich, No. 52 . 




India 


66-5 










Puckle 


1859 


Mysore . 


61 


" 4 


2 x'l"x 1 


1,052 


Maitland 


1862 


Anamalais 


51 





3 x 11 x 11 


( 746 
4 to 
( 996 


Skinner, No. 54 
Baker 


1862 
1829 


Malabar . 


50 
55 


"'3' 


Various . 
6x2x2 


912 

822 


E. Thompson 


1873 


Central Pro- 


66 














vinces. 










Smythies . . 


1878 


Various pro- 


56 


15 












vinces. 











Brandis says the value of P may be taken at 950. 

It is a valuable furniture wood, and is exported to Europe from the forests of 
Kanara and Malabar. Wood sent to London for sale in 1878 fetched 13 10s. per 
ton. It is also used for cart wheels, agricultural implements and for gun-carriages. 
It is good for carving and fancy work, and is used for the handles of knives, 
kukris and other arms. It has been used for sleepers. Nine sleepers which had 
been down 7 to 8 years on the Mysore State Railway were found to have, when taken 
up, 5 good, 3 still serviceable, and 1 bad. It has been grown in plantations in Malabar 
and Kanara. 

Ibs. 



C 187. 


Mandla, Central Provinces (1869) 


46 


C 2984. 
C 1146. 
C 2732. 
C 955. 


Jabalpur (1863) 
Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 
Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces . 


53 
58 
52 
53 


C 1236. 
C 1303. 
E 492. 


Gumsur, Madras 
jj ,, . . . 
Khookloonjr Forest. Darieeline Tend . 


64 
64 



J28 LEGUMINOS^;. [Dallcrgia. 



E 672. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 50 

E 2348. 60 

W 1227. North Kanara . . 54, 



W 720. South 

W 855. 

D 2044. Mysore 

D 1072. North Arcot 

No. 24. Salem Collection 



55 
10 

51 
57 

62 



3. D. cultrata, Grab.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 233; Kurz i. 342. Veru. 
Yendike, Burm. 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark | inch thick, smooth, with short transverse 
clefts. Wood purplish black, with darker streaks, with harder wood than, 
but structure similar to, that of D. lalifoiia. 

Burma. 

Weight, according to Benson, 83 Ibs. ; according to Brandis' Burma List, 1862, 
No. 36, 64 Ibs. ; our specimens give 69 and 70 Ibs. Benson gives, from experiments 
made with bars 3' X 1'4" X T4", P = 1003. It is used for wheels, agricultural 
implements, handles of dahs and spears, and especially for carvings. The sap-wood 
is very perishable, but the heartwood extremely durable. 

Ibs. 

B 2521. Burma (1862) 70 

B 2728. Nawing Forests, Prome (1858) . . . . . . 69 
B 2697. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 



4. Specimens marked Thitpoke (B2523), collected in Burma in 1862 
(Brandis' Burma List, 862, No. 133), have light yellow wood with 
numerous concentric bands, scanty, large and moderate sized pores, and 
very fine, very numerons, uniform and equidistant medullary rays. 
Thitpoke is identified by Kurz as Dalbergia purpurea, Wall., Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 235; Kurz i. 344; which has a small heartwood. To this also 
belongs B 2230 from the Andaman Islands. 



5. D. lanceolaria, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 235; Brandis 151 ; 
Gamble 29. D. frondosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 226; Beddome Ixxxviii. 
Vern. Talwli, bithua, Hind.; Bander siris, Nep. ; Barbatj parbati, Buns- 
warra ; Gengri, Panch Mehals; Harrdni, Dharwar ; Nal valaitga, Tarn. ; 
Pedda sopara, yerra pat*arn, pasarganni, Tel.; Dandous, kanrchi, Mar. 

A deciduous tree. Bark inch thick, compact, grey, smooth, exfoliat- 
ing in thin rounded patches. Wood white, moderately hard, not dur- 
able, no heartwood. Annual rings (?) marked by thin, concentric lines. 
Pores scanty, large and moderate-sized, larger and somewhat more 
numerous in the spring wood ; often oyal and subdivided, very prominent 
on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays extremely fine, very numer- 
ous, very regularly distributed, joined by very fine, short, white bars. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, ascending to 2,500 feet, Out nil 
and South India. 

Skinner, No. 53, gives for the weight 62 Ibs. per cubic foot ; Wallich 46 Ibs. ; our 
sjK-ciiiH-ns give only 33 to 44 Ibs. Skinner also gives P = 1003, but it is probable thai 
he has not described Ilie rii-hl, wood, for, although he gives the correct Tclugu name, 
yet he calls his specimens (No, . r >:{, ]>. 75) Moufahow, Dunn., and " JMonlmein lance-wood ;" 
while Km-/., the latest authority, does not give D. lanceolarnt as occurring in IJurnia. 
Skinner says that one log was brought from the western coast, and another by Con- 
ductor Bowman from Burma. Uedd<ni- siys tin- timber is useful for building i>ur- 



Dalbergia.] LEGUMINOSJ:. 129 

lb. 

C 1144. Ahiri Reserve, (Ynli ul Provinces. 

E 618. Champasari Forest, Darjeeling Tern* ..... 33 
E 2346. Bamunpokri, Darjtvlin^ IVrai ...... 44 



6. D. paniculata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 227; Hook. 11. Inch ii. 
230; Beddomc Ixxxviii.; BrandislSO; Kurz i. 345. Vern. Kalsirsa, 
Oudh; Dhobcin, dhohein, pdssi, safjjitriu, Hind.; Patchalai,valange, 
Tarn. ; Polrum, porilla, pat&urv, toper, Tel. ; Sondarra, sheodur, topia, 
Mar. ; Hasur yuniri, pachari, Kan.; Piangani, Mai.; Tapoukben 3 Burm.; 
Padri, Gondi, Bhil ; Phassi, Kurku. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark | inch thick, compact, grey, smooth, 
with occasional horizontal cracks. Wood yellowish or greyish white, 
soil, perishable; no heartwood. Structure most remarkable, entirely 
different from that of other species of the genus: broad concentric 
masses of wood alternate with narrow, dark coloured belts of a fibrous 
substance, resembling the inner bark. Planks cut out of old trees fall to 
pieces. Pores small, scanty. Medullary rays very fine, numerous. 
Wavy, narrow, concentric bands of white tissue alternate with broader 
bands of harder and darker substance. 

North- West Himalaya from the Jumna to Oudh, Central and South India. 
(Quoted by Kurz from Burma, but identification doubtful.) 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 55, and R. Thompson 48 Ibs. per cubic foot ; our 
specimens give an average of 37 Ibs. Skinner gives P = 872. Wood not durable and 
very subject to the attacks of insects. Beddome says it is used for building and other 
purposes. 

Ibs. 
C 1115. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces ...... 32 

C 2928. Seoui, Central Provinces ..... . .46 

7. D. nigrescens, Kurz i. 346. Vern. Thit8anweng t Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Wood light grey, soft. Pores 
scanty, large, subdivided. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. 

Dry mixed forests of Upper Burma. 

Ibs. 

B 291. Burma (1867) ......... 38 

B 2522. (1862) ......... 39 

There is some doubt about the identification of this species, owing to the absence of 
concentric bands. 

8. D. Stipulacea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 233; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 237; 
Kurz i. 346; Gamble 29. Vern. Tatebiri, Nep. ; Garodosal, Mechi; 
Ton-nyok, Lepcha. 

A large climbing shrub. Wood soft, greenish grey, with a purplish 
brown heartwood, porous. Pores numerous, of different sizes, small to 
extremely large, in white, undulating, concentric bands running into each 
other. Medullary rays white, fine, very numerous. 

Eastern Himalaya, ascending to 4,000 feet, Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong and 
Burma. 

Weight, 48 Ibs. per cubic foot. Growth, about 9 rings per inch of radius. 

Ibs. 
E 574. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai ........ 

E 2349. Sivoke ..... 48 

9. D. foliacea, Wall.; Hook, Fl. Ind, ii, 23:2; Kurzi. 317; Gamble 
29. Vern. Talcbiii, Ncp. 

R 



130 



LEGUiMINOSJJ. 



[ Dalbtrgia. 



A large straggling shrub, with white porous wood with a small dark 
heartwood, in structure ressmbling that of D. stipulaceu, except that the 
medullary rays are broader. 

Eastern Himalaya and Burma. 

E 3274. Murnghat Reserve, W. Duaris. 

10. PTEROCARPUS, Liun. 

Contains 4 Indian species. P. macrocarpus, Kurz i. 349 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 239, 
is a deciduous tree of the Eng and upper mixed forests of Martaban and Tenasserim, 
rare in Prome. The " Rosewood " or " Lancewood " of West Africa is produced by 
P. erinaceus, Poir. 

The wood of the three species examined is very uniform in structure, 
though the colours differ. They all have extremely fine,, uniform and 
equidistant medullary rays, large and small pores, and fine, wavy, con- 
centric bands. 

1. P. indicus, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 238 ; Beddome t. 23 ; Kurz 
i. 349. P. dalbergioides, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 236. Andaman Redwood. 
Vern. Padoulc, Burm. ; Chalanga-dd, And. 

A lofty tree, sometimes evergreen, with grey bark. Sapwood small ; 
heartwood dark red, close-grained, moderately hard to hard, with a 
slight aromatic scent. Pores scanty, small to large, sometimes oval 
and subdivided. Very fine, white, wavy, interrupted, concentric lines, 
irregularly distributed. Medullary rays extremely fine, very numerous, 
uniform and equidistant. The transverse diameter of the pores much 
larger than the distance between tbe rays. 

Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

The weights of our specimens from Burma differ considerably from those from the 
Andamans, the latter being much lighter, the wood softer and the colour rather lighter. 
The weight and transverse strength have been determined from the following experi- 
ments : 



ExfEBIMBNT BY WHOM 
KAOB. 


Year. 


Wood 
whence 
procured. 


Weight. 


Number 
of experi- 
ments. 


Size of bar. 


Value of P. 












Ft. in. in. 




bimpson 




Teuasserim 


62 
81 




3 x 1^ x 14 
3 x Ii x Ii 


781 
1,575 


Benson 






71 




3 X 1-4 x 1-4 


1,033 


Skinner, No. 110 
Maitland 


1802 


Burma 


56 

67 





Various 
3 x 14 x Ii 


864 
620 to 1,122 


liraiidia, No. 39 






60 


. 







^niythies 


187b 


Audauiauu 


60 
48 


3 
4 








B*nuett, No. 1 


1H72 





40-5 







827 



Used for furniture, carts, gnu-carriages and other purposes. It is said to be the 
most useful wood in the Andumans, where it grows to an enormous si/e. Major 
IVotheroe describes a tree felled in 1876 with a clear stem of 65 feet and a girth of 17 feet, 
and says that the wood of the root is closer-grained, darker- coloured and more beauti- 
fully marked than that of the stem. The plank sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1878 
measured nearly 4 feet across. In London, a portion of the same log from which the 
plank was cut fetched a price of ,17-l<),v. per Inn, or nearly Ks. 4 per cubic foot, 
while three logs lately sold in Calcutta fetched Ks. 00 per ton. Furniture made from 
I'adouk wood and exhibited at 1'aris in 1878 by Messrs. Jackson and Uraham was 

..dniiiv.l. They reported on it as follows: 

"Thi> is :i rtrAigtlt-grOWtl wood, with rather a coarse open grain, hut without any 
strong figure or markings. WluMi first cut it ib uf a reddish brown colour, bul it fade- 



] LRGUM1 : 1 31 

to much tlu' same colour a^ teak a woo'i ii resembles very much, and it is aboin 
hard, but much lioavier. From the six specimen trees sent us, we imagine that it does 
not grow to any great si/e. The largest sent to us measured 10 feet long X 1 ! 
7 inches X 1 foot 6 inches. We; consider it suitable f'>r all kinds of furniture. We 
manui'actuivd it into a suite of morning-room furniture, which was exhibited at the 
Paris Exhibition, and which stood the test of a very hot summer in a most satisfactory 
manner." 

It seasons well, works well and takes a very fine polish. It gives a kind of gum 
" kino." Home's valuation surveys in the Andamans gave an average of 7 mature tree.s 
per acre, which shews what a large quantity of the wood might be made available for 
export. 

n. 

B 584. Martaban 60 

B 2524, Pegu (1862) . . (50 

B 2708. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) <V 

B 2716. ( ) 59 

B 526. Andaman Islands ........ 46 

B 2207. (1866) ]:'. 

B 2494. ,, (Home, 1874, No. 1) . .55 

2. P. santaliims, Linn. f. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 239; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
iii. 23-1.; Beddome t. 22; Brandis 153. The Red Sanders Tree. Veru. 
Lai cAandatij rakta c hand an, seuapu chandanum, Tarn., Tel. ; Honne } 
Kan. 

A small tree. Sapwood white ; heartwood purplish black, dark- 
orange red when fresh cut, extremely hard, the shavings giving a blood- 
red orange colour. Pores moderate-sized, often subdivided, scattered. 
Medullary rays fine, numerous, equidistant, wavy. The pores are joined 
by many fine, white, undulating, concentric lines at unequal distances. 

South India, chiefly in Cuddapah, North Arcot and the southern portion of the 
Karnul district. 

Growth, Beddome mentions a tree 5 years old having 18 feet 5 inches in height and 
i) inches in girth ; this would give 3 rings per inch of radius, which is fast, but the tree 
was young and the annual growth of old trees is much slower. In Captain Campbell- 
Walker's Report on the Cuddapah forests of March 1875, he mentions a tree having 
grown in 14 months to a height of 4| feet and girth of 3 inches. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 112, 70 Ibs. ; our specimens give 76 to 77 Ibs. 
Skinner gives P = 975. Beddome says it is used for building purposes and for 
turning. It is exported from Madras in billets and root pieces as a dyewood, as it 
Contains a red colouring principle, " santalin," which is soluble in alcohol and ether, but 
not in water. Dissolved in alcohol, it dyes cloth a beautiful salmon-pink colour. It 
is used in medicine by the natives as an astringent, but does not seem to have much 
value. 

Regarding the method of planting the " Red Sanders " Tree, the following memo- 
randum by Mr. Yardc was published at page 98 of the Report of the Forest Conference 
Meeting in 1875 : 

" The seeds are gathered in May and sown in July, in small beds about eight feet 
square, prepared adjacent to where water is to be had. They are thrust into the light 
soil perpendicularly, or at an inclination, and about an inch deep (just sufficient !> 
cover the winged seed). From 700 to 800 may be put into the nursery beds of the 
above-mentioned dimensions, and watered every second evening by a watering-can. 
Seeds soaked for a night in cold water germinate in 20 to 25 da3*s, while those, 
unsoaked take from 30 to 35. After germination has taken place, the beds must 
be moderately watered by a picotta or other means, with small communicating or 
distribution channels made between the beds. During the first six months particular 
care in watering is very necessary. Too much water proves equally destructive as none 
at all. The condition of the soil where planted must be the best guide, as they seem 
only to inhabit the country where the rainfall is small. 

"The leading shoot at six montl.s has a tendency to drop from the top weight of 
leaves, and .should be supported with a forked stick, which is sufficient to straighten 
the stem. The nursery must be kept free from weeds, and when the plants in the 



132 



LUCUMINOS.E. 



[ Plerocarpus. 



nursery are about six months old, they may be safely transferred to wicker or bamboo 
baskets, which must be done during the rams. They must be carefully removed with 
pointed instruments, so that their tap-roots are not injured or broken. The wicker 
baskets with the plants should be placed in a shady spot and watered every second or 
third day, and when it is perceived that the roots have taken firm hold, and the plants 
quite revived, the baskets should be buried in pits I/ X V X 2" at about five or six 
feet apart, and watered till the rains set in. During the time the plants are in the 
nursery, as a protection from the sun, I always found Peruvian cotton, planted neat 
or around, very beneficial. Of course any shade will suit the purpose required." 



D 2066. Mysore . . 

D 2917. Madras (Brandis) 

D 1075. North Arcot (with sap wood) 

D 3151. Cuddapah, Madras " . 



Ibs. 
76 

66 

77 



3. P. Marsupium, Roxb. ; Fl. Ind. iii. 234; Hook. Fl. Tnd. ii. 239; 
Beddome t. 21 ; Brandis 152. Vern. JBija, bijasdr, bijasdl, piasal, 
Hind. ; Byasa, Uriya; Dhorbeula, asan, Mar. ; Peddei, Gondi ; Peddagi, 
yeanga, yeggi, yegisa, pedega, pedei, Tel. -, Vengai, Tarn. ; Benga, honne, 
Kan.; Bijaira, Bijeragogarh ; Radat bera, Bhil. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, grey, with long vertical 
cracks, exfoliating in small pieces of irregular shape and size. Sap- 
wood small ; heartwood brown, with darker streaks, very hard, durable, 
yielding a red resin. Pores moderate-sized and large, often subdivided, 
uniformly distributed. Numerous fine, white, wavy, concentric lines 
at regular intervals. Medullary rays extremely fine and numerous ; 
not visible except under a lens, uniform and equidistant, prominent on 
a radial section. Pores marked on a vertical section ; the transverse 
diameter of the pores many times larger than the distance between the 
rays. 

Central and South India, extending northwards to the Banda District of the North- 
Western Provinces. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following ex- 
periments : 



Experiment by whom 
conducted. 


Year. 


Wood whence 
procured. 


Weight. 


No. of 
experi- 
ments. 


Size of bar used. 


Value of 
P. 












Ft. in. in. 




WaUicb, No. 224 




Travancore . . 


47 


... 




... 


Puckle .... 


1859 


Mysore . . . 


66 


... 













61 




2 x 1x1 


821 


Skinner. No. Ill 


1862 


South India . . 


66 






868 


French .... 


1861 


Madras (Erode 




3 


'l x 1 x 1 


511 






workshops). 










Baker (Nos. 501 to 504) . 


1829 


Baffgri Forest, 


63 


4 


7 x 2x2 


687 






Miduapore . . 










Smythies .... 


1878 


Different places . 


62 


10 








The wood is durable, seasons well and takes a fine polish ; the heartwood is full of 
<^iun resin and stains yellow when damp. It is much used for doors and window 
frames, posts and beams, furniture, agricultural implements, cart and boat building. 
It has also been used for sleepers. Out of 25 sleepers which had been clown 7 to 8 
years on the Mysore State Railway, I here were found, when taken up. D good, 11 still 
serviceable and 5 bad. It has also been used to a certain extent on the Ilolkar and 
Ni-i-niucli and other lines. It yields, from wounds in the bark, a red gum-ivsiu 
culled 4 kiuo," a valuable astringent, much used in medicine. 



Pteroctrpus. ] 



I.l.cl MIXOS2E. 



133 



C 175. Mandla, Central Provi 
C 1105. Ahiri Reserve, Centra 
C 2741 . Moharli Reserve, Cent 
C 2918. Seoni, Central Provin< 
C 1238. Gumsur, Madras 
W 742. South Kanara 
W 752. 
W 850. 
D 1061. South Arcot 
D 1086. Madura 


nces 
I Pro 1 
ral P 

363 


1870 
/inces 
rovin 


) v 
ces 












No. 39. Salein Collection 



Ibs. 

47 
58 
49 
56 
56 
48 
45 
53 

59 
52 



11. PONGAMIA, Vent. 

1. P. glabra, Vent. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 240; Beddorae t, 177; 
Brandis 153 ; Kurz i. 335. Galedupa indica, Lam. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
iii. 239. Vern. Karanj, papar, Hind.; Dalkaramcha, karanja, Beng 1 .; 
Koranju, Uriya ; Pongd, Tarn. ; Kanga, pungu, kaniga, ganuga, Tel. ; 
Garanji, Gondi ; Charr, Ajmere; Hung ay, pong, Kan. ; Tkinwin, Burm. 

A moderate-sized tree, almost evergreen. Bark soft, inch thick, 
greyish brown, covered with small tubercles. Wood moderately hard, 
white, turning yellow on exposure. Annual rings indistinct. Pores 
moderate-sized, scanty, included in and joined by white, wavy, concen- 
tric anastomosing bands of soft tissue, which alternate with bands of 
darker colour and firmer texture. In the darker-coloured bands the 
fine, white, numerous and uniformly distributed medullary rays are 
distinctly visible. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ravi eastwards, ascending to 2,000 feet ; Bengal, 
Burma, Central and South India. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 107, 40 Ibs. per cubic foot ; our specimens give an 
average of 42 Ibs. Skinner gives P = 686. The wood is not durable, and is readily 
eaten by insects, but is improved by seasoning in water. In Lower Bengal it is used 
for oil-mills and firewood ; in South India for solid cart-wheels. The seeds are used in 
native medicine ; they also give a thick, red-brown oil used for burning, and medicinally 
as an application for skin diseases, for which it is said to be very efficacious, The 
leaves are used for manure for rice-fields in Mysore. The tree is easily grown from 
cuttings. 

P 457. Ajmere 45 

C 1133. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 38 

E 411. Sundarbans 43 



12. DERRIS, Loureiro. 

Contains several climbing shrubs or trees, chiefly Burmese. D. scandens Bth. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 240; Brandis 154; Kurz i. ^^(Dallergia scandens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
iii. 232) Vern. Gnny, Pb. ; Noaluta, Beng. ; golari.potra, nalavail, Gondi ; Cheratali 
badu, nala-tige, Tel. ; Tupail, Mar. ; Meek young -mo ay, Burm., is a large climbing 
shrub, common all over India and Burma ; it has a white, hard wood, with regular 
structure. I>. uliginosa, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 241 ; Kurz i. 339. Vern. Kelia 
lota, Beng., is a large evergreen scandiMit shrub of the tidal forests of Bengal and 
Burma, whose stems are used in the Sundarbans for tying logs to boats. Several other 
species, all climbing, occur in Burma, chiefly in tidal forests. 

1. D. robusta, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 21J ; Brandis 151; Kurz i. 
338. Dalbergia Krowee, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 229. Vern. Mowhitta, Ass.; 
Bolkakaru, Garo ; Krowee, Sylhet ; Gumbong, Magh. 



])U LEGUMINOSJK. [ 

A deciduous tree. Wood light brown, hard. Pores large and 
moderate -sized. Medullary rays prominent, fine, wavy, equidistant. 
Numerous narrow, wavy, concentric bands of soft texture frequently 
joining the pores. 

Outer Himalaya from the Ganges eastwards, Assam, Eastern Bengal, down to 
Pegu. 

Weight, 53 Ibs. per cubic foot. Roxburgh says it grows quickly to a large size. 

Ibs. 

E 786. Kamrup, Assam 53 



Dalhousiea bracteata, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 248; Wight Ic. t. 265, is a shrub 
of the Khasia Hills and Eastern Bengal. Calpurnia aurea. Lam. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 
251 ; Beddome Ixxxix., is a handsome shrub of the hills of South India. Euchrista 
Horsfieldii, Bennett ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 248, is an erect shrub of the Khasia Hills. 



SUB-OBDER II. C^ISALPINIE^I. 

Contains 17 genera, divided into 5 tribes, viz.,- 

Tribe I. Eucsesalpinieae Peltophorum, Mezonevnau, 

Ccesalpima, Pterololium, 
Acrocarpus, Way a tea , 
Poinciana and ParJcin- 
sonia. 

II. Cassiese Cassia. 

III. BauhinieaB Bauhinia. 

IV. Amherstieae Amherstia, Humloldtia, Af- 

zelia, Tamarindus and 
Saraca. 

V. Cynometrese ..... Hardwickia and Cynometra. 

MezoneurumandiPterolobiumccmi&m only climbing shrubs. The former has three 
species: M. cucullatum, W. and A.; Brandis 155 ; Kurz i. 409; Gamble 30. (Ccesal- 
pinia cucullata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 358) Vern. Bitlcoprah, Oudh ; Sungray, Nep. ; 
Runggong, yangkup, Lepcha ; Ragi, Bombay ; Kyoungchet, Burm., a large climber 
whose stems and branches are armed with strong hooked prickles with a corky base, 
with porous wood, and found in the Sub-Hiniala}"an tract from the Sarda east- 
wards, Western Ghats and Eurma (E. 488, Darjeeling Terai) ; M. enneaphyllum, W. 
and A.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 258, a climber of Cachar, Chittagong and Burma; and 
M. glabrum, Desf., a large climber of Pegu. The latter has one species, Pterololitim 
indicum, A. Rich. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 259 (P. macropterum,T\iY7. i. 410. Casalpinia 
lacerans, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 367) Vern. Walekaduda, Tel. ; Eyoungyet-nway, Burm., 
a prickly climber of Burma. The remaining genera contain chiefly trees. 

Peltophorumferrugineum, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 257 ; Kurz i. 408, is an ever- 
green tree of the coast forests of the Andamans, said by Kurz to have a blackish ln\-u 1- 
wood. Poinciana contains one indigenous tree, P. elata, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 260 ; 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 355; Beddome t. 178; Brandis 157; Vern. Padcnarayau, 
Tarn.; Sunkeswar, Tel.; Nirangi, Kan., found in the forests of South India. 1 ait 
more often seen planted. Skinner, No. 106, says it has wood of a yellow colour, 
tolerably close and even grained, easily worked, and giving a smooth stirf:uv. 
warping slightly, but not subject to crack, well suited for cabinet work ; ami 
that its weight is 45 Ibs. per cubic foot, and P = 516. It also contains P. 
regia, Bojer, the well-known ornnmental tree with crimson and orimgi' llowrrs 
appearing in the hot season. It was introduced from Madagascar, and is now found 
planted almost all over India. Kur/. says the wood is white, soft, light and IOOM-. 
LTained, and that the tree gives a plentiful i^uin. Parkimonia aculeate. Linn. 
Hook. Fl. Ind.ii. 2(5<>; Ucddoimf xei. ; Jirandis 158; Kur/ i. -UKJ, is an introduced shrub 
or small tree, now almost naturalised in India, fs])(ciall\ in the avid /one. where it is 
as a h-dir- plant. Tin; wood is whitish, light and soft, but elose-g-rained and 



Ipiitia.'] MINUS,-*;. 135 



polishes fairly. Skinner, No. 102, gives W = 40, P = 565. Wagatea spicata, Dalz. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 201, is a climbing shrub of the Western Ghats. Amhcrstia nobiliy, 
Wall. ; Hook. Fl.'Ind.ii. 272; Kurzi. 411. Vern. ThawTca, soka, Burrn., perhaps the 
most beautiful flowering tree in the world, was discovered by Mr. Crawford and 
Dr. Wallich at Kogun in the Sal ween Valley ; it is now cultivated in gardens round 
Calcutta and elsewhere, and is usually propagated by layers. JIumboldtia contain* 
three or four small trees of South India: //. i'it(j/i;ia, Beddome t. 183, is a handsome 
tree of the Travancore Ghats, said to yield a haul durable timber; H. Brunonis, Wall., 
is found in the forests of Coorg and South Kanara, and 11. Vahliana, Wight, on the 
Nilgiris. 

Altogether, there is scarcely any class of trees with such a variety of species 
with handsome flowers and generally, at the same time, valuable wood as the sub-order 
t'a'salpinieie. Besides the Indian genera there are numerous others of value such as 
tho Logwood Jltematoxylon Campechlanum, Linn., (No. 2966,) of Central America and 
the West Indies; the Copaiba Balsam Tree, Copaifera ojficinalis, and the Carob Tree, 
Ceratonia tiiliyita, Linn., now almost naturalised in the Salt Range and other parts of 
the Punjab. 

13. (LESALPINIA, Linn. 

Contains 10 shrubs, chiefly climbing and prickly, C. Bonducella, Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 357 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 254. Brandis 156 ; Gamble 30. The Fever Nut. 
Vern. Katkaranj, Hind. ; Nata, Beng. ; Gajkai, Kan., is a common very prickly 
climbing shrub of India, often used for hedges. Its seeds are used in medicine, and 
contain an oil ; they are tonic and antiperiodic. C. sepiaria, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 360 ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 256 ; Brandis 156 ; Kurz i. 406. The Mysore Thorn. Vern. Urn, 
iiri, arlu, relic, kando, aila, Hind. ; Chillar, Mar.; Hotsig6, Kan., is a large prickly 
climber used for hedges. C. pulcherrima, Sw. Vern. Krishna-chura, Beng., is a hand- 
some shrub cultivated in gardens in most parts of India, C. crista, " Redwood " or 
" Hresillet," (No. 2963) comes from the West Indies; C. echinata, "Brazil Wood" or 
" Pernainbuco Wood," (No. 2964) from South America, and C. Iraziliensis, " Brazil- 
etto," from the West Indies and Brazil. C. Coriaria, Willd., is the American 
Sumach or Divi-divi. Weight, 56 Ibs. ; P = 724 (Skinner No. 32). 

1. C. Sappan, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 255 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 357 ; 
Beddome xc. ; Brandis 156; Kurz i. 405. Vern. Bakam, Hind., Guz., 
Beng.; Patunga, Tarn.; Bakamn, bakapu, Tel.; Bokmo, Uriya; Pattang, 
Mar.; Patanga, Kan.; Teing nyet, Burm. 

A small thorny tree. Sapwood white, heartwood red. Pores isolated, 
enclosed in narrow rings. Medullary rays fine ; the distance between the 
rays equal to, or somewhat larger than, the transverse diameter of the 
pores. 

South India, Bengal and Burma. 

Weight, according to Skinner No. 33, 60 Ibs. per cubic foot ; Wallich gives 61 Ibs. 
Skinner gives P = 1540 ! The wood takes a fine polish and does not warp or crack ; 
it yields a valuable dye, which is largely exported. It has been grown in plantations at 
Nilainbur and in the Central Provinces. 

11)8. 

C 3136. Moharli, Central Provinces (cultivated) (sap wood) . .52 

14. ACROCARPUS, Wight. 

A genus placed by Baker in Flora Indica, Vol. ii., under Mimosca* ; but by 
Bentham and Hooker in the Genera Plantarum as here described. 

1. A. fraxinifolius, Wight; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 292; Beddome t. 44; 
Brandis 158; Kurz i. 410; Gamble 30. Vern. Mandauia, Nep. ; 
Madlinff, Lepcha ; Mallay kone, Tiunevelly ; Killngi, Burghers ; Uantige, 
bdanjl, havuliyc, Kan. 



136 LEGUMINOS^J. [Acrocarj)us. 

A lofty deciduous tree, with thin, light-grey bark. Sapwood white; 
heartwood light red, moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized to very 
large, often oval and divided into two to five compartments, either 
isolated or enclosed in narrow interrupted bands of softer tissue promi- 
nent on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad. 

Hills of the Eastern Himalaya down to Chittagong, ascending to 4,000 feet ; 
South India, and Burma. 

Weight, 39 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is used by planters in Darjeeling for 
tea-boxes and planking, in the Wynaad for building and furniture, and in Coorg for 
shingles. It is an extremely handsome tree, growing with a fine tall cylindrical 
stem, handsome flowers and large bipinnate leaves, which are red when young ; 
it reproduces easily and is fast growing. Beddome mentions a tree 27 feet in girth 
above the buttresses, and Manson states that a windfall tree in the Lower Darjeeling 
Hills had a bole 70 feet without a branch and measured 11 feet in girth at the small 
end. 

Ibs. 

E 667. Lama Gumba Forest, Darjeeling 39 

D 1085. Madura, Madras * . . . .39 

15. CASSIA, Linn. 

A large genus containing 18 species of herbs, shrubs and large trees. It is of con- 
siderable importance, as the trees produce fine timber and some of the shrubs and herbs the 
" Senna " leaves used in medicine. C. auriculata, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 263 ; 
Brandis 165, Vern. Tarwar, awal, Hind. ; Tarota, Berar ; Tangedu, tangar, Tel. ; 
AvariJce, Kan., is a shrub of Central and South India ; its bark is used for tanning and 
dyeing leather, and its seeds as an application for ophthalmia, as are those of C. Absus, 
Linn. C. obovata, Colladon, is a shrub common all over India, and is one of the plants 
furnishing the medicinal senna leaves. C. alata, Linn., is an introduced shrub, now run 
wild, wbose leaves are an excellent application for ring- worm. 

C. glauca, Lam. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 265 ; Beddome xci. ; Kurz i. 394, (Senna 
arborescens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 345) is a large shrub or small tree of the eastern part 
of South India and of Burma. C. nodosa, Ham. ; Kurz i. 392. Vern. Gnoothein, 
Burm., and C. renigera, Wall. Vern. Gnooshay, Burm., are large trees of Burma, 
the former extending to the Eastern Himalaya. 

Heartwood hard, heavy, dark-coloured. Pores moderate-sized and 
large, in patches of soft texture, which in some species are confluent and 
form continuous concentric bands. 

1. C. Fistula, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 261 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 333 ; 
Beddome xci. ; Brandis 194 ; Kurz i. 391 ; Gamble 30. Cathartocarpiis 
Fistula) Pers. The Indian Laburnum. Vern. Amallds, Hind. ; Alash, all, 
karangal, kidr, kanidr, Pb. ; Raj briksh, kitola, Kumaun ; Chimkani, Siud. ; 
Gurmala, Guz. ; Sundali, bandarlati, Beng. ; Sandari, Uriya; Kltwdli, 
kitoli, ilola, shimarra, szm, North- Western Provinces ; Warga, Oudh ; Jag- 
garwali y raila, hirojah, karkacha, C. P. ; Jaggra, kambar, rera, Gondi ; 
Banag, bangru, Kurku ; Bahawah, baya, bawa, Mar.; Eaj birij, Nep.; 
Sonahij Garo ; Bonurlati, bonurlaurl, persar, Palamow ; Sunaru, Assam ; 
Bandolat, Cachar; Kone,sirikone, Tarn.; Reylu> rela, suvarnam, konay, Tel.; 
Kaki, Tarn. ; Kakke, Kan. Atialla, Cingh. ; Gnooshway, gnoogi/ee, Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, compact, 
greenish grey and smooth when young, dark-reddish brown and rou^h 
\vlicn old, exfoliating in many-sided patches. Sapwood largo, heart - 
wood varying in colour from grey or yellowish red to brick-red, very 
hard to extremely hard. Sharp, thin, white, concentric lines which may 
possibly be annual rings, Pores moderate-sized, uniformly distributed. 



Cassia. ] 



LEGUMINOS^E. 



137 



enclosed in, and joined by, white, wavy, irregular and often interrupted 
concentric bands of soft tissue. Medullary rays very fine, very numer- 
ous, uniform and equidistant, slightly bent, prominent in the dark, firm 
tissue which separates the wavy bands. 

Sub-Himalayan tract, ascending to 4,000 feet, and throughout India and Burma 
Growth moderate, 9 rings per inch of radius. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments : 



Experiment by whom 

made. 


Years. 


Wood whence 
produced. 


Weight. 


Number of 
experiments. 


Size of bar. 


Value of P. 


Kyd 




Assam . , 


56 




Ft. In. In. 
2x1x1 


688 


Skinner, No. 43 . 


1862 


South India . 


61 






846 


R. Thompson 
Brandis, Nos. 33 and 34 


1868 
1862 


Central Provin- 
ces. 
Burma 


62 

( 67 
I 66 


... 





... 


Central Provinces List . 
Smythies 


1873 
1878 


Central Provin- 
ces. 
Different Pro- 
vinces. 


66 
60 


11 





... 



The wood is very durable, but rarely of sufficiently large size for timber. It makes 
excellent posts, and is good for carts, agricultural implements and rice -pounders. The 
pulp of the pods is a strong purgative, the bark is used in dyeing and tanning, and the 
gum as an astringent. It is a very handsome tree, having long pendulous racemes of 
bright yellow flowers, and a long, straight, cylindrical, indehiscent pod, often one and 
two feet long. It is often cultivated for ornament, 



61 

Garhwal (1868) 52 

Gorakhpur (1868) 52 



P 101. Sutlej Valley, Punjab, 3,000 feet 
P 437. Ajmere . . . . . 

P 439. 

O 244. 
O 333. 
C 1154. 
E 579. 
E 2352. 
E 783. 
W 864. 
D 2052. 
D 1076. 
B 2525. 



Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 56 

Lohagarhi Forest, Darjeeliug Terai 62 

Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai ...... 62 

Kammp, Assam 60 

South Kanara ......... 62 

Mysore 58 

North Arcot, r Madras . 73 

Burma (1862) 66 



The difference between the wood of this tree and that of Ougeinia 
dalbergioides consists in this, that in the former the patches of white soft 
tissue are continuous, forming belts ; whereas in Ougeinia they are rhom- 
boidal, pointed at the ends, and form interrupted belts. 

2. C. marginata, Roxb. Fl. Ind ii. 338; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 262. 
C. lioxlurgliii, DC.; Beddome t. 180. Vern. Urimidi, uskiamen, Tel. ; 
Ngoomee, Burm. ; Ratoo-waa, Cingh. 

A small deciduous tree, with deeply cracked, brown bark. Heart wood 
light brown, very hard. Pores moderate-sized and large, joined by 
narrow, undulating, irregular, white bands of soft tissue. Medullary 
rays fine and very numerous, uniform and equidistant, prominent in the 



138 LEGUMINOS/13. [ Cu 

dark firm tissue which separates the bands of white soft tissue. Structure 
similar to that of C. Fistula. 

Madras, Ceylon and Burma (Thoungyeen forests). 

Weight, Skinner, No. 44, gives 63 Ibs. ; our specimen gives 59 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
Skinner gives P = b80. The wood is well adapted for turning, naves of wheels and 
handles of tools. 

Ibs. 

B 301. Burma (1862) 59 

3. C. siamea, Lamk. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 264. ; Kurz i. 392. C.florida, 
Vahl; Beddome t. 179. Senna sumatrana, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 317. Vern. 
Beali, manje konne, Tam. ; Sime tangadi, Kan. ; Waa, Cingh. ; Maizalee, 
Burm. 

A moderate-sized tree with smooth bark. Sapwood whitish, rather 
large. Heart wood dark brown, nearly black, very hard. Pores large 
and moderate-sized, joined by concentric, light-coloured, wavy bands of 
soft tissue which alternate with black belts of firm texture, in which 
the fine, light-coloured, uniform and equidistant medullary rays are 
prominent. Frequently beautifully mottled on a vertical section. 

South India, Burma and Ceylon. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 39, 58 Ibs. ; our specimens give 54'5. P = 840. 
Very durable. Used in Burma for mallets, helves and walking-sticks; in South 
India it is little known, but it is considered one of the best kinds of fuel for 
locomotives in Ceylon (Beddome). 

Ibs. 

D 1080. North Arcot 58 

B 2526. Burma (1862) 54 

B 2712. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 52 

4. C. timoriensis, DC.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 265; Beddome xcii.; 
Kurz i. 393. Vern. Arremene, Cingh. ; Toung maizalee, Burm. 

A handsome, small, evergreen tree. "Wood dark brown, nearly black. 
Structure resembling that of C. siamea. 

Burma and Ceylon. 

Weight, 57 Ibs., P = 594, according to Adrian Mendis. Used in Ceylon for building 
and furniture. 

Iba. 
No. 4. Ceylon Collection 57 



B 2260, 45 Ibs., and B 2295, 46 Ibs., sent by Major Ford from the Andarnans in 
1866 under the name of Gnoogyee, belong to a species of Cassia. Wood hard, durable, 
olive brown, with a structure similar to that of Ougeinia dalbergioides. It is evidently 
a common wood in the Andamans. 



16. BAUHINIA, Linn. 

Contains about 20 to 30 species, almost equally divided into trees and climber*. 
Few of the species reach a very large size, but their commonness renders them im- 
portant. They are easily recognised by their two leaflets l^ing gem-rally joined 
together for a portion of their length, forming apparently a bilobed, palmately veined 
leaf. 

Tree section. B. acuminata, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 276; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
324; Brandi.slSO; Kurz i. IJ'.Mj. VVni. h'tntrlnui. l!eng. ; k'ncltitar. Hind.; MahaJi- 
luifka j>lii/u<j, Jiurni., is un erect, \vliite-ilo\vered, handsome shrub of South India ami 
Hurma. '//. lnnir,itn.<t,t, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 275; J>o\b. Fl. Ind. ii. 323; 
llrddonic xi-ii. ; Braiidis l.V.. Vern. J\<-h)utt\ Hind.; A'anclii ni. Tain., Tel., is a 
shrub or small tree oi' South India with showy, yellow lluwcr.s, having a purple e\v, and 



139 

igh wood, with nearly l.la.-k hrartwood. B. triandra, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 320, is a 
-mull tree grown in avenues in Bengal. 1>. monawlnt, Knrx. Vern. Swaitan, Burm., 

',/nu'iHt, Wall., and B. el.on(/<tt<t, Korth., are trees ol' Ijiirma.^ 
Tin' creepers contain some of 1 lie most important .plants found in our foresi 
7 '</ /<//'/, W. and A.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 27! ; I!nld<ii' xciii. ; Brandis 161; Kurz i. 401 ; 
Gamble 31. (B. racemosa, Vahl. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 325) Vcrn. Taitr, Punjab ; Afofofaft, 
maijdn, -wftlu, mauravn, jallaur, Hind.; N/7/aV, mahalcm,maul t C. P.; Borla, Nep. ; 
Chehur, Beng. ; Sungung >//, Lcj.cha ; A///V/, Triya ; J.*aui; hchi, Gondi ; Adda, Tarn. ; 
ChamloU, Dekkan, is perhaps the must gigunlic of the numerous large climbers of the 
Indian forests. It i.s found in the Sub-i I iinala van tract from the (Jhenab eastwards, 
in Northern and Central India, and in Tenasserim. Its uses are almost more numerous 
than those of any other forest plant except the bamboo. Its large, flat leaves are sewn 
together and used as plates, cups, rough table cloths, umbrellas and rain-caps ; its pod is 
roasted and the seeds eaten ; its bark is made into rough ropes, and it gives a copious 
gum, which, however, seems to be of little value. The wood is porous, in broad, irregularly 
broken concentric layers, alternating with red, juicy, bark-like tissue; the pith is cross- 
shaped. (P 108, Sutlej ; O 544, Dehra Dun ; E 474, E 2954, Darjeelmg Terai). The 
foliage is very dense and the stems do great damage to the trees they climb over ; it is 
very prevalent in sal forest, and in many provinces is being systematically cut out. B. 
anguina, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 328 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 284 ; Beddome xciii. ; Kurz i. 403 ; 
Gamble 31. Vern. Nayput, Sylhet; Naiwilli, Nep., is the Snake Climber of the moist 
forests of Northern and Eastern Bengal, Chittagong, Martaban and South India ; its bark 
is also used in rope-making, and its wood is very soft and porous. The stems are 
usually very curiously twisted, generally in alternate bends and often with a straight 
thick margin. (E 482, Darjeelmg Terai.) 

Wood red or brown, hard ; no heart wood ; concentric bands of soft 
tissue alternating- with bands of finer texture, in which the numerous 
fine, uniform and equidistant medullary rays are distinctly visible. The 
pores are uniform in size, 

1. B. malabarica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 321; Hook. PL Ind. ii. 277; 
Beddome xcii. ; Brandis 159; Kurz i. 899; Gamble 31. Vern. Amli, 
amlosa, Hind. ; Karmai, Beug. ; Amli taki, Nep. ; Kattra, Ass. ; Chep- 
pura, Basavana pdda, Kan.; Amli, Mar. ; Kundapula, dkondel, kangali, 
Gondi; Ambotha, chapa, Kurku ; Pulla dondur, pulishinta, pulhari^Q}. ; 
Apia, Berar; Bwaygyin, Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, rough, brown, 
exfoliating- in linear flakes. Wood light-reddish brown, with irregular 
masses of black or purplish wood near the centre ; moderately hard. 
Pores moderate-sized, generally oval and subdivided. Numerous narrow, 
wavy, white, concentric bands of softer tissue alternate with bands of 
harder and red-coloured wood of equal width, in which the numerous, 
fine, uniform and equidistant medullary rays are distinctly visible. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ganges to Assam, Bengal, Burma, South India. 
Weight, the average of our specimens gives 48 Ibs. ; Brandis, 1862, Burma List, 
No, 31, 42 Ibs. The wood is rarely used. The tree is recognised by its acid leaves 
which are eaten. 

Ibs. 
C 1 137. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces . 



C 2817. Melghat, Berar (sapwood) 

C 821. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar 

E 590. Khookloong Forest, Darjeelirig Terai 

E 2350. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 



44 
47 
51 
48 



B 3203. Burma (1862) 

2. B. racemosa, Lam.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 276; Beddome t. 182; 
Brandis 159; Kurz i. 397. B. parviflora^M.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 323. 
Vern. Kosundra, taur, Pb. ; Kachndl, guridl, thaur, ashia, makk, 
mania } dhordra, Hind.; Lhondn^dhiindera^astra^ bosha, Gondi ; //// 



HO LE(iUMiNOS^. [Bauhiiua. 

Ajmere; Ari , arro, Tel. ; Ati, archi, areka, Tarn. ; Apia, seydra, Mar. ; 
Sanraj, Beng.; Ambhola, Uriya; Aupta, Kan. ; Hpalan,'Q\am t i Amba 
bhosa, Bhil ; Bossai, Kurku. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark i inch thick, dark brown, very rough, 
with numerous, deep, vertical cracks. Wood light brown, hard, with 
irregularly-shaped masses of darker-coloured and harder wood near the 
centre. Pores moderate-sized, often in radial lines. Narrow, white, irre- 
gular bands of softer tissue alternate with darker bands of somewhat 
greater width, in which the very numerous, fine, uniform and equidistant 
medullary rays are distinctly visible. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Kavi eastwards, ascending to 5,000 feet ; Oudh, 
Bengal, Burma, Certtral and South India. 

Weight, Brandis' Burma List, 1862, No. 32, gives 44 Ibs. ; E. Thompson, 56 Ibs. ; 
our specimens give 501bs. on an average. The wood is good, but not used. The fibres 
of the bark are used to make ropes and slow matches. 

ibs. 

P 453. Ajmere .... 

P 3216. Nagpahar, Ajmere 



O 247. Garhwal (1868) 

O 335. Gorakhpur (1868) . 

C 200. Mandla, Central Provinces (1869) 

C 1170. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 

C 2770. Melghat, Berar (sapwood) 



53 

47 
56 
44 
41 



3. B. purpurea, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 284 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 320 ; 
Beddome xcii. ; Brandis 160 ; Kurz i. 398; Gamble 31. Vern. Koiral, 
kardr, karalli^ray, Pb. ; Kolidr, kanidr, kandan, khairwal, kwillar, koilari, 
sona, Hind.; Khwairalo, Nep. ; Kachik, Lepcha; Leva kanchan, 
rakla kanclia, koiral, Beng. ; Kodwari, Gondi ; Koliari, Kurku ; Atmatti, 
Mar.; Kanchan, Tel.; Pedda are, mandareh, Tarn.; Saml, kanchivdla, 
Kan. ; Mahalay kani, Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark J to 4 inch thick, ash- 
coloured to dark brown. Wood pinkish white, turning dark brown 
on exposure, moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized, mostly oval, sub- 
divided. Wavy, concentric bands of soft tissue alternating with darker- 
coloured bands of firmer tissue, in which the white, fine, uniform and 
equidistant medullary rays are distinctly visible. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastward, Central and South India and 
Burma. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 24, 39 Ibs. ; our specimens give an average of 
49 Ibs. Wood used for agricultural implements and in construction. The bark Is 
used for tanning, the leaves for cattle fodder, and the flower buds are pickled and 
eaten. 

P 153. Sainj, Giri Valley, 3,000 feet 42 

O 229. Garhwal (1868) 55 

O 230. 46 

C 822. Bairagarh Eeserve, Berar 50 

C 2792. Melghat, Berar (sapwood) 36 

E 585. Khooklong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 60 

4. B. variegata, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. 284; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
319; Beddome xcii.; Brandis 160; Kurz i. 397; Gamble 31. Vern. 
Kachnar, kolidr, kural, padridn, khwairal, guridl, gwiar, baridl, Hind.; 
Taki, Nep.; Rha, Lepcha; Rakla kanchan, Beng.; Borara, Uriya; 
Seyapu-munthari, Tarn.; Kanchivala-do^ Kau.; Bwaycheng, Burm. 



Baufiinia.] I.WSUXTINOSJE. 141 



A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark grey, with vertical cracks. 
Wood grey, moderately hard, with irregular masses of darker and harder 
wood in the centre. Pores moderate-sized, enclosed in round or elongated 
and pointed concentric patches of white soft tissue, which often run into 
each other. The intervening tissue is firm and dark coloured, with 
very numerous, fine, uniform and equidistant white medullary rays. 
Distinct, white, concentric lines, which probably are annual rings. 
Medullary rays distinctly visible on a radial section, giving the wood a 
handsome mottled appearance. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastwards, and throughout the forests of 

India and Burma. Often planted for ornament. 

Weight, according to E. Thompson, 54 Ibs. ; our specimen gives 42 Ibs. Used for 

agricultural implements. The bark is used for ctyeing and tanning, and the leaves and 

flower buds eaten. The flowers are very handsome, somewhat like those of some of the 

Azaleas, but having four white and one criinsou petal. 

Ibs. 
P 1200. Madhopur, Punjab ......... 33 

C 823. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar ....... 48 

E 591. Khooklong Forest, Darjeeling Terai ..... 47 

E 2351. Bamunpokri ..... 39 

5. B. retusa, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii, 279; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 322; 
Beddome xciii. ; Brandis 161. Vern. Kurdl, Pb. ; Kandla, Jcanalla., kuayral, 
gwayralj kanlaOj semla, Hind. ; Nirpa, Gondi, Tel. ; Tewar, Palamow. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, dark brown, 
with a few vertical cracks. Wood reddish white, with irregularly shaped, 
darker masses near the centre, hard. Pores moderate-sized and large, 
scanty, occasionally grouped. Numerous narrow, white, concentric 
bands of softer tissue, alternating with harder and darker bands of equal 
width, in which the white, fine, uniform equidistant and very numerous 
medullary rays are prominent. 

North-West Himalaya from the Beas eastwards, ascending to 4,500 feet ; Central 
India. 

Weight, 58 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood not used. It gives a clear gum called 
Semla Gum, almost exactly resembling gum arabic ; it is largely collected and ex- 
ported from the Dehra Dun. Of this gum Capt. Campbell says : 

" The collection of the Semla gum commences in January and is continued through- 
out February and March. It sells in Dehra at Ee. 1-8, Ks. 2 or Es. 2-8 per maund. 
according to quality, and is utilised as a medicine and in compound with other medi- 
cines. Occasionally too it is eaten in its crude state by the very poorest natives down, 
country. It is also used to waterproof terraced roofs. The annual export from the 
Dehra Dun is about 2,500 inaunds." 

Ibs. 

O 532. Dehra Dun .......... 58 

C 1160. Ahiri Eeserve, Central Provinces ......... 

17. AFZELIA, Sm. 

Contains 2 trees : A. retusa, Kurz, is a small evergreen tree of the coast forests of 
the Andamans. The Maraboiv wood of Malacca is probably A. palembanica, Baker. 

1. A.bijuga, A. Gray; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 274; Kurz i. 412. Vern. 
Shoondul, Idnga, Beng. ; Pynkado, Burm. in the Andamans; Pirijdd, 
Asagunddy And. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark thin, grey, peeling off in 
fine, papery scrolls. Sapwood white, moderately hard, large in young 
trees, small in old trees; heart wood reddish brown, hard, close-grained > 



tflNOSJfe. 






Pores mod crate-sized, frequently oval and subdivided, enclosed in oval 
patches of soft tissue, prominent on a longitudinal section. Medullary 
rays fine, numerous, uniform and equidistant, wavy, visible on a radial 
section as long narrow bands. 

Sundarbans of Bengal, Andaman Islands and the Malay Archipelago. It will 
probably be found on the coasts of Arracan, Pegu and Tenasserim. 

Weight, young wood 36 to 42 Ibs. ; old wood 45 to 49 Ibs. Brandis' Memorandum on 
Andaman woods, 1874, Nos. 12, 13, gives 50 Ibs. A valuable wood, used iu the Anda- 
maus for bridge and house building, 

Ibs. 

E 403. Sundarbans ... . 36 

E 415. . . . . 42 

B 315. Burma (1867) (Kohleng} . 49 

B 524. Andaman Islands . . 45 

B 2209. (1866) . ... 48 

18. TAMARINDUS, Linn. 

1. T. indica, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 273 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 215; 
Beddome t. 184; Brandis 163 ; Kurz i. 4<14; Gamble 32. The Tamarind. 
Vern. Amli, ambli, imli, Hind. ; Tintiri, Until, tintul, Beng. ; Titri, 
Nep.; Teteli Ass.; Tentuli, koyam, Uriya; Puli, Tarn. ; Chinla, Tel.; 
Sitta, hilta, Gondi ; Chicha, Kurku ; Karangi, kawial, asam, Mysore ; 
Hunase, Kan. ; Amli, chitz, Mar. ; Siyembela, Cingh. ; Magyee, Burm. 

A large evergreen tree. Bark \ inch thick, dark grey, with longi- 
tudinal fissures and horizontal cracks. Wood yellowish white, some- 
times with red streaks, hard and close-grained. Heartwood small, near 
the centre of old trees only, dark purplish brown, with an irregular out- 
line and radiating ramifications, very durable. Annual rings indistinct. 
Pores moderate-sized, uniformly distributed, each pore or group of pores 
surrounded by round patches of soft tissue, which are often confluent, 
forming irregular and oblique bands. Medullary rays very fine, very 
numerous, uniform and equidistant. 

Cultivated throughout India and Burma as far north as the Jhelum. 
The weight and transverse strength have been ascertained by the following ex- 
periments : 



Experiment by 
whom conducted. 


Year. 


Wood whence 
procured. 


Weight. 


No. of ex- 
periments. 


Size of bar. 


Value of 
P. 












Ft.. In. In. 




Puckle 





Mysore . 


83 


4 


2x1x1 


792 


Skinner, No. 121 . 


1S62 


South India . 


79 







864 


Cunningham . . 





Gwalior . 


60 
79 


2 
2 


2x1x1 
2x1x1 


611, sapwood. 
815, heart- 


Adrian Mendis, No. 79 . 


1855 


Ceylon . 


80 




2x1x1 


wood. 
780 


Smythies 


1878 -j 


Mysore . 

Other Provin- 
ces . ; 


82 
62 


1 

2 





heartwood. 
sapwood. 



Wood highly prized, though extremely difficult to work. It is used for 
mallets, planes, furniture, rice-pounders, oil and sugar mills, and is an excellent wood 
for turning. The fruit is used in medicine as a laxative; it is made into pros 
and exported to Europe. The leaves are also used in curries, and the seed, ground to 
powder arid mixed with gum, ;_ r ives a strong cement. 



Tttmarimlu*. ] 

It is very largely planted iu avenues and topes, and is one of the most beautiful 
of Indian trees. 

Ibfl. 

C 2811. Melghat, Berar . ^ f . .01 

P 451. A j mere . . > sap wood . < . ... 63 

E 2353. Siliguri, Bengal . 3 ( . ... 63 

No. 79. Ceylon Collection J (. . ... 80 

19. HARDWICKIA, Roxb. 

Contains 2 species, both from Central and South India. 

Heartwood dark coloured, hard, heavy. Pores moderate-sized, filled 
with resin. Medullary rays fine, very numerous ; the distance between the 
rays being less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

1. H. binata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 423; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 270; Bed- 
dome t. 26; Brandis 162. Vern. Anjan, Hind., Mar.; Acha, alii, Tarn. ; 
Nar yepi, yapa, Tel. ; Kamrd, Jcarachi, Kan. ; Chhota dund/iera, Gondi; 
Bone, Kurku; Parsid, Singrowli. 

A deciduous tree. Bark i inch thick, dark grey, rough with irre- 
gular vertical cracks, exfoliates in narrow flakes. Sapwood small, white ; 
heartwood extremely hard, dark red, often with a purplish tinge, cross 
and very close grained. Pores moderate-sized, often subdivided, filled 
with resin, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine, numerous, undu- 
lating, and frequently bent where they touch the pores, visible on a radial 
section as straight, narrow, white bauds. Scanty, fine, concentric lines. 

In dry forests of South and Central India, but not everywhere ; generally gre- 
garious in isolated belts or patches of greater or less extent. Most commonly found 
on sandstone, but also to be met with on trap and granite. Wanting in the western 
moist-zone, and not found in Northern India, though it occurs as far north as the 
Banda District of the North-Western Provinces. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 78, 85 Ibs. ; R. Thompson gives 67 ; and the 
Central Provinces List of 1873, 65 Ibs. ; our specimens give an average of 82 Ibs. Skinner 
gives P = 942. Perhaps the hardest and heaviest wood in India; it is extremely 
durable, liable to split, but does not warp. It is used for bridge and house posts and 
for ornamental work. It has been recommended for sleepers, but is probably too hard, 
hea\ r 3 r and difficult to work to be much in favour. Out of 9 sleepers laid down on the 
]\l ysore State Railway and taken up after 7 to 8 years, 6 were found good, 2 still ser- 
viceable, and only 1 bad. About 2,000 have been used on the Holkar and Neemuch 
line. The bark yields a strong and valuable fibre. The leaves are given as fodder to 
cattle. It yields a gum. 

C 800. Punassa Reserve, Central Provinces . . . . .84 

C 1147. Ahiri 84 

C 2986. Nimar, Central Provinces . . . . . . .83 

C 2929. Palamow, Bengal 82 

D 1055. Salem, Madras 83 

D 2025. Mysore 77 

No. 31. Salein Collection 82 

2. H. pinnata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 425; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 270; 
Beddome t. 255. Vern. Koldvu, Tinnevelly; Matayen samprdiii, Travan- 
core ; Yenne, Manjarabad (VanSomeren). 

A very large tree. Sapwood large ; heartwood brown, moderately 
hard, exuding a red, sticky substance similar to copaiba balsam, which 
consists of different resins dissolved in an essential oil. Pores moderate- 



LEGUMINOS^I. [Hardwictia. 

sized and large, often subdivided. Medullary rays fine, nearly equi- 
distant, bending- where they touch the pores. Scanty, not very pro- 
minent, concentric lines of soft texture. 

Western Ghats from South Kanara to Travancore. 

Weight, 47 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used for building by coffee planters and 
others. For analysis of the gum resin see Mr. Broughton's Keport in Beddome FL 

Sylv. Madr. t. 255. 

Ibs. 
D. 1064. Tinnevelly 47 

20. CYNOMETEA, Linn. 

Contains 4 Indian species. C. cauliflora, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 268 ; Beddome 
t. 315, is an evergreen tree cultivated in Burma and South. India; C. travancorica, 
Beddome t. 316 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 267, is a lofty tree of the hills of Travancore and 
Tinnevelly, between 2,000 and 4,000 feet. 

Wood red, hard, heavy ; no heartwood. Numerous, narrow, concentric 
bands similar to those of Bcwhinia, 

1. C. ramiflora, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 267; Beddome t. 315; 
Kurz i. 415. C. bijuga, Spanoghe. Vern. Shingr, Beng. ; Irapu, Tarn. ; 
Myeng kaleng, Burm. ; Gal mendora, Cingh. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood red, hard, close-grained. Pores small, 
uniformly distributed, often oval and subdivided. Numerous wavy bands 
of soft, light-coloured tissue, alternating with narrower bands of hard 
and firmer tissue, in which the fine and very numerous medullary rays 
are distinctly visible. 

Sundarbans, South India and Burma in tidal forests. 

Weight, 56 Ibs. ; P = 826, Skinner, No. 52 ; our specimens give 58 Ibs. per cubic 
foot ; Nos. 27, 32, of Adrian Mendis' Ceylon Collection bear the names Gal mendora and 
Sal mendora, weight, 56 to 58 Ibs. ; P = 740. Skinner says that it is used for house- 
building and carts, and that chips of the wood give in water a purple dye. It is used 
in the Sundarbans for posts for native huts and for fuel. 

Ibs. 

E 397. Sundarbans 68 

2. C. polyandra, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 372 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 268. 
Vern. 'Ping, Cachar, Sylhet. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood light red, hard, close-grained. Pores 
moderate-sized, joined by narrow concentric bands of soft tissue. Medul- 
lary rays moderately broad. 

Khasia Hills, Sylhet and Cachar. 

Weight, 53 Ibs. according to Wallich ; our specimens give 60 Ibs. Mann sa} r s the 
wood is very useful for scantlings and makes good charcoal. 

Ibs. 

E1276. Cachar 60 

21. SARACA, Linn. 

Three Indian species are given in the Flora Indica. S. Lolbiana, Baker; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 272, is a tree of Martaban ; and S. triandra, Baker ; Hook. Fl. lud. ii. 272 
(Jonesia triandra, Koxb. Fl. lud. ii. 220) of Tenasserirn. 

1. S. indica, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 271 ; Beddome t. 57 ; Brandis 
166; Kurz ii. 415. Jonesia Asoca, lloxb. Fl. lud. ii. 218. Vern. Asok, 
\\\\K\.' t Asoka, Beu.; Aseka, aii, Cuttack; Diyera tcmbela, Cingh.; 
Axhunkar, Kan.; Jaswudi, Bombay; Thaw-fcci'/iyo, Burm. 



Saraca. ] 145 

Wood light, reddish-brown, soft. Pores moderate-sized in radial 
and frequently oblique lines. Medullary * rays indistinct, crossed by 
numerous, fine, wavy, concentric lines. 

Eastern Bengal, South India, Arracan and Tenasserim. 

Weight, 50 Ibs. per cubic foot. Often cultivated for its handsome flowers. 

No. 23. Ceylon Collection 68 



The Carob tree, Ceralonia siliqua, has a hard wood, with a pink heartwood. 
Pores moderately small, often in groups or radial lines. Medullary rays narrow, 
unequal, irregularly distributed (No. 3266. Saharanpur). 



Sub-Order III. MIMOSEJ3. 
Contains 13 Genera divided into 5 Tribes, viz., 

Tribe I. Parkieae .... Parkia. 
II. Adenantherese . . . Entada, Piptadenia, Adenanthera, 

Prosopis and Dichrostachys. 

III. Eumimosece . . . Mimosa, Leuccena and Xylia. 
IV. Acacieae .... Acacia. 

V. Ingese .... Calliandra, Albizzia and Pitheco- 

lobium. 

Parkia contains 3 species from Eastern Bengal and Burma : P. Roxburqhii, 
G.Don; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 289 (Mimosa biglobosa, Eoxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 551). Vern. 
Sapota, Sylhet, is a tree of Assam, Eastern Bengal, Chittagong and Burma, with a grey 
wood with fine medullary rays and large pores joined by concentric bands of white 
tissue (03264, Saharanpur). P. insignis, Kurz ; and P. leiophylla, Kurz i. 418, are 
large trees, the first of Martaban, the second of Pegu. Entada scandens, Bth. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 287 ; Brandis 167 ; Kurz i. 416 ; Gamble 32 (JS. Purscetha, DC., Mimosa 
scandens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 554) Vern. Gilla, Beng. ; Geredi, Uriya ; Pangra, 
Nep. ; Taktokhyem, Lepcha ; Gardal, Bombay ; Kongnyin-mvay, Burm., is a large 
climber of the forests of Eastern Bengal, South India, Burma and the Andaman Islands, 
with spirally twisted stems, soft, fibrous, spongy wood (E 477, Darjeeling Terai), 
and broad, flat pods, often 2 to 4 feet long, and 4 t'o 5 inches broad, containing 
large, flat, ovate seeds, which are eaten after roasting and steeping in water. Children 
play with them, and they may be made into snuff-boxes and other articles. The kernels 
are used also by the Nepalese for washing their hair, and in Bengal by washermen for 
crimping linen. 

Leuccena glauca, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 290 ; Brandis 172, is a small tree found 
in the outer valleys of Kumaun and Garhwal. Calliandra G-riffithii, Bth., and C. 
umbrosa, Bth.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 302, are small trees of the Khasia Hills, Eastern 
Bengal and Chittagong. Pithecolobium contains about 9 Indian species. P. dulce, 
Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 302 ; Beddome t. 188 ; Brandis 173. ( Inga dulcis, Willd. ; 
Kurz i. 431 ; Mimosa dulcis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 556). Vern. Dakhani babul, Hind. ; 
Karkapilly, Tain. ; Sime hunase, Kan. ; Kwaytanyeng, Burm., is a tree introduced 
from Mexico, and commonly cultivated in India and Burma. It has a reddish brown 
heartwood, weighing 40 Ibs. per cubic foot (Skinner, No. 82; P=517); it coppices 
well, and is grown as a hedge plant and for fuel. P. bigeminum, Martins ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 303; Beddome xcvi. ; Brandis 173; Gamble 34. Vern. Kac.hlora, Hind., is a 
large tree of the forests of the outer Himalaya from the Ganges eastwards, and of South 
India, giving a dark-coloured heartwood. P. anamallayanum, Beddome t. 189, is a 
large handsome tree of the higher ranges of the Anamalai Hills, above 5,000 feet. P. 
angulatum, Bth.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 306; Kurz i. 430; Gamble 34, (Mimosa hetero- 
phylla, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 545-) Vern. Takpyit, Lepcha; Kawahuruni, Sjlhet, is a 
largo tree of the forests of Northern and Eastern Bengal and Burma ; while P. Saman 
has bt'en introduced and is likely tube largely cultivated in India on account of its 
extremely rapid growth. Inga cynometroides, Beddome; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 306. (Cal- 
Jiandra cynometroides, Beddome t. 317), is a tree of the Tinnevelly and Travancore 
Hills, 



146 LEGUMimS/E. 

22. PIPTADENIA, Benth. 

1. P. oudhensis, Brand is 168; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 2s9. Adenanthera 
vud/iensis, J. L. Stewart. Vern. Gainti, Oudh. 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark J inch thick, grey-brown to dusky red, 
rough with flattish, exfoliating- woody scales ; inner bark red, fibrous. 
Wood yellowish or reddish, close-grained, no heartwood, hard, durable. 
Pores moderate-sized and large, often subdivided in patches of soft 
tissue, which are sometimes confluent. Medullary rays short, numerous, 
moderately broad. 

Forests at the foot of the Nepal Hills, Gonda division, Oudh, discovered by Mr. 
E. Thompson. 

O 3084. Goiida, Oudh. 

23. ADENANTHERA, Linn. 

1. A. pavonina, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 287; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii.370; 
Beddome t. 96 ; Brandis 168 ; Kurz i. 41 7. Vern. Rakta-chandan, ranjana, 
Beng. ; Ani kundamani, Tarn. ; Bandi gurivenda, Tel. ; Manjati, Mai. ; 
Thorlaganjj Mar.; Manjddi, Kan. Mddateya, Cingh.; Gung, Magh ; 
Ywaygyee, Burm.; Rechedd, And. 

A deciduous tree, with grey bark. Heartwood red, hard, close-grained. 
Pores small, scanty, in short radial lines. Medullary rays very fine, 
extremely numerous. 

Bengal, South India, Burma and Andaman Islands. 

Weight, Skinner, No. 12, gives 56 Ibs., which is the same as our specimen ; Bennett 
gives 55 Ibs. Skinner gives P = 863 ; and Bennett 942. The wood is used in South 
India for house-building and cabinet-making purposes, and gives a red dye. The seeds 
are worn as ornaments, and ave used as weights by goldsmiths and jewellers as they 
are said to be very constant in weight, viz., 4 grains ; they give an oil. 

Ibs. 

B 523. Andaman Islands ...... . . .56 

24. PKOSOPIS, Linn. 

Contains about 18 species, dispersed over the tropical and sub-tropical regions of 
Asia, Africa and America. Of the five sections which compose the genus, sections 
whose characters are based to some extent upon the shape and structure of the fruit, 
three may be noticed, as they contain species which have lately been introduced into 
India : 

") C Contains the two Indian species ; 

. J 

" 



. 

sightly thickened at the 



2. With the pod smooth, 
thickened at the seeds so as to 
be almost jointed, and gener- 
ally falcate .... 



I the Northern Punjab plains and 
(^Western Asia. 
C Contains two of the species 
I now being grown, viz., P. cjlan- 
Algarobia . . < dulosa of the mountains of West- 
I ern Texas ; and P. pa Hid a of 
i^Sonth America. 



o Tir-i-u ^ A 11 ~) C Contains the true " Mesquit 

3 With the pod spirally ( strombocarpa . ) Bean, or P. ^^mr^v of Texas 

twlsted ) ( and New Mexico. 

P. spiciyera, Linn., is hero described; P. Stephan'noKt, Kunth ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 238; Brandis 171. Vern. J,-tn1n'if. Aral)., is a small thorny shrub of no economic use. 

P. pattida, Kunth, is ;i native of South America, and lias been sum-ssi'iilly 
^rown in Crvlon. Its pods aro considered of high value us a tanning material, con- 



Pro sop is, ] 117 

taining, it is said, as much as 90 per cent, of tannic acid. They are known by tin- 
name of u Balsamooarpon." 

P. glandulosa, Torr., the " Mesquit or Algaroba of Texas," is a native of th 
mountain regions of Western Texas, when- it grows into a small tree from 20 to 40 feet 
high, and with a diameter of 18 inones. It has straight or curved, rather flattened, 
almost jointed pods, the interior of which is filled with a sweet pulp. The pods, 
it is believed, are useful for fodder, and are not injurious. It yields an excessively 
hard and durable timber, with a beautiful grain, and is used for furniture picket poles 
and in the manufacture of charcoal. It also affords a large quantity of gum resem- 
bling gum arabic, which exudes from the stem and branches, and has been used as 
mucilage in the making of jujubes, and for other purposes. 

P. pubescens, Bth., the " Screw Bean " or " Screw Mesquit, " is a small tree of 
Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. Remarkable for its screw-shaped pods. These 
pods grow in abundant clusters of 8 or 10 upon the same stem, ripen at all times 
of the year, and contain much nutritious saccharine matter ; but great caution is re- 
quired in their use as fodder for horses. 

Another species, a native of Jamaica, and possibly not distinct from P. glandu- 
lomt, is the P. juliflora, DC., of the section Algarobia. Its fruits have poisonous 
properties, though, for other purposes, the tree appears to be useful for planting in 
some localities, as the plants when once established go on sending up shoot after shoot, 
aud are difficult to eradicate. 

1. P. spicigera, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 288; Beddome t. 56; 
Brandis 169. Adenanlhera aculeata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 371. Vern. 
Jhandj khdr, Ph.; Kandi, kundi, Siiid. ; Chaunkra, Agra; Khejra, 
Rajputana; Sangri, Pertabgarh; Semru, hamra, Guz. ; Shemi, saunder, 
Mar.; Shami, Beng., Uriya; Perumbe, vunne, jambu, Tarn.; Chani, Tel. 

A moderate-sized, deciduous, thorny tree. Bark | to 1 inch thick, 
grey, rough, with deep longitudinal fissures and horizontal cracks. 
Sapwood large, perishable ; heartwood purplish brown, extremely hard. 
Pores very small to moderate-sized, generally imbedded in narrow irre- 
gular concentric bands of soft tissue, filled with resin. Medullary rays 
short, extremely numerous, fine, wavy. 

Arid, northern and southern dry zones. Punjab, Sindh, Rajputana, Guzerat, 
Bandelkhand and Dekkan. 

Brandis says the growth is probably slow, it having 3 feet girth in 30 years 
(Saharanpur) ; this would give about 5 years per inch of radius, which is moderately 
fast. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 108, 72 Ibs., but the identification of his 
specimens is doubtful ; Dalzell gives 58 Ibs. ; and J. L. Stewart 51 Ibs. ; our specimens 
give 58 Ibs. Skinner gives P = 981. The wood is tough, but not durable, liable to 
dry rot, and readily eaten by insects. It is easily raised from seed and coppices well. 
It is used for building, carts, well curbs, furniture, and agricultural implements ; but 
is chiefly valuable for fuel, as its heating power is very great. Brandis gives the 
results of experiment made at Karachi in May 1869, that 1,374 Ibs. of its wood were 
consumed in evaporating 11'8 cubic feet of water per hour during 7 hours, the pressure 
of steam being kept at 27 Ibs. per square inch, while of Acacia arabica wood 
1,388 Ibs., and of Tamarte gallica wood 1,627 Ibs., were required for the same test. 
It is largely used for fuel for locomotives and steamers in the Punjab aud Sind, and 
has been planted in the Punjab plantations. The pods are used as fodder for camels, 
cattle and goats ; and the mealy sweetish substance is eaten, raw or cooked, in parts of 
the Punjab, Guzerat and the Dekkan, and has the flavour of that of the Carob tiv< . 
It has an enormously long tap roOt : one specimen of which pieces were sent to the 
Paris Exhibition of 1878 had a root 86 feet long, penetrating vertically to a depth of 
T> 1 foot. It gives a gum somewhat similar to gum arabic, but which is not used. 

1K-. 

P 882. Multan 57 

P 939. (root wood) 

P 1380. Karokpo Foivst. Hyderabad, Sind 59 

P 459. Ajinero (young tree) 37 



148 LEGUMINOSJE. [Lichrosiacliys. 

25. DICHROSTACHYS, DC. 

1. D. cinerea, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 288; Beddome t. 185 ; 
Brandis 171. Mimosa cinerea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 561. Vern. Furtuli, 
Hind.; Kunlai, kunrat, kheri, Mhairwarra; Vadatalla, vadatara, Tarn. ; 
Velturu, yeltuy Tel.; Segum kati, Mar., Gondi; Andara, Cingh. 

A thorny shrub or small tree. Heartwood red, extremely hard. 
Pores moderate-sized, enclosed in rings of soft texture. Medullary rays 
short, moderately broad, equidistant, the distance between the rays equal 
to the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Dry, stony hills in South and Central India, Rajputana. 
Weight, 75 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used for walking-sticks. 

Ib8. 

No. 25. Salem Collection 79 

No. 3. Ceylon Collection (marked Vachellia farnesiana) . .71 

P 3239. Ajmere 

P 3229. Nagpahar, Ajmere 

26. MIMOSA, Linn. 

M.pudica, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 29J. The Sensitive Plant. Vern. Lajwdnti 
Kumaun ; LajuJc, Beng., is now naturalised over the greater part of tropical and sub- 
tropical India, where it grows to be a small shrub, and is with difficulty eradicated. 
M . hamata, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 291, is a prickly shrub of South India. 

1. M.Tllbicaulis, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 291; Brandis 172; 
Gamble 32. M. mutabilis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 564. Vern. Ml, khair, 
didridr, Pb. ; Hajeru, Sind ; Agla, agl, kingli, kacheyta, Hind. ; Aradi, 
Nep. ; Sibriu, Lepcha ; Chilatti, Bhil. 

A large, straggling", prickly shrub with grey bark. Sap wood yel- 
lowish white ; heartwood red, hard. Pores small and moderate-sized, 
frequently oval and subdivided. Medullary rays fine and very numerous. 

Throughout the greater part of India, ascending to 4,000 feet in Kumaun and 
Sikkim. 

Weight, 41 to 52 Ibs. Used for gunpowder charcoal. 

Ibs. 

E 680. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 41 

E 2354. Chunbati, Darjeeling, 2,000 feet 52 

27. XYLIA, Bth. 

1. X. dolabriformis, Benth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 286; Beddome, 
t. 136 ; Brandis 171 ; Kurz i. 419. Mimosa xylocarpa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 543. Inga xylocarpa, DC. The Iron wood Tree of Pegu and Arracan. 
Vern. Jambu, Hind.; Jamba, suria, Mar.; Boja, Uriya; Irul, Tain.; 
Konda tangedu, tangedit, ernvalu, bojeh, Tel. ; Jamie, tirawa, Kan. ; 
Shilve, Coorg ; Pynkado, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, grey or reddish brown, 
with short cracks irregularly distributed. Sapwood small ; heartwood 
dark brown or reddish brown, extremely hard, beautifully mottled, cross- 
grained, the fibres on a longitudinal section being wavy. Annual rings 
indistinct, but alternate concentric bands of darker and lighter colour. 
Pores small and moderate-sized, often subdivided into numerous com- 
partments, and then oval or oblong. Pores or groups of pores in invgu- 
Lar patches of whitish tissue, which are often arranged in zig-xug lines. 
These patches arc separated by hard, dark-coloured tissue in which the 



Xylia. ] 



LEGUMINOSJl. 



149 



very fine and very numerous medullary v rays are distinctly visible. 
Some of the specimens of this wood have an oily touch. 

Chanda District, South India, Arracan and Burma. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined hy the following experi- 
ments : 



Experiment by whom 
conducted. 


Year. 


Wood whence procured. 


1 


X... of ex- 
periments. 


Size of bar. 


* 

1* 












Ft. in. in. 




Puekle .... 


1859 


Mysore .... 


58 




2x1x1 


693 


List of woods 


1863 




68 








Bramlis, No. 37 ... 


1862 


Burma .... 


60-66 




... 


... 


Commissariat Department . 




Moulmein 


83 




... 


1153 


Skinner, No. 83 ... 


1862 


South India 


58 






836 


Benson .... 




Burma .... 


83 




3 X 1-4 X 1'4 


1191 


Laslctt 


1875 




73-5 


6 


7X2X2 


955 




1878 


Chanda .... 


59 


1 






Sinythies. < 





Kauara .... 


61 


4 


... 


... 


' 


n 


Burma .... 


65 


3 


... 





The wood is very durahle a property it doubtless owes in great measure to the 
resinous substance contained in it. This resin is more abundant in Burmese wood 
than in wood grown in South India. No. B 1451, which was brought by Dr. Wallich 
from Tavoy in 1828, is still so full of resin that it is quite sticky on the outside, and 
the resin may be scraped off with a knife. This substance is partially soluble in hot 
water, to which it imparts a reddish colour. 

The wood is used for boat-building and for agricultural implements in Burma ; 
also for carts and tool handles. In South India it is used for railway sleepers, posts, 
boat-building and carts. In Burma and Bengal it has been largely used for 
telegraph posts, for which it has answered well. The large forests in Arracan, 
of which Dr. Schlich in his report on the ironwood forests of Arracan, dated 1st 
September 1869, says that " a third of the forest vegetation consists of 
Pynkado," produce large numbers of telegraph poles and railway sleepers. Major 
Scat on in his report for 1876-77 said that 10,000 such sleepers from Arracan had 
then lately been sold at Calcutta at Us. 5 each, and Mr. Ribbentrop's Report states 
that Pynkado pieces and sleepers are brought out from the forests in Pegu. It is 
likely, however, to be found too hard, heavy and difficult to cut. It is useful wood for 
piles and beams of bridges. It exudes a red resin, and the seeds give an oil. 



1151. 
W 754. 
W 701. 
W 857. 
W 1222. 
B 805. 
B 3066. 
B 1451. 



Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 
South Kanara 



North Kanara 
Tharrawaddi, Burma 
Burma (1862) 
Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 



Ibs. 
59 
59 
61 
61 
62 
67 
66 
62 



28. ACACIA, Willd. 

Contains about 18 Indian species, of which four are climbing or straggling thorny 
shrubs, and the rest trees or erect shrubs. A. Latronum, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
ii ; -JIM) ; Bi'ddoim> xcv. ; Brandis 180. (Mimosa Latronum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 559) 
Yeru. Jibes, Hind. ; Paki-tv.ma, Tel., is a gregarious, very thorny shrub of the 



150 LEGUMINOSJ5. [Acacia. 

southern dry zone. A. Jacquemonti, Bth. ; Hoot. Fl. Ind. ii. 293 ; Brandis 183. 
Vern. Hauza, Afg. ; Kikar, babul, bamul, Pb. ; Murmutti, Berar ; Ratabauli, Guz., is 
a small, bushy, thorny shrub of the arid and northern dry zones, ascending in the Suli- 
man Range and Hazara to 3,200 feet ; it is used for fodder, and the bark of the root in 
the distillation of spirits. A. Senegal, Willd.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 295 (A. rupestns, 
Stocks; Brandis 184) Vern. Khor, Sind; Kumta, Rajputana, is a small thorny tree 
of the arid and northern dry zones, chiefly found in Sind and Ajmere. Brandis says, 
"Bark smooth, yellowish grey; wood light yellow, heavy and hard, with small 
irregular masses of black heartwood in the centre ; it takes a beautiful polish, 
and is used for weavers' shuttles." It gives a gum which is collected and sold in 
Sind with that of A. arabica. A. lenticularis, Ham.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 296 ; 
Brandis 186. Vern. Khin, Kumaun, is a small tree of the Siwaliks, of Kumaun and 
the Rajniehal hills in Bengal. A. Suma, Kurz ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 294; Brandis 
187 ; Kurz i. 421 (A. Catechu, Bth. ; Beddome t. 49, Mimosa Suma, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 563.) Vern. Saikanta, Beng. ; Mugli, Kan. ; Kumtia, Pertabgarh ; Dhaula 
khejra, Banswara ; Son kairi, Dangs, is a tree of Bengal, South India, parts of the 
Central Provinces and Guzerat. It is recognised from A. Catechu by its having 
white bark, while that species has a black-coloured bark. It gives cutch, and the 
bark is used for tanning. A. planifrons, W. and A.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 293; 
Beddome xcv. ; Brandis 575. The Umbrella Thorn. Vern. Sale, sal, Tel., is a small 
gregarious tree of South India with a strong wood used for agricultural implements 
and fuel. A. concinna, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 296 ; Beddome xcv.; Brandis 188 ; 
Kurz i. 423 ; Gamble 33. (Mimosa concinna, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 565). Vern. Aila, 
rassaul, Oudh ; Banritha, Beng.; Sikekai, Dekkan; Goau, chikai, Tel.; Sige, 
Kan.; Soopwotmvay, Burm., is an extremely thorny scandent shrub of most parts of 
India and Burma, except the arid zone. Its thick fleshy pods are used for washing the 
hair, and the acid leaves are eaten. A. pruinescens,^KuYz i. 424, is a climber of the 
forests of Pegu. 

The true gum arabic is the produce of A. vera, Willd., a tree of Egypt, Arabia and 
Northern Africa. " Sabicu " is the wood of A. formosa, a tree of the West Indies 
(W = 57 ; P = 994, Laslett). 

The character of the Indian species of Acacia is to have sharp, promi- 
nent, medullary rays, which are short in A. Catechu, ferruginea and modesta, 
but long in the others ; as a rule, they are not well marked on a radial sec- 
tion, but A. leucophlwa and arabica form an exception. The pores are, as 
a rule, uniform in size, but in A. eburnea they vary from small to large. 
With regard to their distribution, two series may be distinguished. In the 
first series the pores are isolated and enclosed in very narrow rings of 
softer tissue, and do not form concentric bands; to this section belong 
A. arabica, modesta andferruginea. In the species of the second series, 
the pores are enclosed in elongated patches of softer tissue, which are 
frequently confluent and form distinct, though often irregular, concen- 
tric bands. This section includes A. leucophlcea, eburnea, pennata and 
Catechu. The Australian species have a different structure, and are all 
marked by short medullary rays. 

1. A. Farnesiana, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 293 ; Beddome t. 52 ; 
Brandis 180; Kurz i. 420. Mimosa Farnesiana, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 557. Vern. Vilayati kikar, vilayati babul, pissi babul, pi''-kik<ir t 
Hind. ; Gut/a babula, Beng.; Vedda vala, Tarn. -, Kusturi, plldiunl, oda 
sale, murki tumma, Tel. ; Jtiti, Kan. 

A thorny shrub. Wood white, hard, close-grained. Pores modtM-ute- 
sized, in oblique and concentric interrupted bands of soft text u re. 
Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

Indigenous to America. no\v cultivated all over India. The m is collected in 
Sind. It has yellnu. extremely iVa^ianl Hewers, from which a pci L'ume is made. It 
a good fence, 



Acacia.} LEG! 

Weight, 49 Ibe. per cubic foot. 
P 3076. Sabathu, Punjab ....*. . 4U 

2. A. arabica, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. lud. ii. 293 ; Beddome t. 47 ; 
Brandis 180. Mimosa arabica, Roxb. Fl. lud. ii. 557. Vern. Kikar, 
Pb. ; Babbar, Sind ; Babul, babiir, Hind. ; Kanivelum, Tarn. ; ^MW^ 
wtf/fo tuma, Tel. ; Gobli, karri/all, Kan. 

A moderate-sized or large tree, seldom leafless, with dark brown 
rough bark. Sapwood large, whitish; heartwood pinkish white, turning 
reddish brown on exposure, hard, mottled with dark streaks. Pores 
moderate-sized, sometimes large, oval and subdivided. Medullary rays 
fine and moderately broad, short, numerous, unequally distributed, con- 
spicuous on a radial section. The wood consists of darker and lighter 
coloured bands of an equal width. 

Cultivated or self-sown throughout the greater part of India, except in the most 
humid tracts near the coast. Wild probably in Sind, Rajputana, Guzerat, and the 
Northern Dekkan. 

IJrundis says : " In the Punjab it attains a girth of 2 feet in about 12 and 5 
feet in about 30 years. In the forests of Lower and Middle Sind, the average growth 
has been ascertained to be : 

At 35 years 4 feet girth, at 4 feet from the ground. 
55 6 

At Jacobabad it has reached 50 to 60 feet high with a girth of 6 to 8 feet in less 
than 30 years." These measurements would give from 2 to 5 rings per inch of radius, 
which would indicate a quick rate of growth. In Minniken's Report on the 
Delhi Bela plantation in 1878, the following data are recorded regarding kikar : 

Age. No. of tree. Meanrfrtb. Beg*, 

Compartment 1. Chandrawal . ' '7| 4 23'5 25'30 

3. Kudsia ... 6 4 13'5 25 

4. Jaffar Khan . .6 7 17 18to25 
Chandrawal is probably on better soil than the others, as the rate of growth is 

2 rings per inch as against 2'2 and 2'8 in Nos. 3 and 4 respectively. 

Weight : Cunningham gives 541bs. ; Skinner, No. 3, 541bs. ; J. L. Stewart, 481bs. ; 
our specimens give an average of 541bs. Cunningham's five Gwalior experiments with 
bars 2 X 1" X 1" gave P = 875 ; Skinner gives 884. The wood is very durable if 
well seasoned. It is used extensively for wheels, well curbs, sugar and oil presses, 
rice-pounders, agricultural implements and tool handles. In Sind it is largely used 
for boat-building, rafters^and for fuel ; also occasionally for railway sleepers. The gum, 
which is similar to gum arable, is largely collected and used in native medicine, and 
in dyeing and cloth printing. In Sind and Guzerat large quantities of lac are 
collected on it. The bark is used for dyeing and tanning, and is a powerful astringent ; 
a decoction of it may be used as a substitute for soap. The pods also, when unripe, 
are astringent, and are used to make ink, and in Africa for tanning; they are given as 
fodder to cattle, sheep and goats. 

It is largely cultivated in the Punjab and Sind, but it suffers much from frost. 
It comes up well self-sown, coppices well, and may be grown from cuttings. It sends 
down a very long taproot. 

Ibs. 

P 1198. Madhopur, Punjab 58 

P 890. Multan 49 

P 1379. Miani Forest, Sind 56 

P 440. Ajmere 

C 843. Amraoti, Berar 56 

D 1051. Salem, Madras 56 

No. 1. Salem Collection 50 

3, A. eburnea, Willd.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 29.3 ; Beddome xcv.; Brandis 
183. Mimosa eburnea, Koxb. Fl, Ind.ii, 558. Vern. Marmati, Dekkan. 



152 LEGUMINOS^;. [Acacia. 

A short or small deciduous tree, with rough, dark-grey bark. Wood 
hard, yellowish white, extremely hard, splits in drying. Pores moderate- 
sized and large, often oval and subdivided into compartments enclosed 
in wavy and irregular concentric bands of softer tissue, which are 
frequently interrupted. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, 
wavy, prominent in the bands of darker and finer tissue, which alternate 
with those of soft texture. 

Sind, Suliman range, Berar, Dekkan and South India. 
Weight, 52 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 

C 844. Amraoti Reserve, Berar .... 52 

4. A. leucophlcea, Willd.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 294; Beddome t. 48; 
Braudis 184; Kurz i. 421. Mimosa leucophlcea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 558. 
Vern. Reru, raunj, karir, nimbar, ringa, rinj, rohani,jhind, safed kikar, 
Hind. ; Arinj, Raj putana ; Eaundra, runjra, Bauswara ; Renuja, Bijera- 
gogarh ; Tumma, Gondi ; Hewar, Mar. ; Felvaylam, vel-vaghe, Tarn. ; 
Tella-turna,) harwar, Tel. ; Eilijdli, topal, naibela, Kan. ; Katu andara, 
Cingh. ; Tanoung, Burm. 

A moderate-sized or large deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick ; colour 
varying with age, grey and smooth when young, dark brown, almost 
black, and rough when old, exfoliating irregularly in patches and strips. 
Sapwood large ; heartwood reddish brown with lighter and darker streaks, 
extremely hard. Pores moderate-sized, uniformly distributed in patches 
or short irregular concentric belts of white tissue which are prominent 
in, and alternate with, the dark-coloured firm tissue which separates 
the medullary rays. The latter are white, fine and moderate, and often 
slightly bent. 

Plains of the Punjab from Lahore to Delhi, and in all forest tracts of Central and 
South India and Burma. 

Weight, Skinner, No. 5, gives 55 Ibs. ; R, Thompson, 58 Ibs. ; and Central Pro- 
vinces List of 1873, 45 Ibs. ; our specimens give 50 and 59 Ibs. Skinner gives P=861. 
It seasons well and takes a good polish ; is strong and tough, but often eaten by 
insects. It gives an excellent fuel. The bark is eaten in times of scarcity ; it is 
used in preparing spirits from sugar and palm juice, to precipitate by the tannin it 
contains the albuminous substances in the juice. It gives a fibre used for nets and 
coarse cordage. The young pods and seeds are eaten, and the gum is used in native 
medicine. 

Iba. 

P 947. Lahore 50 

C 1118. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 59 

5. A. modesta, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 296 ; Brandis 185. Mimosa 
dumosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 559, and probably M. obovata, Roxb. I.e. 561. 
Vern. Palosa, Afg. ; Phulahi, Pb. 

A thorny, moderate-sized, deciduous tree. Bark rough, with a multi- 
tude of narrow irregular cracks. Sapwood large, white, perishable ; 
heartwood dark brown, with black streaks, extremely hard, harder than 
that of A. Catechu. Pores moderate-sized, sometimes joined by narrow 
bands of white tissue. Medullary rays fine, white, short. 

Suliman and Salt Ranges, Sub-Himalayan tract between the Indus and the Sutloj, 
and th<- northern part of the Punjab plains. 

Growth slow. Weight, according to J. L. Stewart, 55 Ibs. ; our specimena vary 
from 67 to 72; average 69 Ibt. A im*t iH-.-mtiful rood, strong and durable; valual.1.- 

for curt-wlnM-ls, su^an-aiic cm- IHTS. 1'n-iaii \\ atrr -whn-N ami agricultural iniplrn 



Acacia.] LEGUMINOSJG. 153 

It gives a gum, usad in native medicine. The leaves and fallen blossoms are collected 

for cuttle fodder. 

Ibs. 

P 164 Hoshiarpur (J. L. Stewart, 1866) 72 

P OU. Gu jurat 68 

P 945. Mu'ltan 67 

6. A. ferruginea, DC.; Hook. Fl. Iml. ii. 295; Beddome t. 51 ; 
Branclis 185; Kurz i. 423; Gamble 32. Mimosa ferruginea, lloxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 561. Vern. Kkour, Nep. ; Kaiger, Panch Mehals ; Son khair, 
Berar ; Kar khair, Gondi ; Phandra Mair, Mar. ; Teori /chair, Bhil ; Banni, 
Kan. ; Velvelam, Tarn. ; Ansandra, tella tuma, wuni, Tel. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark \ inch thick, rough. Sapwood large ; 
heartwood olive brown, extremely hard, harder than A. Catechu. Pores 
moderate-sized, generally single, in small rounded patches of softer 
tissue, which are often confluent and joined into short interrupted concen- 
tric bands. Medullary rays short, white, fine, numerous. 

Northern Bengal, Central and South India, Guzerat. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 4, 60 Ibs. ; our specimens give 70 Ibs. Skinnor 
gives P = 798. A fine timber, but little used. Beddorne says it is used for building, 
carts and agricultural implements. It gives a good gum, similar to gum arable. 

Ibs; 

C 872. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar 70 

E 2357. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Tcrai 67 

1)1081. North Arcot . 73 



A piece of red wood, B 2529 (57 Ibs.), collected in Burma in 1862 and marked SJia, 
has large and moderate-sized pores filled with resin ; they are often subdivided 
and their transverse diameter is greater than the distance between the fine, closely 
packed and prominent medullar} 7 rays. It evidently belongs to a species of Acacia, and 
in structure resembles A. ferruginea, which has not yet been described from Burma. 

7. A. Catechu, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 295 ; Brandis 186 ; Kurz i. 
422 ; Gamble 32. A. Sundra, Beddome t. 50. Mimosa Sundra, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 562. Vern. Khair, Hind. ; Khoira, Jcoir, Ass. ; Khoiru, 
Uriya ; Karangalli, bagd, Tarn. ; Sandra, nalla sandra, Tel. ; Kagli, 
Kan. ; Hat kihiri, Cingh. ; Sha, Burm. 

A moderate-sized, gregarious, thorny, deciduous tree. Bark dark 
grey or greyish brown, rough, exfoliating in long narrow strips. Sap- 
wood yellowish white ; heartwood either dark or light red, extremely 
hard. The wood grown in the Himalayan valleys shews the annual 
rings marked by a whitish line and by a larger number of pores in the 
spring wood. Pores moderate-sized and large, often subdivided occasion- 
ally in radial groups of 2 or 3, and surrounded by narrow rings of softer 
tissue which are often joined and form interrupted concentric bands. 
Pores frequently filled with a white substance, uniformly distributed 
except that they are more numerous in the innermost part of each 
annual ring, distinctly marked on a longitudinal section. Medullary 
rays short, moderately broad, numerous, bent where they touch the 
pores , which are often larger than the space between two medullary 
rays. 

Common in most parts of India and Burma, extending in the Sub-Himalayan 
tract westwards to the Indus. 

The growth of the Himalayan trees, whose rings it is possible to count, is moderate, 
being 5 rings per inch uf radius. The tree grows quickly when young, and its 



154 



LEGUMINOS.E. 



[Acacia. 



reproduction on newly formed sandbanks is sometimes very remarkable. A specimen 
in the Bengal Forest Museum, from the Mahanadi Forest, shews 24 well-marked rings 
on a mean radius of 6? inches, or 3'8 rings per inch, which is fast. 

Weight: the confusion between this tree and A. Suma and the fact of this tree 
having two varieties has caused some uncertainty in the weight. Skinner describes 
two woods, viz. 

Weight. Value of P. 

No. 10, P. 32. A. Suma (Telia sandra^d.) . . . 771bs. 801 
No. 11, P. 33. A. Sundra (Nalla sandra, Tel.) . . . 81 915 

The latter is probably our A. Catechu ; the former A . Suma. Cunningham's experi- 
ments with bars of wood 2' X V X I" from Gwalior gave weight 70 Ibs. P= 779. 
Brandis, in his Burma List of 1862, gives two varieties 



No. 29, Var. A. 
No. 30, Var. B. 



Ibs. 
56 
70 



both of which are probably A. Catechu, and both here described, the ordinary red- 
wooded A. Catechu being Var. B. K. Thompson gives 75 Ibs., while the Central 
Provinces List of 1873 gives 79 Ibs. ; ou rspecimens of Var. B. vary from 48 Ibs. to 64 Ibs., 
while our specimens of Var. A. give an average of 67 Ibs. The wood seasons well, takes a 
fine polish and is extremely durable. It is not attacked by white ants or by teredo. 
It is used for rice pestles, oil and sugarcane crushers, agricultural implements, bows, 
spear and sword handles and wheelwrights' work. In Burma it is used for house 
posts, and very largely used as firewood for the steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla. 
In Northern India it is used for charcoal, and is one of the best woods for that purpose. 
It has been found good for railway sleepers, and it is probably only the smallness of 
the tree and the consequent waste in cutting up that has prevented its more general 
use. A number of sleepers were cut for the Northern Bengal State Railway in 1876, but 
no report has yet been made of their quality. The chief product of the tree is Catechu 
(cutch or Katha), which is obtained by boiling down the wood cut into chips. It is 
extensively manufactured in Kumaun, Oudh and in Burma, but not in Northern Bengal 
or Assam. Cutch is used by natives in India to chew with the betel-leaf, and is largely 
exported to Europe for dyeing and tanning. Medicinally it is used as an astringent 
for fevers and in other maladies. 



Ibs. 

54 
63 
63 

53 

64 
59 
Mahauadi Forest, Darjeeling Terai 48 



H 938. Hazara, Punjab . 

P 604. Kangra, 

P 1196. Madhopur, Punjab 

P 98. Sutlej Valley, Punjab 

P 455. Ajmere 

O 255. Garhwal (1868) . 

C 2758. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces 

E 663. Rakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai 

E 2356. 



The variety of A. Catechu with darker coloured wood, which probably corre- 
sponds to the variety A. of Brandis' Burma List of 1862, is found in the Central 
Provinces, Darjeeling Terai and Burma. There is some uncertainty regarding its 
identification, but apparently it is only a variety of A. Catechu, with darker coloured, 
less heavy and less hard heartwood, and a slightly different structure as above. The 
wood is not quite so hard as that of the ordinary form, and in structure it differs by 
having larger pores, and finer and more pronounced medullary rays. To this form 
belong 



C 189. 
C 203. 
E 625. 
F 2355. 
B 1454. 
No. 2. 



Mandla, Central Provinces (1866) . 

> n 

Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai (locolly, Tcankar) 

> > it 

Prome, Burma 

Salem Collection . 



Ibs. 
59 
63 
59 
70 
75 
76 



C. 1308 (75 Ibs.) and C. 1310 (76 Ibs.), called Klwini and Stun; from Oumsur, 
differ from A. Catechu by smaller ;m<i more numerous pores, :iml liner :uul mure 
numerous medullary rays. They uuiy very probably belong to A. Suma, Uuch. 



Acacia.} LEGUMINOS^E. 155 

8. A. Intsia, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 297 ; Kurz i. 423. A. casia, 
W. and A. ; Beddomc xcv. ; Brnndis 189 ; Kurz i. 425 ; Gamble 33. 
Mimosa casia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 565. Vern. Arhai-ka-bel, Sutlej ; 
Katrar, Kumaun ; Harrari, Nep. ; Payir rik, ngraem rik, Lepcha; Ko~ 
rinta, Tel. ; Jarri, chilor, Mar. 

A large climbing shrub with reddish grey bark, with usually five 
fluted, spirally-twisted grooves ; wood white, soft, porous. Pores small 
and large, enclosed in irregular concentric bands which run into each 
other, and which separate the narrow belts of firmer and darker-coloured 
tissue in which the white, fine, medullary rays are prominent. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab eastwards, ascending to 4,000 feet, through- 
out India and Burma. 

The bark is used by Lepchas in Sikldm as a substitute for soap in washing the hair. 

E 478, Rakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai. 

E 2379. Chunbati, Darjeeling, 2,000 ft. 

9. A. pennata, Willd. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 297 ; Beddome xcv. ; 
Brandis 189 ; Kurz i. 424; Gamble 33. Mimosa pennata, Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 565. Vern. Agio,, awal, Kumaun; Biswul, Hind.; A,rfu, Nep. ; 
Tol rik, Lepcha ; Sooyit, Burm. 

A large climbing shrub. Bark reddish brown, J inch thick, with 
horizontal cracks. Wood porous, moderately hard. Pores oval or oblong, 
occasionally subdivided into 2 or 3 compartments, from small to extremely 
large and very numerous, surrounded or enclosed in an irregular net-work 
of white tissue, which separates the patches of darker-coloured and 
firmer tissue, in which the white, moderately broad medullary rays are 
distinctly visible. 

Oudh, Kumaun, Nepal, Eastern Bengal, Burma and South India. 
Weight, 50 Ibs. per cubic foot. Growth fast, 3 to 4 rings per inch of radius. 

Ibs, 

E 476. Balasun Forest, Darjeeling Terai 

E 2358. Sivoke 50 

10. A. dealbata, Link. ; Benth. Fl. Austr. ii. 415; Brandis 180. 
The Silver Wattle. 

A tree spreading rapidly by numerous root-suckers. The wood is . 
moderately hard, light brown, but warps considerably. Pores small, 
rtrn in short linear groups. Medullary rays short, fine and moderately 
broad, well marked on a radial section. 

Indigenous in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania. Introduced on the 
Nilgiris, and now naturalised since IS in. 

The wood is extensively used in Australia for timber, and the bark for tanning. 
It is Ivinij tried in plantations in the lulls of the Punjab, North- Western Provinces 
and Sikkim. Our specimen \v;is cut from a tree 11 years old and 46 feet high, and was 
ahout 12 incites in diameter. Colonel l>eddome, in his Report on the Nilgiri plantations 
ol April 1S7S. says that, this Wattle <;rows very readily from the stool, but comes up 
in a deiiM- mass of small t wig-like stems, : M> that it can only be depended on for 
mall firewood. 

W 1000. Nilgiri Hills. 

11. A. melanoxylon, R. Br. ; Benth. Fl. Austr. ii. 415. ; Brandis 
I S| ). Australian Bfackwood. 

A large tree with hard and durable wood; heartwood dark brown 
and beautifully moUk-d, soft ; shining, even-grained ; pores mostly oval, 



156 LEOUAIINOSJB. [ Acacia. 

moderate-sized and divided into compartments conspicuously marked oil 
a vertical section. Medullary rays short and fine. 

New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia. Introduced on the 
Nilgiris since 1840 and now completely naturalised. Also being grown in the lulls of 
the Punjab, Kumaun and Sikkim. 

With regard to its rate of growth, Colonel Beddome, in his Report of April 1878 
on the Nilgiri plantations, says that in the Bleakhouse plantation, Wellington, the 
average girth of the trees in the portion which is 21 to 22 years old, taken from the 
measurement of 30 trees as they came, was 35 inches at 6 feet from the ground (about 
4 rings per inch of radius), the girth of some of the largest trees being 56, 55, 50, 
46 and 44 inches. Our specimen was cut from a tree 20 years old and 90 feet high ; it 
gave a plank 2 feet broad. The wood seems to be regarded on the Nilgiris as very 
inferior to that of Eucalyptus Globulus, either for timber or firewood ; its growth is 
much slower and it is attacked by species of Loranthus, which parasites in time kill 
the tree. It does not coppice well, unless cut very young. 

Weight, according to Mr. Kewbery (Timbers of Victoria, 1877), 41 to 48 Ibs. per 
cubic foot ; our specimen gives 36 Ibs. 

It is used in Australia for cabinet work, coach-building, railway carriages and 
agricultural implements ; on the Nilgiris chiefly for firewood. Its bark is used for 
tanning. 

Ibs. 
W 1100. Nilgiri Hills 36 

Besides A. melanoxylon and A. dealbata, there are several other species of Wattle, 
some of which are cultivated in India. A. decurrens, Willd., the " Common " or " Black " 
Wattle, is a small or medium-sized tree ; larger in moist localities. According to Mr. 
Newbery, the wood weighs 45 to 48 Ibs. per cubic foot. It is being grown in several 
places in India. A.pycnantha, Bth., the "Golden" or "Broad-leaf" Wattle, is the 
most valuable species for tanner's bark and gum. Its wood weighs 51'51bs. per 
cubic foot. A. homalophylla, A. Cunn., is the Myallwood, a small tree with a hard, 
dark wood with the scent of violets. 

Wattles grow in almost any soil, but their growth is best in loose, sandy places or 
where the surface has been broken for agricultural or other purposes. It is well, before 
sowing the seed, to soak it for a short time in warm water ; this moistens the outer 
shell and induces more speedy germination. The seeds generally germinate in from 
7 to 10 days, and are apt to damp off if too carelessly watered. 

29. ALBIZZIA, Durazzini. 

Contains 10 Indian species, most of which are common large trees found over the 
greater part of India, and are here described. A. myriopJiylla, Bl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 
300; Kurz i. 426,(Mimosa microp/tylla,lloxb.T?l. I'ud. ii.549) Vern. Teiuliya, Sylhet, 
is a small evergreen tree of Sikkim, the Khasia Hills, Eastern Bengal and Tenasserim. 
A. clcgans, Kurz i. 427, is a large evergreen tree of the tropical forests of the Pegu 
Yornas; while A. lophantha, Bth. Fl. Austr. ii. 421 ; Brandis 174, is an Australian 
tree of rapid growth, which has now been completely naturalised on the Nilgiri Hills. 
JI.n-oii von Miiller says that it seeds profusely and germinates most easily, and is very 
valuable for re-clothing desert tracts, where it is important quickly to create shade, 
shelter and copious vegetation. The bark may be used for tanning. A now species has 
lalfly been discovered in the Chanda district, Central Provinces, by Mr. 11. Thompson, 
called Silari. It is a large tree with short trunk, spreading branches and large fruit. 

The structure of Attnzzia is characterised by large or moderate-sized 
not very numerous pores, which are exceedingly prominent on a verti- 
cal section, the pores of successive concentric strata being 1 not parallel, but 
running obliquely into each other. The medullary rays are not ^nerally 
prominent, and the wood is softer than that of most species of Acacia. 

1. A. Lebbek, Bentli.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 298 ; Beddome t. 53 ; 
Hrandis 176; Kurz i. 427. Mimosa Sir if fa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 511. 
The Siris Tree. Vern. 6V w, xin'ii, x'u'iii, /v/Av/.v, tantiu, garso, Hind.; 
tiir ix/i t Beni;'.; llarrcri, Punch Mehals; Vagke t kal vayhc, Tain.; 



Mtizzia. 1 



LECUMINOSJE. 



157 



Dirasan, darshana, kat vayc, pcdda duchirram, Tel. ; Kal Icujlii, lenylia, 
Kan. ; C/tichola, Mar. ; Kokoh, Burm. ; Begmadd, gachodd, And. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark grey or brownish grey, rough, with 
numerous, short, irregular cracks. Sap wood large, white ; heartwood dark 
brown, hard, shining, mottled, with deeper coloured, longitudinal streaks. 
The annual rings in trees grown in the Punjab are marked by a distinct 
line. Pores large, not numerous, often subdivided and enclosed in patches of 
softer whitish tissue, which are frequently arranged in short bauds. Pores 
prominent on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays fine, very numerous. 

Sub-Himalsiyan tract from the Indus eastwards, ascending to 5,000 feet ; Bengal, 
Burma, Central and South India. 

(irowth exceedingly rapid during the first year. Brandis says that trees in the 
Punjab have 2f feet girth in 12 years 4 feet in 30 years, and that trees at Sakhal- 
in Sind 17 years old have reached 5 to 6 feet in girth. This would give from 1 to 3 
rings per inch of radius, which is very fast. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined from the following 
experiments : 



Experiment by whom 
conducted. 


Year. 


Wood whence 
procured. 


*} 

& 


INo. of ex- 
periments. 


Size of bar. 


Value of 
P. 


Tackle 


1859 


Mysore .... 


57 


2 


Ft. In. In. 
2x1x1 


1052 








61 


4 




959 








56 


4 




1068 




1851 


Gwalior 


50 


2 




480 


Uakcr . 


1829 


Junagarh . . 


55 


4 


7x2x2 


626 


Skinner, No. 7 .... 


18G2 


South India . 


50 






793 


8 .... 
(List,) ...... 


" 


Burma .... 
Mysore . , 


48 
50 







855 


Brand is, No. W . 
A. ilcndis 


1862 
1855 


Burma .... 
Ceylou .... 


18 
42 


... 










c 


Punjab .... 


48-5 


1 





...... 


Smy ihics .... 


1878 -j 


South India . 


45 


3 










( 


Burma 


45-5 


2 









It seasons, works and polishes well, and is fairly durable. It is used for sugarcane 
crushers, oil-mills, furniture, well curbs and wheel-work; in South India for boats. In 
the Andam&ns where trees of large size are procurable, it is used for building, but more 
usually for house-posts. It is often grown as an avenue tree, but its roots do not pene- 
trate very deep. It grows easily from cuttings. It gives a gum which is not soluble in 
water, but merely forms a jelly. The leaves and twigs are given as fodder to camels. 

Ibs. 

Madhopur, Punjab ....... 

Bl.ajii, Sutlej Valley, 3,000 feet 

Muilaii 

A j me re ......... 

South Kanara 



P 

V 
P 

1' 

W 
W 
W 

B 

13 22ns. 
No. 81, 



1193. 
96. 

881. 
468. 

728. 
7-18. 
751. 



Prome. Burma .... 
Andaman Islands ... 
Ceylou Collodion (marked Acacia 



47 
43 
ID 
55 
11 
51 
It 

Is 
13 
12 



158 LEGUMINOS^E. [Albizzia. 

2, A. odoratissima, Benth. ; Hook, FL Incl. ii. 299; Beddome t. 
54; Brandis 175; Kurz i. 427; Gamble 33. Mimosa odoratissima, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 546. Vern. Lasrin, karambru, polach, Pb. ; Siris, 
siran, bhandir, bersa, bds t bassein, bama r Hind. ; Chichwa, chichola; 
yerjoohetta, Gondi ; Chichora, Kurku ; Kali harreri, Panch Mehals; Tedong, 
Lepcha ; Jati-koroi, Ass. ; Moroi, Cachar ; Kal-thuringi, kar vaghe, bilwara, 
solomanim, sela vanjai, Tarn. ; Shindnga, chindu, telsu, yerjuchinta, karu 
vage, Tel.; Pullibaghi, billawar, Kan.; Borhi, c/iic/tna, chichanda, Mar.; 
Hoore mara, Cingh. ; Thitmagyi, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark i inch thick, grey, with irregular cracks 
and patches of darker colour, Sapwood large, white ; heartwood dark 
brown with darker streaks, very hard. Dark, narrow, concentric bands 
(annual rings?), alternating with bands of lighter colour. Pores large, 
often double, uniformly distributed, enclosed in very narrow rings of 
soft tissue and sometimes arranged in interrupted lines, very prominent 
on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays fine, wavy, short, indistinct, 
This species is characterised among common Albizzias by its greater 
hardness and short and less prominent medullary rays. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indos eastwards, ascending to 3,000 feet ; Bengal, 
Burma, Central and South India. 

Growth rapid, 4 rings per inch of radius. Weight, Wallich gives 45 Ibs. ; Kyd, 
40 Ibs. ; Skinner, No. 6, 46 Ibs. ; Brandis, 52 Ibs. ; our specimens give an average of 
54 Ibs. Kyd's experiments with Assam wood with bars 2' X V X 1" gave P = 547 ;. 
Brandis found P 984; and Skinner 800. The wood seasons, works and polishes 
well, and is fairly durable. It is used for wheels, oil-mills and furniture. It gives a. 
dark-brown gum. The leaves and twigs are lopped for cattle fodder. 

P 3223. Nagpahar Forest, Ajmere 



O 205. Garhwal (1868) 

O 219. . . . . 

C 184. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 

C 1122. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces . 

C 2748. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces 

E 2360. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 

W 725. South Kanara .... 



43 



60 



51 > 



W 1189. 

D 1084. North Arcot 52 

B 290. Burma (1867) 53 

B 3121. (1862) . 52 

B 1427. 57 

B 2231. Andamans (1866) 5(5 

No. 8. Salein Collection ......... 52^ 

3. A. procera, Benth.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 299 ; Beddome xcvi. ; 
Brandis 175; Kurz i. 428 ; Gamble 33. Mimosa elala, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 51-6. Verii. Safed siris, gurar, karra, karo, karauji, gurbdri, gurkur, 
baro, karolu, garso, Hind.; Karallu, kiui, kilai, kili, iihiri, Bombay; 
Ttikmur, Lepcha; Koroi, Beng., Ass.; Kili 9 Garo; Sarapatri 9 Uri\;i; 
Passcrginni, Gondi ; Kiuni, Bliil ; Gurar, Mar.; Konda vaghe, Tarn.; Pcdda 
pattern, tella sopara,tella chindagu, Tel. ; C/n \kul, Kan.; C/toi, Magh ; 
Seet, Burm.; B&rdd, And. 

A large, deciduous, fast-growing tree. Bark J inch thick, yellowish 
or greenish white or grey, smooth, with horizontal lines. Sapwooil 
large, yellowish white, not durable; heartwood hard, brown, shining. 

with alternate belts of darker and lighter colour. 1'ores moderate-sized 

;ii)l lury 1 , eiiclojjcd in narrow riny-fj of softer tisBUOj uiiilunnly lis?tril>uU'il, 



. ] LECUAiiX' 150 



rery prominent on a longitudinal Mrtion. Medullary rays fine. The 
dillWence in structure between A. Lebbek and the woods of A. proccra is 
very slight. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, Bengal, Satpura Range in the 
Central Provinces, Cu/.eral, South India and Burma. 

( Irowth very rapid. lirandis says that it attains in 12 years 3 to 4 feet, and in 

',]() years 4 to 6 feet girth. This would give about 2 rings per inch of radius, which 

rv rapid. Our specimens are of somewhat slower growth, 6 rings per inch. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 3, 39 Ibs. ; Brand is, No. 2S, -IS 11 is. ;our specimens 

givr an average of 40 Ibs. Skinner gives P = 884 ; Brandis 750. The wood is straight 

and even-grained, seasons well, and the heart wood is durable. It is used for sugarcan- 

crushers, rice-pounders, wheels, agricultural implements, bridges and house posts. Ifc 

is used by tea planters for stakes for laying out tea pmlens, as it is found to split well, 

and occasionally for tea boxes and for charcoal, for which it is found to be very good. 

It gives a copious gum. 

Ibs. 
O 220. Garhwal (1868) ......... 41 

O 3004. (1873) ......... 44 

C 2740. Jamui Forest, Berar (sap wood) ...... 26 

E 2361. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai ...... 37 

E 949. Eastern Diiars, Assam ........ 51 

E 1263. Tezpur, Assam ......... 58 

E 2194. Nowgong, Assam ......... 42 

E 1955. Chittagong .......... 43 

B 329. Burma (1867) ......... 39 

B 811. ........... 60 

B 2527. (1862) ......... 41 

B 506. Andaman Islands ......... 53 

B 518. ......... 40 

B 2247. (1866) ....... 41 

4. A. lucida, Benth.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 299; Brandis 174; 
Kurz i. 429 ; Gamble 33. Mimosa lucida, Roxb. FL Ind. ii. 544. 
Vern. Sil koroi, Beug. ; Tapria-siris, Nep. ; Ngraem, Lepcha ; Mess-guch, 
Ass.; Gunhi, Magh; Thanthat, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Heartwood hard,, brown, with dark streaks 
and alternating dark and light coloured, concentric bands. Pores moder- 
ate-sized, numerous, enclosed in round patches of soft tissue. Medullary 
rays fine and very numerous. 

Eastern Bengal, Burma. 

Weight, average^ of our specimens, 50 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood hard and good, 
but not used. Lac is obtained on it in Assam. 

E 660. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai ... 55 

E 677. ...... 61 

5. A. Julibrissin, Boivin ; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 300; Brandis 177. 
Mimosa Kalkora, Roxb. Fl. Ind.^ ii. 547 (?). Pink Siris. Vern. Sirin, 
kurmru, surangru, shirsh, sftishi, Mna, tanddi, mathirshi , blind, Pb. ; Lai 
siris, baraulia, barau, Ihokra, Hind.; Kalkora (?), Beng. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark dark grey, with long hori- 
zontal wrinkles. Sapwood large ; heartwood dark brown, almost black 
in old trees, beautifully mottled, shining. Annual rings distinctly 
marked by a sharp line. Pores large, often double, very prominent on a 
longitudinal section. Medullary rays fine, short, red, appearing as nar- 
row, dark, straight bands on a radial section. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Sikkim, ascending to 5,000 feet. 

Growth rapid, :j to 4 rings per inch of radius (Jfrwutttjj our specimens give 5 rings. 



160 LEGUMINOS^. [Mlizzia. 



to 52 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is used to make furniture. The tree' is 
extremely handsome when in flower, with its innumerable pink tassels of delicate silky 
blossoms, from which it derives its name guldb-resham, rose silk. 

Ibs. 
H 97. Sutlej Valley, Simla, 4,000 feet ...... 52 

H 152. Sainj, Simla, 4,000 feet ........ 43 

6. A. stipulata, Boivin; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 300; Beddome t. Fl. ; 
Brandis 178; Kurzi. 426; Gamble 34. Mimosa slipidacea, Roxb. 55, 
Ind. ii. 549. Vern. 01, oe, sirin, shirslia, kasir, Pb. ; Sir an t kanujer a. 
pattia, samsnndra, Hind. ; Kala siris, Nep. ; Singriang, Lepcha ; 
Sow, Ass.; Selchoy Garo; Ctakua, amluki, Beng. ; Kat turanji, Tarn. ; 
Konila chiragu, chindaga, Tel. ; Kal baghi, hole bag/ii, Kan. ; Kabal, 
Cingh. ; Pokoh, Magh ; Boomaiza, Burm. 

A large, deciduous, fast-growing tree. Bark grey, with numerous 
short, vertical wrinkles and a few larger horizontal furrows, with promi- 
nent edges, darker when old. Sapwood large, white; heartwood brown, 
generally not durable, soft, shining. Annual rings distinctly marked. 
Pores large, often oval and subdivided, very prominent on a longitudinal 
section. Medullary rays fine, short, reddish, not very distinct. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the ludus eastwards, ascending to 4,000 feet ; Oudh, 
Bengal, Burma, South India. 

Growth very rapid. Roxburgh says that a tree he planted in the Botanic Garden 
at Calcutta measured 48'5 inches in girth at 4 feet above the ground when 7 years old ; 
this would give a rate of growth of slightly less than 1 ring per inch of radius. 
Stewart, in " Punjab Plants, p. 56," says that a tree in the Saharanpur Gardens was 
7 feet in girth at about 17 years of age, which gives rather over 1 ring per inch of 
radius. Our specimens give 3 to 4 rings per inch of radius. A round in the Bengal 
Forest Museum from a young tree, shews 11 rings on a mean radius of 6 inches or 1'8 
rings per inch of radius. The growth may be taken therefore at 1 to 4 rings per inch 
of radius, which is very rapid. Weight, according to Skinner, No. 9, 55 Ibs. ; according 
to Brandis' Burma List of 1862, No. 27, 66 Ibs. ; our specimens give only 33 Ibs.; and 
Kyd (Acacia marginata, Ham.) 28 Ibs. Kyd gives P = 222 ; and Skinner gives 
P = 823 ; but it is doubtful if his experiments were really from wood of A. stipulata. 
The wood is said by Beddome, probably quoting Skinner, to be used for building and 
for naves of wheels. Eurz says it is good for cabinet work, furniture and similar pur- 
poses. Brandis' Burma List, 1862, No. 27, says it is prized for cart-wheels and for the 
bells of cattle. In Bengal it has been tried for tea-boxes, for which purpose it will 
probably suit well ; also for charcoal. It gives a guni which exudes copiously from 
the stem, and is used by Nepalese for sizing their " Daphne " paper. The branches are 
lopped for cattle fodder. 

H 603. Kangra, Punjab ......... 29* 

O 217. Garhwal (1868) . . . ....... 28 

C 2989. Jubbulpore, Central Provinces (1863) .... 

E 647. Banmnpokri, Darieeling Terai ...... 26 

E 2362. ....... 29 

E 788. Kamriip, Assam ......... 40 

E 1956. Chittagong ..... ' ..... 25" 

B 809. Burma .......... :*< 

B 2528. (1866) ......... 33 

B 2221. Andaman Islands (1866) ....... 45 

7. A. amara, Boivin ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 301 ; Brandis 178. A. aumra 
and A. Wightii, Grab.; Beddome t. 61, xcvi. Mimosa aniara and 
M. jmlc/iclla, lloxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 548. Vern. I/allei, Dekkan ; Thnriiigi, 
wiinjtiy suranji, shckram, Tarn. ; Nallarenga, shckrani, tikkai t narlhitji, 
Tel. ; Bel-khambi, Kan.; Kadsige, Coorg; Ousulay, Mai. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Sapwood large ; heartwood pur- 



Albizzia.~\ LKGUMINOSJE. 161 

plish-brown, beautifully mottled, extremely hard, with alternate, con- 
centric, light and dark bands. Pores small, in patches of white tissue, 
which are frequently joined, forming 1 concentric bands. Medullary rays 
very fine, very numerous. 

South India and Dekkan. 

Skinner, No. 1, gives the weight at 70 Ibs. ; our specimens weigh 61 to 621bs. Skinner 
also gives P = 1284, and says, "The wood is strong, fibrous and stiff, close-grained, 
hard and durable, superior to sal and teak in transverse strength and direct cohesive 
power ;" also that it u used for the beams of native houses and carts, the wood of the 
crooked branches for ploughs, and the leaves for washing the hair. Beddome says it i* 
a good fuel, and is extensively used for the locomotives at Salem and Bangalore. 

Ibs. 

D 1052, Salem, Madras (51 

No. 6. Salem Collection . f>2 



B 2705 (59 Ibs.) from Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) is a dark-red specimen of a heavy 
brown wood of Albizzia structure, which cannot be identified* 



ORDER XII. ROSACES. 

Contains 20 genera of Indian trees, shrubs or climbers, chiefly found in the colder 
regions of the Himalaya and other mountain ranges. It is divided into 7 Tribes, 
viz. 

Tribe I. Chrysobalanese . . . Parinarium and Parastemon. 

II, Prunese ..... Pr units, ftfaddenia, Pygeum 

and Prinsepia. 
III. Spirsese ..... Spiraa and Neillia. 

IV. Kubese Rubus. 

V. PotentillesB .... Potentilla. 
VI. Rosea3 ..... Rosa. 

VII. Poniese ..... Cydonia, Docynia, Eriobotrya, 

Pyrus, Photinia, Pourthicea, 
Stranvcesia, Cratcegus and 
Cotoneaster. 

Parinarium contains 3 species : P. Griffithianum, Bth. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 310, 
is a tree of Tenasserim and the Andaman Islands ; P. indicum, Beddome t. 191, is a 
tree of the forests of the Wynaad, bet ween 2,000 and 3,000 feet; and P. travancoricum, 
Beddome, is a tree of the hills about Courtallum. Parastemon urophyUum, A. DC. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 312, is a shrub or small tree of Tenasserim and the Andamans. 
Maddenia contains two species : M. himalaica, Hook, f . and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 
3J8, a small tree of the Sikkiin and Bhutan Himalaya from 8,000 to 10,000 feet ; and 
M. pedicellate, Hook, f., of tho Mishmi Hills. Neillia thyrsiflora, Don ; Gamble 35, 
is a common shrub of the Sikkim Hills. Potentilla can scarcely be said to contain 
woody species, though P. fruticosa, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 347 ; Gamble 36 
(misspelt frutes cent), is a small shrub common on rocks at high elevations from 
Kashmir to Bhutan, with a hard wood and annual rings marked by a line of very 
small pores ; and P. Salessovii, Steph. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 348, occurs as a small shrub 
above 11,000 feet in Lahoul and Northern Kashmir. 

Cydonia vnhjaris, PITS.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 369 (Pyrus Cydonia, Linn.; Brandis 
205). The Quince. Vern. JBihi, Hind.; JSamtsunt, bamsiitu, Kashmir, is cultivated in 
Afghanistan and tho North-West Himalayas up to 5,500 feet. Docynia contains 2 
species: 1). indiat, Dene ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 369 (Pyrus indint. Wall.; Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 511 ; Kurz i. 441 ; Gamble 37). Vern. Mekul,pusy, Nep. ; Liki'ing, Lepcha; 
Sopho, Khasia, is a tree of the hills of Sikkim, Bhutan ami Assam, with a yellow, 
edible, though harsh-tasting fruit ; and, according to Allan's description of AVallich's 
specimens, a compact, moderately hard, fine-grained wood; andZ). Jlookeriana, Dene; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 369, of the Khasia Hills. Phot in in contains o specie* ag re-arranged 
in the Flora Iiidica ; P. Lindleyana, Wight and Aru, ; Hook, Fl, Ind. ii. 380 ; IMdome 



162 ROSACES. \Pninus. 

xcviii., is a small tree of the Nilgiris ; P. Notoniana, Wight and Arn. ; Beddome t. 
192 (Eriobotrya integrifolia, Kurz i. 442) Vern. Kaddi bikki, Burghers, is a small 
tree of Eastern Bengal, South India and Burma ; P. integrifolia, Lindl. ; P. Griffithii, 
Dene ; and P. mollis, Hook, f., are trees of the North-East Himalaya. Pourthiaa arguta, 
Dene; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 382, is a small tree of the Khasia Hills and SikkimTerai. 

Wood close and even grained ; that of most species apt to warp. 
Pores small to extremely small. Medullary rays generally fine to ex- 
tremely fine. 

1. PRUNUS, Linn. 

Contains 18 species including the Almond, Peach, Apricot, Plum and Cherry. 
P. prostrata, Labill. ; Hook. Fl. Ind, ii. 313 ; Brandis 193. Vern. Tdra, ter, talle, 
Ph., is a small shrub of rocky places in Afghanistan and the arid parts of the North- 
West Himalaya, generally above 7,000 feet. P. Mahaleb, Linn. ; Brandis 195, is 
cultivated at Khelat. P. rufa, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 314 (P. sp., Gamble 35) 
Vern. Kamki, Bhutia, is a tree of the inner Sikkim Himalaya above 10,000 feet. 
P. punctata, Hook, f . and Th., is a small tree of the Khasia Hills ; and P. Jenkinsii, 
Hook. f. and Th., a small tree of Upper Assam, P. tomentosa, Thunb. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 314, is a shrub of Kashmir ; and P. Jacquemontii, Hook, f., a shrub of the 
inner North- West Himalaya in Kunawar and Garhwal. 

P. Amygdalus, Baillon ; Brandis 190. (Amygdalus communis, Willd. ; Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 500.) The Almond. Vern. JBadam, is cultivated in Afghanistan, Persia, Kash- 
mir and the Punjab. P. Cerasus, Linn. ; Brandis 193. The Cherry. Vern. Alubalu, 
Pers. ; Kerasya, Arab. ; Gilds, olchi, krusbal, Pb., is generally cultivated in the 
North-West Himalaya between 5,000 and 8,000 feet. P. Persica, Bth. and Hk. f . ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 313 ; Brandis 191 ; Kurz i. 433 ; Gamble 34. (Amygdalus persica, 
Willd.; Eoxb. FL Ind. ii. 500). The Peach. Vern. GJiwareshtdi, Afg.; Shuft alu, 
Pers. ; Aru, aor, chinannu, beinni, beimu, rek, Pb. ; Aru, Hind. ; Takpo, Lepcha, is 
commonly cultivated everywhere throughout the Himalaya and in Upper Burma. 

The species here described have a distinct heartwood; the pores are 
small or very small. The medullary rays are generally of two classes, fine 
and moderately broad. The annual rings are marked either by a con- 
tinuous line of pores or by more numerous pores in the spring wood. 

1. P. armeniaca, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 313; Brandis 191; 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 501. The Apricot. Vern. Hdri, gardalu, jaldaru, 
shiran, cheroli, cher Jcush, serkuji, shari, Pb. ; Iser, Kashmir ; Chuari, 
zardalu, khoobani, Hind. ; MMmM, Pers. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark dark brown, rough, with 
narrow longitudinal clefts. Sapwood white; heartwood greyish brown, 
mottled with dark-brown streaks, moderately hard. Annual rings 
marked by a narrow continuous belt of pores, which are larger than 
the very small scattered pores in the outer portion of the ring. Medul- 
lary rays of two classes, numerous ; very fine rays between fewer mode- 
rately broad ones. 

Cultivated in the North-West Himalaya. Growth moderate, 4 to 8 rings per inch 
of radius. 

Weight, 49 Ibs. per cubic foot ; Mathiou, Fl. For. p. 131, gives 58 Ibs. Wood hand- 
some, used for various purposes in the Punjab Hills. In Lahoul and Upper Kanauav 
it is the chief firewood. The fruit, fresh or dried, is extensively used for food, and an 
oil is extracted from the kernels which is used to burn, in cooking- and for the hair. 

Ibs. 

If 781. Bathri, Charnba, 3,000 fret 49 

H 20. Mudhan, Simla, 6,0(30 feet 49 

11 2870. Matiyana, Simla. 7,0(M) t\ri .... 

2. P. communis, IIiuls. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 315; Brandis 193. 
Plum. Vern. Awfa,olcAi, cr, aor, ganlulu, Pb. 



Pninus.} ROSA- 16:3 

A moderate-sized tree. Wood reddish brown, hard, very close- 
grained, warps and splits. Annual rings marked by a belt of small, 
closely packed pores. Pores in the main portion of the annual ring 
extremely small, in groups. Medullary rays of two classes, moderately 
broad, numerous, with very fine rays between them. 

Cultivated (or indigenous, Hook. Fl. Ind.) from Garhwal to Kashmir in the 
Western Himalaya, from 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 

Growth fast, 2 to 3 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 52 Ibs. per cubic foot. The 
wood is smooth to work, and is used in Kashmir for the skeleton of the so-called 
papier-mache' boxes. 

Ibs. 

H 151. Giri Valley, Simla, 4,000 feet 52 

3. P. Puddum, Roxb.; Hook, Fl. Ind. ii. 314; Brandis 194; Kurz 
i. 4.<34<. ; Gamble 34. Vern. C/iamidri } amalguch, pdja, pajia, Pb. ; Paddam, 
pay a, Hind. ; Kongki, Lepcba. 

A moderate-sized (in Sikkim, a large) deciduous tree. Bark peeling* 
off in thin, horizontal, shining layers. Sapwood large, greenish white. 
Henrtwood reddish, beautifully mottled on a radial section by narrow, 
wavy, shining, medullary rays, moderately hard. Annual rings dis- 
tinctly marked by an irregular and not continuous belt of numerous 
pores. Pores small; those of the spring wood very small, fre- 
quently arranged in oblique lines intersecting the medullary rays at an 
angle. Medullary rays of two classes ; numerous, very fine rays alter- 
nating with fewer, short, moderately broad rays, which are broader than 
those of P. Padus. Scent pleasant, resembling that of P. Mahaleb. 

Wild in the Himalaya, from the Indus to Assam, between 2,500 and 7,000 feet ; 
Khasia Hills. 

Growth variable, from 4 to 22 rings per inch of radius, the average being 12. 

Weight, the average of our specimens give 44 Ibs. per cubic foot. Gamble says 40 
to 45 Ibs. 

The wood is used in the Punjab Himalaya for walking-sticks j in Darjeeling 
occasionally for furniture. It deserves to be better known, and to be more extensively 
used, as, at any rate in Sikkim, it is common and reaches a large size. It gives an 
abundant gum, not used. 

Ibs. 

H 46. Nagkanda, Simla, 7,000 feet .... .52 



H 234. Garhwal Hills (1868) 

E 683. Sepoydura Forest, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet 

E 2363. Kurseong, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet 

E 2364. Tukdah Forest, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet 

E 1447. Mishmi Hills (Griffith, 1836) . 



40 
42 
41 

48 
37 



4. P. Padus, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 315; Brandis 194; Gamble 
35. The Bird Cherry. Vern. Paras, kalakat, gidar-ddk, bart,zitm } z<(,,/, 
tambUyjamu, chule, dudla, fcrun, Pb. ; Jamana, Hind.; Likh-aru, arupatti, 
Nep. ; Illo sa hlot-kung, Lepcha. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree, with dark, rough bark. Sapwood 
large, whitish. Heartwood reddish brown, with an unpleasant smell, 
beautifully mottled on a radial section by the shining medullary rays, 
moderately hard. Annual rings distinctly marked by a narrow belt of 
continuous, closely arranged pores. Pores small, in irregularly shaped 
groups, which are uniformly distributed. Medullary rays short, moder- 
ately broad. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Sikkim, between 4,000 and 10,000 feet. 
Growth, varying from 4 to 30 rings per inch of radius ; the average of our 



164- ROSACEJE. [PrUttUS. 

mens gave 13 rings. Average weight 41 Ibs. per cubic foot, Mathieu Fl. For. p. 128, 
gives an average of 41 '5 Ibs. The wood has often a very handsome grain and deserves 
to be better kuown ; it is scarcely ever used. 

Ibs. 

H 916. Hazara, 7,000 feet . 38 

H 22. Matiyana, Simla, 7,000 feet .... .42 



II 58, Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet . 

E 696. Eangbul Forest, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 



43 
41 

42 



E 2369. 

The two Darjeeling specimens are perhaps P. nepalensis, Ser. Hook. Fl. Ind. 
316. 

5. P. acuminata, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 317; Gamble 35 
(wrongly Roxb.). 

A tree with thin dark bark. Wood reddish brown. Pores small, 
sometimes in groups or radial lines; medullary rays of two classes; 
numerous, very fine rays, alternating with fewer, short, broad ones. 

Eastern Himalaya and Khasia Hills from 4,000 to 7,000 ft. 
E 3309. Sureil, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet. 

6. P. martabanica, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 316; Kurz i. 434. 
Vern. Tkitmanku,'R\nm. 

No. B 1975, collected by Kurz in the Andamans in 1866, bears this 
name. It is a heavy, cross-grained, red wood, with moderate-sized pores, 
often subdivided, and fine, closely packed, uniform medullary rays. 

2. PYGEUM, Gaertn. 

No. 28, Adrian Mendis' Ceylon Collection, marked Cryptocarya floribunda, and 
Galmorre, Cingh., is a close-grained yellow wood with a structure resembling that of 
Eriobotrya. It is probably Pygeum zeylanicum, Gaertn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 321 ; 
Thwaites Enum. Fl. Zeyl. 102. Vern. Galmora, Cingh. (Weight 65 Ibs. per cubic 
foot.) A large tree of South India and Ceylon, which gives a good firewood for burning 
bricks or lime. There are 8 other species of this genus. P. acuminatum, Colebr. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 318 ; Kurz i. 435 ; Gamble 35, is a tree of the North-East Himalaya, Khasia 
Hills, Eastern Bengal and Chittagong, in which regions are also found P. glaberrimum, 
Hook. f. ; and P. montanum, Hook. f. P. Andersoni, Hook, f., has been found on the 
summit of Parasnath in Behar at 4,000 ft. ; P. Wightianum, Bl. (P. ceylanicum, 
Beddome t. 59) and P. Gardneri, Hook, f ., are large trees of South India ; while 
P. arboreum, Endl., and two other species are found in the forests of Burma, chiefly 
in Tenasserim. 

3. PRINSEPIA, Royle. 

1. P. utilis, Royle; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 323; Brandis 196. Vern. 
Bhekalj bekkra, karanga, cherara, dhatela, jhatela. Hind. ; Gurinda, 
Hazara ; Tatua, phulwara, Rajaori ; J'inti, Cbenab ; Bekling, Kanawar. 

A deciduous, thorny shrub, with thin brown bark, peeling off in small 
vertical flakes. Sapwood white ; heartwood red, very hard and compact, 
close and even grained, but much liable to split. Annual rings marked 
by a narrow continuous belt or line of larger pores ; the pores outside 
this belt are small. The pores are sometimes filled with a white sub- 
stance. Medullary rays very fine and numerous. 

Outer Himalaya, from Hazara to Bhutan between 2,000 and 9,000 feet. Khasia 
Hills. 

Growth slow, 12 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 69 Ibs. per cubic foot. The 



Prinsepia.] ROSACES. 165 

wood is only used for fuel and occasionally for walking-sticks. An oil is expressed from 

the seeds which is used for food and for burning. 

Ibs. 

H 49. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 69 

H 2868. 

4. SPIRAEA, Linn. 

Contains 11 species found in the Himalaya, chiefly at elevations above 6,000 feet. 
They contain both herbs, such as the "Meadow Sweet" found in Kashmir; and shrubs, 
few of which attain any size. The two described are the most important. 

1. S. sorbifolia, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 324. S. Lin die y an a, DC. 

Vern. Sarbashtai, kikri, batu, Pb. 

A shrub, with reddish grey bark. Wood hard, compact, even-grained. 
Annual rings distinctly marked by a belt of more numerous pores. 
Pores small, scanty in the outer part of each annual ring. Medullary 
rays moderately broad. 

North-West Himalaya, from the Sutlej to Kumaun, above 7,000 feet. 
Growth moderate, 12 rings per inch of radius. The largest growing species. 
Recognised by its pinnate leaves from the other shrubby species. It is chiefly found 
in shady damp woods. 

Ibs. 

H 82. Simla, 7,000 feet 49 

H 3014. Hattu Forest, Simla, 8,000 feet 

2. S, canescens, Don. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 325. Vern. Ckaku, taku, 
Simla. 

Structure similar to that of S. sorbifolia. 

North-West Himalaya, from Murree to Kumaun. 

Growth moderate, 12 rings per inch of radius. Found chiefly on open hill-sides as a 
stiff bush. Very handsome in flower in the spring. 

H 159. Simla, 7,000 feet .... 

H 2827. Mahasu, Simla, 8,000 feet 

5. BUBUS, Linn. 

Contains 40 species of erect, trailing or climbing, generally thorny shrubs. Many 
species are known on account of their edible fruits, the best of which is perhaps 
R. ellipticus. R. fruticosus, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 337 ; Brandis 197. The 
Blackberry or Bramble. Vern. Ankri, alish, kanachi, chench, pakhdna, Pb., is found 
in Afghanistan, the Salt Range and the Punjab Himalaya as far east as the Ravi. 
R, rosafolius, Sm.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 34 1, ; Kurz i. 439 (R. Sikkimensis, 0. Kze; 
Gamble 36), is a small shrub found in the Himalaya from Kumaun to Sikkim, in the 
Khasia Hills and in the hills of Burma. It has a large, red, edible fruit, which is 
sold in the bazar in Darjeeling. R. paniculatus, Sm, ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 329 ; Brandis 
196; Gamble 36. Vern. Kala akhi, Kangra; Anchu, pattarola, Tcala Jiisalu, Hind. ; 
Numing rik, Lepcha, is a simple leaved species with leaves covered beneath with dense 
white tomentum, common throughout the Himalaya. R. biflorus, Buch. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. i. 338 ; Brandis 198. Vern. Chdnch, kantauch, khanidra, Kashmir ; Karer, 
akhreri, akhe, Ravi ; Dher, Simla, is a white-stemmed shrub of the Himalaya from 
Hazara to Bhutan. R. niveus, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 335 ; Brandis 199 ; Gamble 
35. Vern. Kalga, Sutlej, has the same distribution. R. moluccanus, Linn. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 330 ; Kurz i. 439 ; Gamble >39. Vern. Bipemkanta, Nep. ; Sufok-ji, 
Lepcha, is a large shrub, with simple, rugose leaves, and red edible fruit, found in the 
North-East Himalaya and down to Burma. R. racemosus, Roxb., and two other 
species occur on the Nilgiris. There are many other interesting species, but too small 
and too numerous for mention, here. 



166 ROSACES. [RulllS. 

1. R. ellipticus, Smith; -Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 336. R. fiavus, Ham., 
Brandis 197; Kurz i. 438; Gamble 35. R. Gowreephul, Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 517. Vern. Akhi, ankri, kundchi, guracha, pukana, Pb. ; Esar, 
hishaluy hisaluj Kumaun ; Tolu aselu, escalu, cesi, Nep. ; Kashyem, 
Lepcha. 

A large thorny shrub with brown bark and moderately hard, light- 
brown wood. Pores small ; medullary rays short, very broad and 
moderately broad. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, between 1,500 and 8,000 feet ; Khasia Hills 
and Assam. 

The fruit is yellow and with the flavour of the raspberry ; it is commonly eaten 
and made into preserves in the Himalaya, and is certainly one of the best of the wild 
fruits of India. 

E 2367. Tukdah Forest, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet. 

2. R. lasiocarpus, Smith; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 339; Brandis 198 ; 
Kurz i. 439 ; Gamble 36. Vern. Gunacha, pukana, Hazara; Kandidri, 
kharmuch, surganch, Kashmir; Tulanch, Chenab; Niu, kalliachi, Beas; 
KlencJiUy galka, Simla; Kalga, Sutlej ; Kalawar, kala hisalu, Kumauu ; 
Kala aselu, Nep. ; Kajntalam, Lepcha. 

Bark smooth. Structure similar to that of R, ellipticus. 

Himalaya, Khasia Hills, Burma, South India and Ceylon. 

The fruit has a glaucous blue-black colour ; it is small, but of good flavour. 

E 2368. Tukdah Forest, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet. 

3. R. lineatllS, Reinw. ; Hook. Fl. Ind.ii, 333 ; Gamble 36, Vern. 
Gempe aselu, Nep. 

A large thornless shrub with red bark peeling off in paper}' flakes. 
Wood yellowish brown, in structure resembling that of JR. ellipticus. 

Sikkim Himalaya, 6,000 to 9,000 feet. 
Stems used to make fences. Fruit red, edible. 

E 3307. Darjeeling 7,000 feet. 

6. ROSA, Linn. 

Contains 9 species without including those cultivated in India, full account of 
which is given in Brandis' Forest Flora, and referred to in the Flora Indica ii. 363. 
Rosa involucrata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 513, is a sub-scandent shrub of the banks of streams 
in the Gangetic plain, westward to Mount Aboo and eastward to Burma. R. Eglanteria, 
Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 366 (R. lutea, Mill. ; Brandis 201), is a shrub of the 
arid parts of the inner Himalaya, with yellow flowers. R. Webbiana, Wall ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 366 ; Brandis 202. Vern. Kantian, shingdri, Hazara ; Shikand, ghawtr/i, 
manayar, brazen, Chenab; Chua, Lahoul ; Sia, Ladak, Piti; Ringyal, Kan invar, 
is a pink-flowered erect shrub of the same region. R. anserincefolia, Boiss.; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 365, is a common, wild and cultivated, white-flowered rose of Afghanistan. 
R. longicuspis, Bertol. ; Hook. FL Ind. ii. 367, is a climber of the Khasia Hills from 
2,000 to 5,000 feet ; and R. Leschenaultiana, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 368, a 
climber of the Nilgiri and Pulney Hills. 

1. R. moschata, Mill. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 367 ; Brandis 201. Vern. 
Kujij kajei, karer, kwia, kwiala. Hind. ; Phulwara, dial, Kashmir. 

A lar^e, thorny, climbing shrub. Bark greyish brown. Wood moder- 
ately hard, porous. Annual rings marked by a continuous line of lar^o 
pores in the spring wood, the pores in the aulunm wood being scanty 
and small. Medullary rays broad to very broad. 



Rosa.} ROSACEJC. 167 

North- West Himalaya, from Afghanistan to Nepal, ascending to 11,000 feet. 
A tall climber, very sweet scented, and very ornamental when in flower in May and 
June. Flowers white. Growth slow, 15 rings per inch of radius. 

H 115. Bhajji, Simla, 5,000 feet. 

2. R. sericea, Lindl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 367; Brandis 202 ; Gamble 36. 
A thorny .shrub with greyish brown bark, peeling off in papery 

flakes. Wood very hard, darkening on exposure. Annual rings marked 
by a continuous line of very small pores in the spring wood, the pores 
in the autumn wood being extremely small. Medullary rays short, 
moderately broad to broad, prominent. 

Himalaya, from the Sutlej to Bhutan, from 9,000 to 14,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 18 rings per inch of radius. Flowers white or pink. 
E 2366. Suburkum, Darjeeling, 11,000 feet. 

3. E. macrophylla, Lindl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 366; Brandis 203. 
Vern. Gnldd, ban-guldb, Hind.; Tikjik, Cheuab ; Akhiari, Ravi; Breri, 
bankoi, Simla. 

A thorny shrub. Bark blackish brown, peeling off in thin flakes. 
Wood hard and compact'; annual rings marked by a belt of numerous 
small pores in the spring wood ; pores in the rest of the wood extremely 
small. Medullary rays moderately broad to broad, prominent. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Sikkim, between 3,500 and 10,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 13 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 57 Ibs. per cubic foot. Flowers 
pink. It makes good hedges. 

Ibs. 

H 50. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 

H 2872. 55 

H 2847. Mahasu, Simla 59 

7. ERIOBOTRYA, Lindl. 

Contains 9 species. E. japonica, Lindl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 372 ; Brandis 575 
(Mespilus japonica, Banks ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 510). The Loquat, is cultivated in most 
parts of India (Weight 46 Ibs., Wallich). E. petiolata, Hook, f . ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 370, 
is a tree of Sikkim and Bhutan at 5,000 to 9,000 feet. E. lengalensis, Hook. f. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 371 (E. dubia, Kurz i. 443. Mespilus bengalensis, Roxb. Fl.Ind. ii. 510) 
is an evergreen tree of Northern and Eastern Bengal and Burma. The remainder 
are shrubs or small trees. 

1. E. dubia, Dene; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 371. Photinia dubia, Lindl. 
Gamble 37. Vern. Berkung, Lepcha. 

A small tree. Bark light brown, \ inch thick. Wood white, soft, 
even grained. Pores very small. Medullary rays of two classes, 
numerous very fine rays closely packed between, fewer moderately broad 
rays. 

North-East Himalaya, from 5,000 to 6,000 feet. 
Weight, 46 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

E 2365. Rangbul, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet. 

2. E. elliptica, Lindl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 372. Photinia sp. 
Gamble 37. Veru. Mihul, my a, Nep. ; Yelnyo, Lepcha. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark greyish brown, inch thick. 
Wood reddish brown, compact, hard, apt to warp slightly. Pores small 
and very small. Medullary rays fine and very fine, very numerous, 
prominent on a radial section. 



168 HOSACE2E. [Eiiololrya. 

Sikkim and Bhutan Himalaya, from 6,500 to 8,000 feet. 

Growth moderate. Aikin, describing Wallich's specimens gives 8'4 rings ; our speci- 
mens shew 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 57' 5 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood good, 
but not used. 

Ibs. 

E 366. Eangbul, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 58 

E 3109. Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 57 

8. PYRUS, Linn. 

Contains 22 species, all found in the Himalaya and Khasia Hills, one only 
extending southward to Burma. The genus is divided into 5 sections : Mains, 3 species ; 
Pyrus, 4 species ; Aria, 2 species ; Sorbus, 5 species ; and Micromelus, 8 species. 

In the section Mains, besides P. baccata, Linn., P. Mains, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 373 ; Roxb. PI. Ind ii. 511 ; Brandis 205, The Apple. Vern. Shewa, Afg. ; Shu, sun, 
chunt, khajir, bisir, pain, Pb. ; JZushu, Ladak ; Seo, seb, Hind., is apparently wild and 
commonly cultivated in the North- West Himalaya. It is also cultivated in gardens in 
Berar, Central India, the Punjab and Sind. P. sikkimensis, Hook. f. ; Hook. PI. Ind. 
ii. 373, is found in the Sikkim Himalaya. 

In the section Pyrus, besides P. Pashia, Ham., P. communis, Linn. ; Hook. PI. Ind. 
ii. 374 ; Eoxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 510 ; Brandis 203. The Pear. Vern. Tang, batang, ndk, bo, 
sunkeint, charkeint, Ii, Pb. Hills ; Ndshpdti, ndk, Pb. Plains ; Amrud, Arab, is 
apparently wild in Kashmir and cultivated in the Himalaya. The fruit is generally 
hard, but good for baking and preserves. P. Kumaoni, Dene ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 374 ; 
Brandis 204, and P. Jacquemontiana, Dene ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 374 ; Brandis 205, 
are found in the North- West Himalaya ; they much resemble P. Pashia. 

In the section Aria, two species only occur ; they are here described. 

In the section Sorbus, besides P. foliolosa, P. Aucuparia, Gaertn. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 375, the Mountain Ash, is found in the North- West Himalaya from 11,500 feet 
to 13,000 feet from Kashmir to Kumaun ; and P. microphylla, Wall., P. Wallichii, 
Hook, f., and P. insignis, Hook, f., in the Sikkim Himalaya. 

In the section Micromelus, P. Griffithii, Dene. ; P. rhamnoides, Dene ; and P. 
Thomsoni, King, are described from high elevations in the Sikkim Himalaya ; P. fer- 
ruginea, Hook, f ., from Bhutan ; and 4 species : P. khasiana, Dene, P. granulosa, 
Bertol. (Vern. Dingsopha, Khasia), P. polycarpa, Hook, f ., and P. cuspidata, Bertol., 
from the Khasia Hills. 

Wood compact and close-grained, marked by very small pores and 
fine medullary rays. The wood of the Pears (sections Pyrus and Halus) 
warps and cracks, whereas that of the sections Sorbus and Aria seasons 
better. 

1. P. baccata, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 373; Brandis 205. The 
Siberian Crab. Vern. Ban mehal, gwdlam. Hind. ; Baror, liii, Ihijo, 
liwar, Pb. 

A small tree with grey bark. Wood white, with pale-brown heart- 
wood, warps considerably. Structure similar to that of P. Pashia, but 
medullary rays slightly broader. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, between 6,000 and 11,000 feet; Khasia 
Hills. 

Growth slow, 12 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 53 Ibs. per cubic foot. Fruit 
edible. 

Ibs. 

E 967. Chumbi Valley, Tibet, about 10,000 feet 53 

2. P. Pashia, Ham. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 374; Kurz i.441. P. vario- 
losa, Wall. ; Brandis 20 i, 575 ; Gamble 36. Vern. Tang, butangi, keint, 
shindar, katdri, kithu, ku, shegul, Ph.; Mehal, mol, Hind.; Passi, Nep. ; 
Li, Lepcha. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark dark brown, exfoliating 1 in 



Pyrus. ] ROSACEJI. 169 

small rectangular scales. Heartwood light reddish brown, hard, close and 
even-grained, cracks and warps. Annual rings mark'. 1 '! by a dark line. 
Pores very small. Medullary rays very line and very numerous, uniform 
and equidistant. 

Outer Hini:ilay;i, from the Indus to Bhutan, between 2.500 and 8,000 feet. 
(innvlli niml'nitr, S rings p.-r inch of radius. Wright, 17 ll)s. p;-i' :ubic loot. The 
wood is used for walking-sticks, combs, tub:i<:<-i> pipes .ind various other purposes. The 
fruit is only eaten when half rotten, like the Medlar, but uven then is u 

Uw< 

H 3185. Dungagalli, Ila/ava, 7,000 feet 

H 23. Madluin, Sinihi, O.UDO feet 47 

H 236. Garhwal Hills (1868) 

3. P. lanata, Don ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 375. P. Aria, Ehrh. ; Brandis 
206. Vern. Gun palos, Afg. ; Loda, chola, chilana, maila, paltu, ban 

pala, Icanylii, thcuiki, morphal, mirpol, Pb. ; (jallun. mduli, paltu, ban 
palti, Hind. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree with dark-brown bark. Wood 
white, moderately hard, close and even-grained, seasons well. Annual 
rings marked by a narrow belt without pores, on the outside of each ring-. 
Pores very small, most numerous in the spring- wood. Medullary rays 
fine. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, between 5,000 and 10,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 22 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 40 to 47 Ibs. per cubic foot; Mathieu 
gives 46 to 58 Ibs. It might be useful for boxes and other purposes for which a close 
and even-grained wood is required. Fruit large, eateii when half rotten, like that of the 
Medlar (P. gcrmanica, Ldl.). 

Ibs. 
H 64. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet . . . . . . .47 

H 2887. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 40 

H 3186. Duiigagalli, Hazara, 7,000 feet 

4. P. vestita, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 375. P lanata, Don ; 
Gamble 37. Vern. May hell, guhor, Nep. ; SingJca, Bhutia. 

A deciduous tree. Wood reddish with brown streaks, moderately 
hard. Annual rings distinct. Pores very small. Medullary rays fine, 
numerous, not distinct. 

Eastern Himalaya, between 8,000 and 10,000 feet. 

^ Growth slow, 20 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 44 Ibs. per cubic foot. Fruit 
edible. 

Ibs. 
E 380. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet . . . . .44 

5. P. foliolosa, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 376; Brandis 207; 
Gamble 37. Vern. K/iarsani, Nep. 

A shrub or small tree. Wood white, with small, darker coloured heart- 
wood. Annual rings distinct, Pores very small, more numerous in the 
spring wood. Medullary rays fine, very numerous. 

Eastern Himalaya, between 7,000 and 10,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 23 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 45 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

E 378. Tonglo, Darjeeliug, 10,000 feet 

6. P. ursina, Wall.; Brandis 206. P.foliolosa, Wall.; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 376 (in part). Vern. 8&lia,hMia, Pb. ; Wmi>u fityi, Lahoul. 



170 BOSACEJE. [Pyrw*. 

A small tree with smooth, reddish grey bark, peeling off in horizontal 
papery strips. "Wood white, with a small, brown heartwood. Structure 
similar to that of P.foliolosa. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Sikkim, between 6,000 and 12,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 32 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 541bs. per cubic foot. 

DM. 

H 134. Lahoul, 10,000 feet 

H 3020. Hattu, Simla, 10,000 feet 64. 

9. STRANV.ESIA, Lindl. 

1. S. glaucescens, Lindl.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 382; Brandis 210. 
Vern. Garmehal, sund, Kumaun. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark J inch thick, rough, dark coloured. 
Wood light coloured when fresh cut, turning reddish brown on exposure, 
fine and even grained ; annual rings marked by a thin line. Pores very 
small, numerous. Medullary rays numerous, uniform, very fine, equi- 
distant. 

Central Himalaya, Kumaun and Garhwal from 3,000 to 8,000 feet, Nepal, Khasia 
Hills. 

Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 48 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

iba. 
H 2970. Naini Tal, 6,000 feet 48 

10. CRAT.EGUS, Linn. 

Contains 3 species. C. Oxyacantha, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 383 ; Brandis 207 ; 
Gamble 37. The Hawthorn. Vern. Ring, ramnia, pingyat, phinddk, patakhan, 
Pb. ; Ban-sanjli, sur sinjli, Jhelam, is a small tree of Afghanistan and the Western 
Himalaya, from the Indus to the Ravi ; elsewhere cultivated, C. Clarkei, Hook. f. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 383, is a small tree of Kashmir. 

1. C. crenulata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 509; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 384. 
C. Pyracantha, Persoon; Braodis 208. Vern. Gingaru, gianru, Hind. 

A large spinescent shrub. Wood white, hard, very close and even 
grained. Annual rings marked by a belt of harder and darker-coloured 
wood on the outer edge of each ring. Pores very small, numerous. 
Medullary rays very fine, numerous. 

Himalaya, from the Sutlej to Bhutan, from 5,000 to 7,000 feet, descending iu 
Kumaun to 2,500 feet. 

H 2967. Naini Tal 48 

11. COTONEASTER, Linn. 

Contains 10 or 11 species, many of which are merely small prostrate shrubs. 
They are all Himalayan, one only extending to the Nilgiris and one (doubtfully) to the 
Khasia Hills. C. frigida, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 385 ; Brandis 209, is a small 
tree of the Central and Eastern Himalaya. C. buxijolia, "Wall.; Hook. H. Ind. 
ii. 387 ; Beddome xcvii. ; Brandis 210. Vern. Hurunay, Nilgit is, is a rigid shrub 
or small tree of the Nilgiri and Pulney Hills, with a douse elastic woo;! used by the 
Todas to make clubs. The remaining species not here described are all small. 

Wood harder and more compact than that of Pyrus ; also marked by 
extremely small pores. 



Cotoneaster. ] ROSACEJB. 171 

1. C. bacillaris, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 384; Brandis 208. Vern. 
Et } riu, lin, lun, raw, reush, risk, Pb. Hills $ Ruinsh, Jaunsar Bawur. 

A small deciduous tree with bluish grey, nearly smooth bark. Wood 
white, turning- light red towards the centre, smooth, very hard, close 
and even grained, but splits and warps much. Annual rings marked by 
the darker colour of the outer portion of each ring. Pores extremely 
email, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. 

Salt Kange above 1,500 feet, North- West Himalaya, from the Indus to the Sarda, 
between 5,000 and 10,000 feet, Sikkim and Bhutan. 

Growth moderate, 11 rings per inch of radius. Weight, on an average, 571hs. per 
cubic foot. The wood is used for making walking-sticks : the " alpenstocks " sold at 
Simla are usually made of it. 

IbB. 

H 55. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 61 

H 2890. : 

H 26. Madhan, Simla, 6,000 feet 58 

H 124. Kulu, about 7,000 feet 52 

H 925. Hazara 56 

H 3177. Dungagalli, Hazara, 7,000 feet 

2. C. acuminata, Lindl. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 385 ; Brandis 209. 
Vern. Riu, rduns, rim, ruinsh, Hind. 

A deciduous shrub. Wood hard, structure like that of C. bacillaris. 

Himalaya, from the Beas to Sikkim, between 4,500 and 10,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 15 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 541bs. per cubic foot. Wood 
used to make walking-sticks, like that of C. bacillaris. 

ibs. 
120. Jalaori Pass, Kulu, 9,000 feet 54 

H 3013* JNagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 

3. C. microphylla, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 387; Brandis 209; 
Gamble 37. Vern. Kkdriz, luni, Kashmir; Garri, Kumaun. 

A small procumbent shrub. Wood hard, similar to that of 
C. lacillaris, but with slightly larger pores. 

Himalaya, from Kashmir to Bhutan, from 4,000 to 8,000 feet in the North-West and 
above 10,000 feet in Sikkim. Often planted for ornament in England. 
Growth slow, 24 rings per inch of radius. 
H 2823. Simla, 7,000 feet. 



ORDER XLII. SAXIFRAGES. 

An Order of about 8 Indian arboraceous genera, chiefly Himalayan. It is divided 
into 3 tribes of woody plants, viz,, 

Tribe I. Hydrangeas Hydrangea, Pileostegia, 

Dichroa, Deutzia, and 
PhiladelpJius. 

II. Escallonies9 Itea and Polyosma. 

M III. Ribesieae ..... Ribes. 

Five of these genera are here described. Pileostcc/ia viburnoides, Hook. f. and 
Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 405, is a shrub of the Khasia Hills. Itea contains three species 
of shrubs or small trees of the Himalaya and Khasia Hills, of which I. nutans, 
Royle ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 408 ; Brandis 213. Vern. Lelar, Kaghan ; Garkath, 
Kumaun, is a small tree of the North- Western Himalaya from the Indus to Nepal, 



172. SAXIFRAGES. [Hydrangea. 

between 3,000 and 6,000 feet, I. macrophylla, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 11^408 ; Gamble 
38. Vern. Teturldumm, Lepcha is a small tree of the valley's round Darjeeling and in 
the Khasia Hills. I. Chinensis, Hook, and Am.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 408, is a small 
tree of the Khasia Hills between 4,000 and 6,000 feet. Polyo*ma inteqrifolia, 131. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 409. (P. WallicJiii, Bennett; Kurz 444) is a small tree of the 
Khasia Hills, found also in the Andaman Islands. 

Pores small to extremely small. Medullary rays often of two classes, 
moderately broad and very fine. 

1. HYDRANGEA, Linn. 

Contains 5 Indian species. Besides those described, the chief is H. altissima, 
Wall. ; Brandis 211 ; Gamble 38. ;-Vern. Sema, Lepcha, a large climbing or erect 
shrub of the Himalaya from the Sutlej to Bhutan above 5,000 feet ; its bark is used as 
a substitute for paper. J?. aspera, Don, and IT. stylosa, Hook. f. and Th., are small 
trees of the Sikkim Himalaya. The Garden Hydrangea, or Chinese Guelder Rose, so 
commonly cultivated as an ornamental shrub in the Hills, is H. Hortensia, DC. 

1. H. vestita, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Iud.ii.405; Brandis 211; Gamble 
38. Vern. Kulain, Bhutia ; Pokultia, Nep. 

A small deciduous tree with light brown, rather corky bark. Wood 
pinkish white, moderately hard ; annual rings indistinct. Pores 
extremely small. Medullary rays very fine. 

Himalaya, from Kumaun to Sikkim between 5,000 and 11,000 feet. 
Weight, 45 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

iba. 
E 373. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet 45 

2. H. robusta, Hook. f. and Th. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 404; Gamble 
38. Vern. Bogoti, Nep. 

A small, handsome, deciduous tree, with thin, brown, papery bark, peel- 
ing off in large flakes. Wood white, moderately hard, close-grained. 
Pores very small. Medullary rays of two sizes, moderately broad, short 
and very fine, prominent. 

Eastern Himalaya, Sikkim, from 5,000 to 7,000 feet, generally as undergrowth 
in the oak forests. 

Weight, 421bs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. ' 

E 2370. llangbul, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 42 



2. DICHROA, Lour. 

1. D. febrifuga, Lour. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 406 ; Gamble 38. Adamia 
cyanea, Wall. t. '213. Vern. Basalt, lanwk, Nep.; Gebokanak, Lepcha; 
Singnamuk, Bhutia. 

An evergreen shrub, with yellow bark peeling off in flakes. 
Wood white, moderately hard, with small pores and moderately broad to 
very fine medullary rays. 

-non in the forests of the Eastern Himalaya, from Nepal to Bhutan and in 
the Kli:isi:. Hii's sib. TO 4,000feet, 

The snoots :ind O;M inado into a dome-lion and used as a ft-bri- 

fu<n. l,y 1li<- Mc]ml(-c. Ii U a vrrv lii.inl >:m shrub, with blue llo \\ers and bright blue 
up on clearings iu the oak forests. 

Ibs. 
E 2371. Daijoeling, 7,000 fet 41 



' ;E ^- 

3. DEUTZIA, Tliunb. 

Contains 3 species. D. macrantJia, Hook, f . and Th. is a shrub of the Kumaun 
Hills above 5,500 feet, 

1. D. corymbosa, Brown ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 406; Brandis 212. Vern. 
Daloutchi, (hutsch, bknjru, Simla. 

A shrub. Outer bark yellowish grey, peeling off in long thin papery- 
rolls, leaving the smooth, thin, greenish brown inner bark exposed. 
Wood, white, soft, even-grained. Pores small, very numerous. Medul- 
lary rays moderately broad, alternating- with numerous very fme rays. 

Himalaya, from the Sutlej to Bhutan, from 6,000 to 10,000 feet, 

H 2850. Mahasu, Simla, 7,000 feet 46* 

H 2898. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 

2. D. staminea, Brown; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 407 ; Brandis 212. Vern. 
Muneti; Kumauu ; Deutsch, Simla. 

A shrub. Baik grey, soft, peeling off in small strips, but to a less 
degree than in D. corymlosa. Wood white, soft ; structure similar to that 
of D. corymbosa. 

Himalaya, from Kashmir to Bhutan, from 5,000 to 8,000 feet. 

ibs. 

] Simla, 6,000 feet 43 

4. PHILADELPHIA, Linn. 

1. P, coronarius, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 407 ; Brandis 212. Vern. 
Dalunchi, b/toj, Simla. 

A shrub with soft, light grey bark. Wood soft, white, with large 
pith. Pores small and very small, more numerous near the inner edge 
of each annual ring. Medullary .rays of two classes, very fine and 
moderately broad. The structure of the wood of the Indian shrub 
is the same as that of the European shrub, the " Syringa " of gar- 
dens. 

Himalaya, from Kishtwar to Sikldm, from 6,000 to 10,000 feet. Often planted 
for ornament. 

ibs. 
H 3038. Nagkanda, Simla, 7,000 feet ,, . 44 

5. RIBES, Linn. 

Contains about 8 species of Himalayan'shrubs. R. Grossularia, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. 
Intl. ii. 410; Brandis 213. The Gooseberry. Vern. Pilsa, piliJccka, kansi, teiht, 
amla-ncJt, Upper Chenab andLahoul, is indigenous to the arid parts of the North-West 
Himalaya above 8,000 feet, and is cultivated in the hills. It. nigrum, Linn. The Black 
Currant. Vern. Papar, Kumaun, is found in Kashmir, Kunawar, Garhwal and 
Kumaun above 6,000 feet. R. rulrum, Linn. The Red Currant. Vern. Niangha, 
Lahoul, occurs in the Himalaya between 5,000 and 12,000 feet. R. oricniale, Poiret ; 
Brandis 214. Vern. Gicaldvkh, kagh aJc, Kaghan; Nanrfke, nydi, phulanch, Chenab; 
'/(/, Ladak ; Yanrje, Piti, is a shrub of the Safedkoh and arid tracts of the 
lunor Himalaya. .A*, desmocarpum, Hook. f. and Th., R. Juriduin, Hook. f. and Th., 
and R. Gr/J/it/tii, Hook, f.andl'h. arc all shrubs of the Sikkim and Bhutan Himalaya. 

1. R. glaciale, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 410; Brandis 214 ; Gamble 
38. Vern. UMay, Bhutia. 



174 8AXIFRAGE2E. [Rifal. 

A small shrub with shining bark, peeling off in papery flakes. Wood 
white, compact, moderately hard. Pores extremely small, in narrow inter- 
rupted wavy, concentric lines. Medullary rays scanty, short, broad and 
very broad. 

Himalaya, from Kashmir to Bhutan, between 7,000 and 11,000 feet. 
Weight, 58 to 631bs. 

Ibs. 

H 3021. H 3022. Hattu, Simla, 10,000 feet 63 

H2908. H2912. Nagkanda, Simla, 9,000 feet 

H 3C25. Matiyana, Simla, 9,000 feet 

E 973. Chumbi Valley, Tibet, about 10,000 feet 68 



ORDER XLIII. HAMAMELIDEJE. 

Contains 7 genera of Indian trees or shrubs. Distylium indicum, Bth., Synopsis 
Griffithiana, Oliv., and Loropetalum chinense, Oliv., are all shrubs of the Khasia 
Hills ; while Corylopsis himalayana, Griff. ; Hook. PL Ind. ii. 427, is found in the 
Eastern Himalaya and Khasia Hills, between 5,000 and 6,000 feet. JJiquidambar 
orientals, Miller, a tree of Asia Minor, yields the fragrant resin " Sfcorax " used in 
medicine. 

Wood close-grained. Pores small and very small, numerous and 
uniformly distributed. Medullary rays numerous, fine and very fine. 

1. PARROTIA, C. A. Meyer. 

Besides the species described, P. persica, C. A. Meyer, is a shrub of the low 
forests on the south coast of the Caspian Sea. 

1. P. Jacquemontiana, Decaisne; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 426; Brandis 
216. Vern. Pdser, pes/iora, po, kildr, kirru, Punjab. 

A large deciduous shrub or small tree, with thin, grey bark. Wood 
light pinkish red, hard, heavy, very close-grained. Pores extremely small. 
Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

North- West Himalaya from the Indus to the Ravi, between S,800 and 8,500 feet. 

Growth slow 12 to 16 rings per inch (Brandis). Weight, 56 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
Wood highly esteemed for walking-sticks, tent pegs, charpoys and rice pestles, also 
for native bows for throwing pellets. But its chief use is in basket-work and in 
the making of bridges over the Himalayan rivers. The twigs are very tough 
and flexible, and are twisted together into thick ropes, often 300 feet long. The 
bridges consist of one large rope to walk on and two smaller side ropes, one for each 
hand, with smaller ropes connecting the hand ropes with the foot rope, (P 1000 was a 
fine specimen sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1878 from the Kavi.) 

Ibs. 

H 3178. Dungagalli, Hazara, 6,000 feet 

H 933. Hazara, Punjab, 6,000 feet 56 

H 905. Upper Chenab, Punjab 

2. BUCKLANDIA, R. Brown. 

1. B. populnea, R. Br. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 429; Kurz i. 445; 
Gamble 38. Vero. Pipli, Nep. ; Sinyliany, Lepcha ; Lingdah, Khasia. 



BucMandia.] HAMAMELIDEJE. 175 

A large evergreen tree with rough, brown bark. Wood greyish 
brown, rough, moderately hard, close-grained, durable. Pores small. 
Medullary rays fine, very numerous, uniform and equidistant. 

Eastern Himalaya, Khasia Hills and hills of Martaban, from 3,000 to 8,000 feet. 
Growth moderately fast, 6 to 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, on an average, 
45 Ibs. per cubic foot. Is very much used in Darjeeling for planking and door and 
window frames, and is in great demand. It is a very ornamental tree with tough 
poplar-like leaves, and thick, fleshy stipules. It is easily grown from seed, but the 
young plants are rather delicate. 

Ibs. 

E 699. Sepoydura Forest, Darjeeling, 5,500 feet . . . .41 
E 2372. Raugbiil 7,000 .... 49 
E 2373. , 46 

3. ALTINGIA, Noronha. 

1. A. excelsa, Noronha; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 429; Kurz i. 446. Vern. 
Jutili, Ass. ; Nantayop, Burm. 

A lofty deciduous tree. .Bark smooth, light grey, exfoliating in 
large thin flakes. Wood soft, reddish grey with lighter streaks. 
Annual rings marked by a narrow belt of firm wood without pores. 
Pores small, uniform and uniformly distributed in lines between the 
medullary rays. Medullary rays fine, equidistant, prominent on a radial 
section. 

Assam and Tenasserim. 

Growth moderate, 6 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 46 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
Wood used in Assam for building and ordinary domestic purposes. 

E 1269. Lakhimpur, Assam ........ 46 

B 2704. Brought from Tavoy by Dr. Wallich in 1828. Eesembles this 

in structure ........ 48 



OHDER XLIV. RHIZOPHORE^J. 

Contains seven Indian genera of trees, chiefly coast plants and known by the general 
name of " JMangroves." They form forests, binding together the mud, in the estuaries of 
the Indus, Ganges and Irrawaddi, as well as along the coasts of Malabar, Arracan, 
Tenasserim and the Andaman Islands. The Order is divided into 2 Tribes, vis., 

fribe I. RhizophoreaB . . . Rhizophora, Ceriops, Kandelia 

and Bruguiera. 

II. Legnotideae Carallia, Gynotrockes, Weihea 

and Blepharistemma. 

Blepharistemma corymbosum, Wall, ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 441 ; Bcddome ci. is a 
.small tree of the hills of Tellicherry and Coorg ; Gyno(rochesaxillaris,EL ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 410 ; Kuvz. i. 451, is a small tree of Upper Tenasserim ; &i\d\Weikea ceylanica, 
Baill. ; Hook. PL Ind. ii. 441 ; Beddoine t. 194, a small tree of Mysore and the Carnatic. 
The remaining genera are here described. 

Rhizophora, Ceriops and Erugurera have small pores and equidistant, 
fine or moderately broad rays. The pores are sometimes joined by in- 
terrupted concentric bands. The structure of Kandelia is different. 
Carallia aud Anisophyllea differ by having two classes of medullary rays : 
numerous very fine rays between fewer moderately broad rays. 



176 RHIZOPHORE2E. [Rkizophora. 

1. RHIZOPHORA, Linn. 

The Mangroves. Two species. R. conjugata, Linn. ; Hook, Fl. Ind. ii. 436 ; Bed- 
dome xcix. ; Brandis 218 ; Kurz i, 447 is a small tree usually associated with that 
here described. 

1. R. mucronata, Lamk, ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 435; Beddome xcix. ; 
Brauclis 217 ; Kurz i. 447. R. Mangle, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 459. Vern. 
Bhara, Beug. ; Kama, Sind; Upoo-poma, Tel.; Byoo, byooma, Burm. ; 
Bairaddyjumuda, And.; Kadol, Cingb. 

A small evergreen tree. Sapwood light red ; heartwood dark red, 
extremely hard, splits and warps a little in seasoning. Pores small, 
numerous, uniformly distributed ; each pore surrounded by a narrow ring 
of soft tissue. Medullary rays fine, wavy, numerous, uniform, equidis- 
tant ; the distance between the rays equal to about twice the transverse 
diameter of the pores. 

Muddy shores and tidal creeks of India, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 
Weight, 70'5 per cubic foot. The wood is good, but is rarely used. It is durable, e.g. 
B 2721 has been kept 60 years in Calcutta and is still quite sound. The bark is used 
for tanning, and the fruit is said to be edible. Of the quick germination of the 
Mangroves, Roxburgh says, "The great length of the seed gives in a very short 
time a young tree ; for if the apex from which the root issues is only stuck a 
little way into a wet soil or mud, the leaves quickly unfold at the opposite end." 
The seeds often germinate while yet on the tree and drop as young plants into the 
mud. The roots also progress and form constantly fresh stems supported by the 
buttressed roots standing out of the mud. 

Ibs. 

B 2721. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) .... . 69 , 

B 502. Andaman Islands .... .67 

B 2240. (1866) .... .73 

B 2273. .... .73 

No. 9. Ceylon Collection (Rhizophora sp., Caddol) . 65 

No. 36. (Rhizophora sp., Hiri Kaddol) . 49 

2. CERIOPS, Arn. 

Contains two species. C. Bdxburgkiana, Arnott ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 436 ; 
Kurz i. 448. Vern. Eapyaing, Burm. is a large shrub of the coast forests from Chitta- 
gong to Tenasserim. Weight 46 Ibs. (Wallich, No. 173, Rhizophora decandra). 

1. C. Candolleana, Arnott ;;ITook. Fl. Ind. ii. 436; Beddome xcix. ; 
Brandis 218; Kurz i. 448. Vern. Kirrari, chauri, Sind; Goran, Beng. ; 
Madd, And. 

A small evergroen tree, with dark red bark; wood red, hard. Pores 
very small. Medullary rays fine, slightly wavy, uniform and equidistant. 
Pores joined by fine, wavy, interrupted concentric bands. 

Muddy shores and tidal creeks of India and the Andaman Islands. 

Wood used in Sind for the knees of boats and oilier purposes; in Lower 1 
for house-posts and for firewood. The bark is used for tanning. Weight, (33 Ibs. 
per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 

B 1985. Andaman Islands (Kurz, 1866) 03 

3. KANDELIA, Wight and Arn. 

1. K. Rheedii, W. and A.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 437 ; Beddome c. ; 
Brandis 218 ; Kurz i. 449. Vern. Guria, Beng. 



Ka n delta . ] HI j i /or 1 1 o it t x . 177 

An evergreen shrub or small tree. Wood soft, close-grained. Pores 
very small, very numerous. Medullary rays very short, moderately 
broad, prominently marked on a radial section ; the di>tanee between the 
medullary rays being many times broader than the transverse diameter 
of the pores. 

Muddy shores and tidal creeks of Bengal, Burma, and the Western Coast. 
Weight, 38 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used only for firewood. Bark used in 
Tavoy in dyeing red, probably as a mordant. 

Ibs. 
E 407. Sundarbans 38 

4. BRUGUIERA, Lam. 

Contains five species. B. eriopetala, W. and A., B. malabarica, Arn., 
B. caryophylloides, and B. parviflora, W. and A., are all trees of the shores of 
Malabar, Bengal, Arniean, Tenasserim and the Andamans, the last species being also 
found at Masulipatam on the Coromandel Coast, and in the Sundarbans. 

1. B. gymnorhiza, Lam.; Hook. Fl. Tnd. ii. 437; Brandis 219 ; 
Kurz i. 450. J3. Rlieedii, Bl. ; Beddome c. Phizophora gymnoih'iza, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 460. Vern. Ka/cra, kankra, Beng. ; Byoo-bo, Burm. 

An evergreen tree, heartwood small, red, extremely hard. Pores 
small, oval, and subdivided; medullary rays moderately broad, fine, very 
numerous. 

Muddy shores and tidal creeks of India, Burma, and the Andaman Islands. 
Weight, 54 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is used for firewood, house-posts, planks 
and articles of native furniture. 

Ibs. 
E 412. Sundarbans ,54 



B 2217 (62 Ibs.) and B 2222 (60 Ibs.) are specimens which were received in 1866 
from the Andamans under the respective names of Garcinia and Mallotus, but they are 
probably the wood of another species of Bruyuiera. The pores are mode rate- si zed, 
oval and subdivided and the medullary rays are moderately broad and fine, nearly 
equidistant and prominent on a radial section. The pores are joined by narrow, 
interrupted, concentric lines. 

5. CARALLIA, Roxb. 

Contains two Indian trees. C. lancecefolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 481 ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 439, is an evergreen tree of the forests of Upper Tenasserim. 

1. C. integerrima, DC.; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 439; Beddome t. 198 5 
Brandis 219; Gamble 39. C. lucida, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 4S1 ; Kurz i. 
451. Vern. Kierpa, Beng 1 . ; Palamkal, Nep. ; Kujitekra, Ass. ; Karalli, 
Tel. ; Andlpu uar, Kan. ; Ptinschi, Bombay ; Dawata, Cingh. ; Bya, Arra- 
can ; Haneioga, Burm. 

An evergreen tree with thin, dark-grey bark. Sapwood perishable ; 
heartwood red, very hard, durable, works and polishes well. Pores moder- 
ate-sized to large, often subdivided. Medullary rays long, of two classes, 
extremely broad and fine, numerous fine rays between each pair of broad 
ones, marked on a radial section as broad, irregular, shining- plates. Fine 
bars of soft tissue across the ravs. 



]/8 ism/oiMioRi [ Cafu II i-j. 

Eastern and Western moist zones, Eastern Himalaya. Bengal, Burma, South 
India and the Andamans. 

Weight, according to Benson and Skinner, No. 37, 44 Ibs ; A. Mendis, 42 Ibs. ; 
Brandis' Burma List, 1862, No. 106, 60 Ibs. ; our specimens give an average of 4711s. 
Benson's experiments with bars 3 feet X 1'4 inch X 1*4 inch, gave P = 797 ; Skinner 
gives P = 656. 

Wood used in South Kanara for furniture and cabinet-making and in Burma for 
11 anldng, furniture and rice-pounders, 

W 743. South Kanara 42 

B 308. Burma (1867) 47 

B 816. Burma 51 

B 2530. Burma (1862) 47 

B 2210. Andaman Islands (1866) 47 

B 1500. Burma ... 

No. 19. Ceylon Collection (marked C. zeylanica) . . . .42 



2. No. 90. Adrian Mendis, Ceylon Collection, weight 51 Ibs. P = 464. 
Vern. Ukbeiriye, Cingh., is probably C. calycina, Bth.; Thwaites Eimm. 
121; Hook. El. Ind. ii. 4*39. The wood is brick-red; in structure it 
resembles that of C. integerrima, but the pores are fewer, and the broad 
rays are narrower and at regular distances. 

6. ANISOPHYLLEA, Br. 

1. A. zeylanica, Bib.; Hook. PI. Ind. ii. 442; Thw. Enum. 119; 
Beddome t. 195. Tetracrypta cinnamomoides, Gard. and Ch. Vern. 
Wellipiyannc, Cingh. 

A tree. Wood greyish brown, moderately hard. Pores moderate- 
sized and large, filled with a white substance, prominent on a vertical 
section as white streaks. Medullary rays of two classes, numerous 
but indistinct, fine, between fewer moderately broad rays. Bars of 
soft texture and the same width as the rays crossing these and dividing 
the wood into numerous rectangular unequal figures. 

Ibs. 
No. 96. Ceylon Collection 35 



ORDER XLV. COMBRETACEJE. 

An Order containing 8 Indian Genera of trees, shrubs or climbers, containing sonic 
of the most important of the timber trees of the Indian forests. It is divided into 
2 Tribes : 

Tribe I. Combretea* ..... TermitiaUa, Calycopteris, Ano- 

ffeissus, Lumnitzera, Com- 
bretum and QpitgiuUii, 
II. Gyrocarpeae ..... Illigera and G-yrocarpus. 



Four of these genera arc here described, most of the remaimler contain 
shrubs. Lumnitzera contains two small evergreen trees. L. rcei)u>titt, Willd. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 452; IVddomo ciii.; Brandis J1 ; Kur/ i. hi.s 



Koxb. I'M. Ind. ii. tt72) Vcrn. Xripa, J\irj>n. l i n^. ; /hdrt yti, Cin;h. ; YC,KIU<', IJunn.. 
, (,('! he muddy creeks and tidal fon-sls of the Sundarliaiis, .Malaliar. Arracaii, 
: and the Andamans, also found by IJcddoinc at Ualasore. It has a strong an<l 
durable wood used for house-posts, and in Calcutta for fuel iKoxbur^h). L. coc< 



T<-r mm til/a. ] 179 

W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 152. ( I., lillnrat. Voigt ; Kur/i. KVJ;, basm*!) treeofthe 
mangrove swamps oi' Tenasserim. Ctnitl>r<-h<in comprises 1 f> large shrubs, generally 

dimbing, found in the moist zones of India and Burma, of which the most common u 
('. </;///</r/an, Uoxh. Fl. hid. ii. 2:52; Hook. Fl. Iml. ii. 452; Brandis 221 ; Kurz i. 



460; <J;inihlf 1.0. Vern. .funk, jiJiin'xirr, illwbela, Hind. ; KulUaru, Xep. ; Pindik, 

-ka- 



a ; A riknla, Tel. ; Tlutma-ka-moay, Burin., an evergreen scandent shrub, with 
wMtish-yellow floral leaves, olimbing to tin- summits oi' the highest trees, and found in 
the intermediate and moist zones of India and Burma. It has a whitish grey hark', and 
soft light-brown wood, having lari;e pores ;uid moderate-si/ed, evenly distributed 
medullary rays (E M01, Darjeeling Tcrai). Q///.vy//^//.v hntica, lloxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 427, 
is tin- " IJangoon Creeper," Vern. ]) (tniiltini n<\ Burin., a climbing shrul) with red 
flowers, indigenous in Tenasserim and cultivated in gardens in other parts of India. 

Illigera contains 3 species : /. Coryzadeniu, Meissn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 460 
(/. (ippendiculata, Bl.; Kurz i. 469) of Tenasserim and the Andamnns ; /. Kurzii, C. B. 
Clarke, of Burma and the Khasia Hills; and /. khastana, 0. B. Clarke, of the Khasia 
Hills: all scandent shrubs. 

Wood moderately hard to very hard, with a distinct dark-coloured 
heartwood in some, but not in all species. Pores varying 1 in .size. 
Medullary rays uniform, equidistant, fine or very fine, very numerous, the 
distance between the rays less than the diameter of the pores. The 
wood of Gyrocarpns is anomalous. 

1. TERMINALIA, Linn. 

Contains about 12 Indian trees, mostly of very large size, and furnishing valuable 
timber as well as other products. T. procera, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 429 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 41 L; Kurx i. 451 is a lofty tree of the Andaman Islands. T. fcetidissima, Griff. ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 415, is a tree of Mergui. T. pyrifolia, Kurz i. 457 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
i i. 1 IS. Veru. Leinben, Burin., is a Burmese deciduous tree, with wood weighing 39 Ibs. 
per cubic foot. 

Wood moderately hard to very hard. A distinct, dark-coloured, very 
hard heartwood in T. tomentosa, Arjuna, myriocarpa, and paniculata ; 
dark-coloured, but not well-defined wood near the centre in T. Chebula 
andc^n#;no heartwood in the remaining species. Pores moderate- 
sized to large, prominent on a vertical section. Medullary rays fine, 
numerous, uniform and equidistant, the distance between two rays 
being less than the transverse diameter of the pores. Concentric bands 
of soft texture continuous in T. belerica, bi-alata, alata and Catappa ; in- 
terrupted and sometimes wanting in the other species. 

1. T. belerica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 431 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 445 ; 
Beddome t. 19; Brandis 222; Kurz i. 455; Gamble 39. Vern. 
Babela, beleyleh, Pers. ; Bahera, bhaira, behara, Hind. ; Bohera, Beng. ; 
Baheri, Rujbanshi; Knnom, Lepcha ; Chiror(K 3 Garo ; Hulluck, banri, 
Ass. ; T/iara, Uriyn ; Tani, kattu elupay, Tarn. ; Tani, tandi, toandi t 
thandra, Tel. ; Akera, jfiera, Hyderabad; Santi, Kan. ; Bherda, ba/tera, 
Mar.; Balra, balda, Dekkan ; Be/iedo, Mandevi; Tahaka, taka, banjir, 
Gondi; Ye/iera, Bhil; BiUu, Cingh. ; Sacheng, Magh; T/iitsein, Burin. 

A large deciduous tree; bark^ inch thick, bluish grey, with numer- 
ous fine vertical cracks. Wood yellowish grey, hard, no heartwood, not 
durable ; readily attacked by insects ; annual rings indistinct. Pores of 
two sizes, large and small ; the large ones frequently subdivided, joined by 
irregular, wavy, concentric bauds of softer tissue, which contain the small 
pores. Fine, uniform and equidistant medullary rays are distinctly visible 



ISO niMBUETACI [ Ttfini mif'm . 

in the harder and darker portions between the bands, and on the radial 
section. 

This wood distantly resembles in structure that of Ougeinia dalbergi- 
oides, but the bands of soft tissue are more continuous, and the medul- 
lary rays are less prominent. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from near the Indus eastwards, forests of India and Burma. 

Growth moderate to rapid, 3 to 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, according to 
Kyd's Assam experiments, 43 Ibs. per cubic foot ; Central Provinces List, 39 Ibs. ; Brandis' 
Burma List, 1862, No. 47, 40 Ibs. ; the average of our specimens gives 48 Ibs. Kyd gives 
P = 378. The wood is used for planking, packing cases, canoes, and in the North- 
Western Provinces for house-building after steeping in water which has the effect of 
making it more durable. In the Central Provinces it is used for plough shafts and 
carts when bijasal is not available. In South India it is used for packing-cases, coffee- 
boxes, catamarans, and grain measures. The fruit is one of the myrabolans. and is 
exported to Europe to be used in dyeing cloth and leather and in tanning. Native ink 
is made of it, and it is used in medicine as a purgative and for other purposes. The 
kernels of the fruit are eaten, but are said to produce intoxication if eaten in excess 
(Hunter's Statistical Account of Bengal, xvi. p. 51), and an oil is obtained from them 
which is used for the hair. The fruit is eaten by monkeys, deer, goats, sheep, and 
cattle. The tree gives a copious gum, which does not seem to be of much use. The 
leaves according to the Indore Forest Keport of 1876-77 have been used as an antiseptic 
to impregnate sleepers of Said (see under Boswellia thurifera, p. 66), which are said, 
after soaking for five months in a tank filled with Bahera leaves and water, to have 
been rendered durable. 

-Iba. 

P 1190. Madhopiir, Punjab 35 

O 534. Dehra Dun 58 

2995. Garhwal (1874) 59 

O 349. Gorakhpur (1868) 52 

C 176. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 

C 1125. .Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces ...... 42 

C 2737. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces 44 

C 2773. Melghat, Berar 



E 663- BamuT.pokri, Darjeeling Terai .... 

W 1188. South Kanara 

B 2532. Burma (1862) 

No. 53. Salem Collection (marked Wrightia antidysenterica) 



46 
44 

52 



2. T. Chebllla, Retzius; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 446; Roxb. PL Ind. ii. 
433; Beddome t. 27; Brandis 223 ; Kurz i. 456 ; Gamble 39. Vern. 
Harra, har, harara, Hind.; Hilikha, Ass.; Haritdki, Beng. ; Si Jim, 
Lepcha; Karedha, Uriya; ffalra, harla, Dekkan ; Karka, hir, h<irro, 
mahoka, Gondi ; Kadakai, Tarn. ; Karaka, kadnkar, Tel. ; Heerda, Kan., 
Mar. ; Alale, Mysore; Kajo, Magh ; Pangah, Burm. ; Aalu, Cingh. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark inch thick, dark brown, with numerous 
generally shallow vertical cracks. Wood very hard, brownish grey, with 
a greenish or yellowish tinge, fairly smo.oth and close-grained, fairly dur- 
able, seasons well. No regular heartwood, but frequently irregular masses 
of dark purple wood near the centre. Annual rings indistinct. Pores 
small and modtrate-sized, uniformly distributed, often subdivided ; each 
pore or group of pores surrounded by a narrow ring of soft tissue. 
Medullary rays very fine, uniform, equidistant, very numerous, distinctly 
visible on a radial section. The structure of the wood differs from that 
of T. tomentosa t chiefly by smaller pores. 

Sub-Himalatan tract from the Sutlej eastwards, ascending to 6,000 feet ; Bengal. 
Assam, Chittagong, Central and South India. 



. J 



i ' M BUKT \( 



181 



Growth modi-rale. (! to 1<> rin^ per inch of radius. The weight and transverse 
.trength have heeii determined hy the following e\)terhiienis : 



\:iliic "!' )>< r 

rlment. 


Year. 


\V"i>.l whence 
procured. 


Number 

pcri- 
munts. 


f bar. 


Weipht. 


Value 
of f. 












Ft. In. In. 








Benson . . . 




Burma . 




3 x 1-4 x 1-4 


08 


1033 




R. Thompson 


1868 


Satpuras. 







63 







Brandis 


1864 


India 


3 


3x1x1 


66 


1090 




No. 48 


1862 


Burma . 






63 






Skinner, No. 129 . 


1802 








Various 


tiO 


1032 




No. 126 . 


1872 


South Ihdia . 








54 


825 




Wallich 





India . 







42 







Smythies 


1878 


Sec list below . 


10 i 


63 






Kyd 


1831 


Coal para 


1 


2x1x1 


56 


850 


(T. Hillcha. 



The wood takes a good polish and is fairly durable ; it is used for furniture, carts, 
n^rieultural implements and house-building. Beddome says it is cross-grained and 
difficult to work. It is being tried for sleepers in Bengal. The bark is used for tan- 
ning and dyeing. The fruit gives the black myrabolans, which are of a rather better 
quality than those of T. belerica. They are largely exported from Bombay to Europe. 
So valuable is this trade in the Southern Circle of Bombay that the Forest Department 
of that Circle clear annually at least Rs. 50,000 clear profit from it alone. In 1877-78 
the net profit was Rs. 77,000, in future years it is expected to average a lakh. The unripe 
fruit is used for tanning, dyeing, and in medicine (Balhar zengi, zangihar, kalrhar, 
Hind; Koki, Nep.). The fruits give with alum a yellow dye, and with iron-clay give 
a good sort of ink. Astringent galh form on the young twigs, which are also used for 
ink and in dyeing and tanning. The kernel gives a transparent oil. 



213. 

O -,:>*. 

O ;wt>. 

C 181. 

C 1159. 



I 1 1LM7. 
E 671. 
E 2374. 
1) K7t. 
No. 50. 



Garhwal ^(1868) 56* 

Delira Dun ......... gg 

Govnklipur (1868) \ go 

Mandla, Contra! Provinces ...... 57 

Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces (1870) ... 66 

Buirngarh Reserve, Qerar 68 

Gum stir, Madras 60 

Bamunpokri, Darjeeliug Terai . gjr 



North Arcot, Madras 
Salem Collection 



62 



3. T. citrina, Roxb. Fl. Tnd. ii. 435 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 416; Kurz 
.6. Vern. Harifah, Beng. ; Ililika, silikka, Ass. ; Hortucld, Cachar ; 
Kyoo, Burm. 

A lar^-e deciduous tree. Bark light grey, exfoliating with few large 
irn>-ular Hubs Wood grey, darker towards the centre, hard. Struct- 
ure similar to that of T. Chebula. 



Assam, Eastern Bengal, Burma and Andamans. 
\\Vi-ht Wallich gives 60; our specimens 49 Ibs. per cubic foot, 
and general purposes of building in Assam ; al^o as a dye-plant. 



Used for planks 



E 2198. Nowgong, Assam . 

B 1982. Andaman Islands (Kurz 1866) 



Ibs. 
49 



1 82 M cuKTAt i [ Terminal in. 

4. T. Catappa, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 444; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
430 ; Beddome t. 20 ; Kurz i. 454. The Indian Almond. Vern. Badam, 
Beug. ; Taree, Kan. ; Nat vadom, Tarn. ; Vedam, Tel. ; Adamarram, Mai. ; 
Catappa, Malay. 

A large deciduous tree, with whorled branches, leaves turning 1 red 
in the cold season. Wood red, with lighter-coloured sapwood, hard. 
Pores moderate-sized, scanty, joined by wavy, short and concentric bauds 
of soft texture. Medullary rays fine. 

Beach forests of the Andaman Islands ; cultivated in most parts of India and Burma. 
Weight, according to Skinner, No. 125, 32 Ibs. per cubic foot. P = 470. Wallich 
also gives 32, while our specimen gives 41 Ibs. Beddome says the wood is used for 
various purposes in Madras. The kernels of the nuts are eaten at dessert ; they are 
remarkable for the spiral folds of the cotyledons ; the bark and leaves give a black 
dye. It is one of the trees on the leaves of which the " Tasar" or " Katkura" silkworm 
(Anthercea Paphia) is fed. 

Ibs. 

E 3005. Calcutta 

B 1983. Andaman Islands (Kurz, 1866) 41 

5. T. paniculata, W. and A. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 448 ; Beddome 
t. 20 ; Brandis 226. Pentaptera paniculata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 442. 
Vern. Pe-karakai, Tarn. ; Neemeeri, Tel. ; Kinjal, kindal, Mar,; Honal, 
huluvd, hulve, Kan. ; Poo mardd, pillai mardd, Anamalaie. 

A large deciduous tree. Wood grey, with dark heartwood, very hard. 
Pores large and moderate-sized, oval, numerous. Medullary rays very 
fine, uniform and equidistant, wavy, very numerous; the transverse 
diameter of the pores many times larger than the distance between two 
medullary rays. Pores surrounded by faintly marked patches of soft 
tissue, often arranged in oblique and wavy lines. 

Western moist zone; forests of the western coast from Bombay southwards. 

Weight, 61 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood valuable, though not quite as good as that 
of T. tomentosa. It is improved by being kept under water. It is fairly durable. 
It makes good planking and is used for the handles of ploughs in Ratnaghiri. 

Ibs 

W 1221. North Kanara 57 

D 1280. Anamalai Hills 65 

6. T. bialata, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 449; Kurz i. 456. Pen- 
laptera bialata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 441. Vern. Leinben, Burm. 

A. large deciduous tree. Wood grey, beautifully mottled, moderately 
hard. Structure the same as that of T. belerica. 

Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

Weight, Brandis' Burma List, 1862, No. 49, gives 39 ; our specimens give 48 UK. 
per cubic foot. Skinner No. 124 gives weight 64 Ibs., and P = 1012, but there may 
have been some mistake. 

11)3. 

B 1417. Tharrawaddi, Burma 48 

7. T. tomentosa, W. and A.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 447; Beddome 
t. 17; Brandis 225; Kurz i. 458 ; Gamble 39. Pentaptera crennlata, 
coriacea and tomentosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 438-440. Vern. &//, 8 
asan, assain, assaina, asna, sadri, Hind. ; /'/./AW/, ux,tn, Bcn^-. ; -T/inu, 
Rajbanshi ; Amari, Ass. ; Taksor, Lcpoha ; Rahaju, kala sa/u'tju, l : riy:i; 

Bijeragogarh ; Karra martin, kan'i ii/.nn'i.t/in, anctnid, Tain. ; 
i, Italia ntnldl, ncf la -until H. T-l. ; M<tf//< kari mafti, btuiapH , K;in. 



Terminalia. ] 



< n \ii;i; ri \ 



183 



Murada, kali maruthai, Arcot ; Rarkaya, sadora, /tolda, d/idi maddi, 
Hyderabad; Ain, madat, yen, Mar. ; Saja, Balgas ; Maru, Gondi ; Madge , 
Bhfl; Toukkyan^ Burm. ; C0itt?0*^j Taleingj KiimluJc, Cin-li. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark one inch thick, grey to black, with 
long, broad, deep, longitudinal fissures, and short, shallow, transverse 
cracks ; inner substance red when fresh. Sap wood reddish white, 
heartwood dark brown, hard, beautifully variegated with streaks of 
darker colour, shewing on a radial section as dark streaks which are 
"vni'riilly wavy or undulating, durable, seasons well and takes a good 
polish. Numerous concentric wavy lines unequally distributed. Pores 
moderate-sized and large, uniformly distributed, each pore enclosed in 
an irregularly shaped and generally elongated patch of soft tissue; 
these patches are often arranged in concentric lines and frequently 
joined by thin, white, wavy, concentric bands. Medullary rays not 
distinct, very fine, numerous, uniform, equidistant, often wavy, the 
transverse diameter of the pores many times larger than the distance 
between the rays. In the sap wood the patches of soft tissue enclosing 
the pores are more distinct, and the medullary rays more prominent. 

Sub-Himala} T an tract from the Ravi eastwards, ascending to 4,000 feet in places : 
Bengal, Central and South India and Burma. 

The weight and ^transverse' strength have been determined by the following experi- 
ments : 



Kxperiment by whom 
ooadaotad. 


Year. 


Wood whence 
procured. 


Number of 
experiments. 


Size of 
scantling. 


Weight. 


Value of 
P. 










Ft, In. In. 






Piu-kltf 


1859 


Mysore 


i 


2x1x1 


56 


1,010 


(List) ..... 


1863 









57 


... 


( List) Paris Exhibition . 


1862 


Central P r o - 
vinces. 






50 


... 


K. Thompson .... 


1869 


,. 




... 


55 


... 


fek inner, * No. 127 . 


1862 


South India . 


... 


Various 


60 


860 


tXo. 128 . 


18G2 


, 


... 





55 


840 


Uakcr 


1829 


Jynaghur 


4 


7x2x2 


62 


677 


French 
Halfmir 


1861 


South India at 
Erode. 


3 


15 x 1 x 1 
7 x 2 x 2 


59 
66 


882 
675 


11 ... 




Burma 




3 x 1*4 x 1*4 


71 


1,001 


Brandis, No. 50 ... 


1862 




... 




58 




M ..... 

Smvthies 


1864 
1878 


See list below . 


3 
16 


3x1x1 


56 
61 


903 

















* T. coriacea, Skinner, p. US. 



t T. glabra, Skinner, p. 150. 



Its durability is uncertain ; in Burma the heartwood decays rapidly, in North India 
beams a iv sometimes found to last well, at other times to perish from dry rotor be 
eaten by insects. The wood is largely usedfor house-building, farts, rice-pounders, ship 
aiul boat building. It lias been tried for railway sleepers. Five sleepers laid down on the 
Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway in 1870 were reported in 1875 to be in capital preserva- 
tion, but having been cut i'ruiii small trees the sapwuod bus boon oaten and the cxperi- 



184.- 



COAJBRETACE^. 



[ Terwinalia. 



ment cannot be considered as good as if the sleeper had been from large trees and with- 
out sapwood. In 1876, 720 sleepers were cut in the Sukna forests, Darjeeling, and laid 
down on the Northern Bengal State Railway, the result of the experiment will be very 
useful. The wood splits, however, very much, unless thoroughly seasoned. The wood 
is an excellent fuel and makes good charcoal. The bark is used for tanning and for 
dyeing black, and the ashes of the bark give a kind of lime which is eaten by the 
natives with betel leaf. The " tasar " silkworm (Anthercea Paphia) feeds on its leaves, 
and lac is occasionally gathered from its branches. It gives a brown gum. 

ibs. 



207. 


Garhwal (1868) 




52 


2996. 
O 874. 
389. 


(1874) 
Kumaun Bhabar 
Oudh 




. 65 
. 53 


O 391. 


Oudh ...... 




54 


O 393. 


Oudh 




. 56 


C 332. 
C 174. 
C 2924. 
C 1104, 
C 2743- 
C 1241. 
E 662. 
E 2375. 


Gorakhpur (1868) . . . . . 
Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) .... 
Seoni, Central Provinces ..... 
Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces .... 
Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces (sapwood) 
Gumsur, Madras 
Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai .... 




53 
61 
70 
67 
48 
64 
49 
56 


W 755. 






60 


D 1059. 
D 1077. 
D 1281. 
B 2531. 


South Arcot . ..... 
North Arcot . ..... 
Anamalai Hills . ..... 
Burma (1862) 




64 
69 
59 



Terminalia alata, Roth., is synonymous with T, tomentosa, W. and A. ; but the 
wood sent under this name from the Andarnans (B 522, 46 Ibs.) is evidently, judging 
from its structure, a different species. Wood brown, with dark purple streaks, very 
hard, smooth. Annual rings doubtful. Pores small, uniformly distributed. Medul- 
lary rays short, prominent,-moderatel}' broad and fine, joined by numerous, very fine, 
white, transverse lines. Medullary rays distinctly visible on a radial section as long 
shining plates. The wood of this specimen differs from that of T. tomentosa, chiefly 
by the transverse bars and the small pores. 

8. T. Arjuna, Beddome t. 28; Hook. Fl. iDd.ii. 447; Brandis 224. 
T. crenulata, Roth. ; Kurz i. 458. Pentaptera Arjuna and glabra, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 438, 440. Vern. Anjan, arjun, arjuna, anjani, arjan, 
jamla, koha^foiva, kahui Hind. ; Arjun, Ben<r. ; Hanjal, Cuttack; Vella 
marda, vella matti, vella maruthu, Tarn. ; Arjun, anjan, sadura, Mar. ; 
Maddi, billi matti, Mysore ; 'Yermaddi, erra maddi, tella madu> Tel. ; 
Kah^l, Baigas ; Mangi, koha, Gondi ; Toukkyan, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, smooth, pinkish grey, 
the old layers peeling off in thin flakes. Sapwood reddish white; 
heartwood brown, variegated with darker coloured streaks, very hard. 
Annual rings doubtful. Pores moderate-sized and large, sometimes 
very large, uniformly distributed, more numerous and larger than in 
T. tomentosa, often subdivided into 2 to 4 compartments, each pore sur- 
rounded by a ring of soft tissue. Numerous thin, wavy, concentric 
lines, which frequently anastomose. Medullary rays very fine, very 
numerous. Pores prominent on a longitudinal section. 

Sub-Himalayan tract (not common), Oudh, Bengal, Burma, Central and South 
India. 

Weight, Skinner's experiments, Nos. 123, 103, give 48 and 54 Ibs. ; the Central 
Provinces List 47 Ibs. ; while the average of our sjuriiniMis is 57 Ibs. Skinner 
P = 806 and 820. The wood is apt U> split in seasoning and is n<>t easy to work. It 



Terminalia.~\ COMBRETACE^:. 185 

is used for carts, agricultural implements, boats and for building. It gives a brown 
transparent gum. The bark is used as a tonic and to heal wounds. 

Ibs. 

C 179. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) ... . 54 
C 1111. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces . ... 60 
C 2760. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces 

9. T. myriocarpa, Heurck andMuell. Arg. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 447; 
Kurz i. 455. T. myriopteron, Kurz; Gamble 39. Vern. Panisaj, Nep. ; 
Sungloch, Lepcha; Hollock, Ass. 

A very large evergreen tree. Bark greyish brown, rough, peeling off 
in vertical flakes. Sapwood white, not broad ; heartwood brown, beauti- 
fully mottled with dark streaks. Structure that of T. tomentosa. 

Eastern Himalaya and Assam, in Sikkim up to 5,000 feet. 

Growth moderate, 6 to 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 51 to 54 Ibs. per cubic 
foot. Used for building and tea -boxes, also for charcoal. 

Ibs. 

E 500. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 54 

E 2376. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai . . . 51 

E 2315 cut from a log of wood which had been lying for many years in the bed 
of the Chauwa Jhora, near Sivoke, in the Darjeeling Terai, and is now perfectly 
black, may be this specie?. 

2. CALICOPTERIS, Lamck. 

Contains two climbing shrubs. C. nutans, Kurz i. 468 (G-etonia nutans, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 428). Vern. Kywotnay mvay, Burm., is a large scandent shrub of Burma. 

1. C. floribunda, Lam.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 449; Brandis 220. 
Getonia floribunda, Roxb. FL Ind. ii. 428. Vern. Kokoranj, C. P. ; 
Bandi murududu, Tel. ; Marsada 60 Ii, Mysore. 

A large climbing shrub. Wood yellowish white, moderately hard. 
Pores small to large, numerous. Medullary rays very fine, very numer- 
ous, uniform and equidistant ; the distance between the rays being less 
than the transverse diameter of the pores. Numerous broad medullary 
patches of soft, pith-like texture. 

Central and Southern India. 
Weight, 45 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 
C 2755. Mohavli Reserve, Central Provinces 45 



3. ANOGEISSUS, Wall. 

Contains 4 Indian trees. A. phillyrecefolia, Heurck and Mull. Arg. ; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 451, is a small tree of Burma. 

Pores small. Medullary rays fine, uniform, sharply defined, equidis- 
tant, the transverse diameter of the pores equal to, or slightly larger than, 
the distance between the rays. 

1. A. latifolia, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 450; Beddome t. 15 
Brandis 227. Conocarpus latifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 442. Vern. Dhaura 
dhauri, dhau, dhdwa, dhauta, dohu, bakla, bakli, Hind. ; Golra, goldla 
dhaukra, dhokri, dau, Rajputana; Khar dhdwa, Banda ; Vellay naga, namme 
veckali, Tarn. ; Chirimdn, s/ieriman, yeMama, tirman, yella maddi, Tel. 
Dohu/dhobu, Uriya; DMori, dhamora, dliaunda, dandua, dhavada, Mar. 



186 COM BRET ACEJ:. [ AnogeixsHS. 

Dinduga, dindln, lejalu, dindal, Kan. ; Arma, yerma, Gondi ; Dhawa, 
Baigao ; Dhaundak, Bhil; Dhaura, Kurku ; Daawoo, Cingh. 

A large tree with smooth, whitish grey bark, J inch thick, with 
shallow, irregular depressions, caused by exfoliation. Wood grey, hard, 
shining, smooth, with a small purplish brown, irregularly shaped, 
extremely hard heart wood. Sapwood in young trees and branches yellow. 
Annual rings marked by darker lines. Pores small, very numerous, 
uniformly distributed, often subdivided. Medullary rays very fine, 
extremely numerous, uniform, equidistant, distinctly visible on a radial 
section, often giving the wood a mottled appearance. The transverse 
diameter of the pores equal to the distance between the medullary rays. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Eavi eastwards ascending to 3,000 feet, Central and 
South India. 

Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 65 Ibs. (Puckle and 
Skinner, No. 51); 61 (R. Thompson); 64 (Central Provinces List) ; 75 to 80 Ibs. 
when green ; our specimens give an average of 62 Ibs. Skinner gives P = 1220, while 
French of the Madras Eailway gives 752 and Puckle from 3 experiments with bars 
2' X 1" X F, 870. The wood is highly valued on account of its great strength and 
toughness, but it splits in seasoning and unless kept dry is not very durable. It is 
used for axe handles, poles for carrying loads, axles in the construction of furniture, 
agricultural implements [and in ship-building. It has been recommended for 
sleepers. Out of 18 sleepers which had lain 7 to 8 years on the Mysore State 
Railway there were found, when taken up, 4 good, 10 still serviceable and 4 bad. 
It gives a good fuel and an excellent charcoal. It gives a gum which is extensively 
sold for use in cloth-printing. The leaves are used for tanning. 

Ibs. 

P 446. Ajmere ... 

O 233. Qarhwal (1868) . . 68 



O 2997. (1874) 

O 531. Dehra Dun 

394. Oudh 

C 2776. Melghat, Berar 

C 190. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 



64 
62 
62 
59 
58 



C 1121. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces .65 

C 2744. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces 55 

C 1244. Gumsiir, Madras 66 

D 1282. . Anamalai Hills, Madras 56 

No. 21. Salem Collection 69 

2. A. acuminata, Wall.; Hook. FL Ind. ii. 450; Beddome t. 16; 
Braudis 228 ; Kurz i. 466. Conocarpns acuminata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
443. Vern. Chalcwa, Beng. ; Panchi, past, Uriya; Numma, Tarn.; 
Pdchi manu, panchman, paunchman, bucha karum, pashi, pansi, Tel. ; 
P/ids, Mar. ; Saikamehhia, thekri napay, Magh ; Yung, sehoong, Arracan ; 
Yungben, Burm. ; Phassi, Mar. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark \ inch thick, dark grey, rough, 
granulated when old. Wood grey, sometimes yellowish grey with a 
greenish tinge, shining, in structure moderately hard, resembling that of 
Anogeissus latifolia, but the pores considerably larger and the trans- 
verse diameter of the pores greater than the distance between two rays. 

Chanda District, South India, Chittagong and Burma. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 50, 59 Ibs., 53 Ibs. (Brandis 1 Burma List, 1862, 
No. 61). Our specimen gave 57 Ibs. Skinner gives P = 880. The wood warps and 
<-r:icks in seasoning, and is not very durable especially when- exposed to water. Used 
in Burma and in Madras for building. Roxburgh says it is durable it' kept dry, but 
ttoon decays if exposed to wet. The 1 'ise-1 for tanning in 



Anogeissus.'] COMBKETACK^;. 187 

Iba. 

C 1143. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces - 57 

B 3204. Burma (1862) 

B 3095. Prome, Burma 

The Central Provinces and Burma woods correspond exactly in structure. 

3. A. pendula, Edgw.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 451; Braudis 229. 
Conocarpus myrtifolia, Wall. Vern. D/iau, dhaukra, kala dhaukra, Mey- 
war; Kardahi, Hind. 

A small gregarious tree with pendulous branches, leaves turning 
copper-coloured in the cold season. Wood hard, yellowish white, with a 
small, irregular, blackish-purple heartwood. Annual rings indistinct. 
Pores very small and extremely small, often in groups between the very- 
fine, very numerous, uniform and equidistant medullary rays. 

Arid and northern dry zones, Rajputana, Malwa Plateau as far as the Nerbudda 
in Nimar, Mandla District on the Nerbudda (?) 

Cunningham's 5 experiments made at Gwalior with bars 2 f X V X V, give 
the weight at 59 Ibs. per cubic foot and P = 837 , the average of the 5 experiments 
which ranged from 697 to 1,034. It coppices well, but the wood is not in general use. 

P 454. A j mere. 

4. GYROCARPUS, Jacq. 

1. G. Jacquini, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 445; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 461; 
Beddome t. 196 ; Kurz i. 470. Vern. Zaitun } Hind.; 'Tanaku, kumar 
pulkij Tel. ; Pinlay thitkouk, Burm. 

A deciduous tree. Wood grey, soft. Pores large and moderate-sized, 
often subdivided, uniformly distributed, well marked on a longitudinal 
section. Medullary rays very short, moderately broad, the distance 
between them greater than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

South India, Tenasserim and Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 23 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used in South India to make boxes and 
toys. It is preferred to all others for catamarans. The seeds are made into rosaries 
and necklaces. 

Ibs. 

D 1079. North Arcot, Madras 23 



ORDER XLVI. MYRTACEJE. 

An Order containing 11 Indian Genera, including Eucalyptus, some species of 
which are now almost naturalised. The Indian Genera belong to 3 Tribes : 

Tribe I. Leptospermese .... Melaleuca^ Eucalyptus and 

Tristania. 

,, II. Myrtese ..... Psidium, Rhodomyrtus, Rho~ 

damnia, Decaspermum and 
Eugenia. 
III. Lecjthidese . ... Barringtonia, Carey a and 

Planchonia. 

Of these genera, 7 are here described. Tristania contains 3 trees of Tenasserim ; 
one only, T. burmanica, Griff. ; Hook. Fl.Ind. ii. 466; Kurz i. 474. Vern. Toungy. 
ohpyeezeng, Burra., extending northwards to Martaban and the Eng forests of the 
Pegu Yoinas. 

Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, DC. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 469 ; Beddome cvi. Vem. 
Tliaontay, Burghers, is a large shrub, abundant in the higher ranges ' of the 



188 MYRTACE.E. [Melaleuca. 

Nilgiris, said by Beddome to have a white soft wood, with a pink heartwood and to be 
used for turning. Its fruit is edible, and is made into preserves. Rhodamnia 
triitcrvia, BL, Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 468; Kurz i. 475, is a shrub of Tenasserim; while 
Decaspermum paniculatum, Kurz i. 475 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 470, is an evergreen tree 
which is said by Kurz to spring up on deserted hill toungyas at 3,000 to 4,000 feet 
elevation in Martaban and Tenasserim. The Myrtle (Myrtus communis, Linn.) is 
cultivated in India. 

The flower-buds of Caryophyllus aromaticus, Linn., of the Moluccas give the 
Cloves of commerce, and Pimenta officinalis, Ldl., of the West Indies, Pimento or 
Allspice. 

Pores small and moderate-sized. Medullary rays numerous, fine, 
rarely broad. Concentric bauds of soft tissue not common. 

1. MELALEUCA, Linn. 

1. M. Leucadendron, Linn.; Hook. FJ. Ind. ii. 465; Kurz i. 472. 
M Cajuputi, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 394. 

An evergreen tree. Bark white, thick, spongy, peeling off in papery 
flakes. Wood reddish brown, hard. Pores moderate-sized, scanty. 
Medullary rays very fine, extremely numerous. 

Tenasserim. 

The leaves give the Cajuput oil of commerce, which is largely exported from the 
Malay Archipelago and is used in medicine as a stimulant and diaphoretic. 

3270. Saharanpur Gardens. 

2. EUCALYPTUS, L'Her. 

Numerous species of this genus of trees have been introduced into India from 
Australia, where they have the general name of " Gum trees ;" but their success has 
been very variable. E. Globulus, Lab., here described, and E. obliqua, L'Her., 
have been almost completely naturalised on the Nilgiris. The latter species is known by 
the name of " Stringy Bark," and in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania is an im- 
mense tree, reaching occasionally to 300 feet in height, with a girth of 100 feet (Brandis, 
231). It has also been tried at Changa Manga, but has failed at Lucknow. At 
Lucknow, however, the cultivation of E. saligna, Smith, "The White or Grey Gum" of 
New South Wales, has succeeded well in the Wingfield Park, and that of E. rostrata, 
Schlect, in the Horticultural Gardens. At Changa Manga Plantation several species 
have been found to grow well, and at Abbottabad E. Globulus, Lab., E. Stuart iana, 
F. Miill., E. tereticornis, Sm., E. viminalis, Lab., and E. leucoxylon, F. Mull., 
have succeeded admirably. The seeds of numerous other species have been sown at 
different places in the plains and valleys of the Punjab, as well as at the Botanic 
Gardens at Saharanpur, the Horticultural Gardens at Lahore and Lucknow, and many 
places in the Central Provinces, Berar and Central India; and there is no doubt that 
when it has been [determined which species are most suited to the very diflVivnt 
climates and soils of the various parts of India, the cultivation of the species of 
Eucalyptus which possess so many valuable properties, such as their quick growth, 
useful timber, and the numerous products to be obtained from their loaves and 
bark, their cultivation should be encouraged and their growth fostered. 

1. E. Globulus, Labillardiere ; Brandis 231. The Blue Gum. 
Vern. Kurpoora maram, Madras. 

A lofty tree with fibrous deciduous outer bark. In Australia the 
wood is brown, hard, tough, durable. The wood of a tree grown on the 
Nilgiris, 18 years old and 95 feet high, is grey, witli darker streaks 
and moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized, round, frequently arranged 
in groups or in radial or oblique lines. Medullary rays fine, very 
numerous, the intervals between the rays .jsmaller than the diameb 



MYKTAt ! 






the pores. Pores marked 011 u longitudinal section, and medullary rays 
visible as narrow bands on a radial section. 

Gregarious in Victoria and the south of Tasmania, Introduced on the Nilgiris, 
and now completely naturalised. 

Of the Eucalyptus Globulus several successful plantations have been established 
on the Nilgiri Hil'ls. There are 22 plantations in all, but some of theinare exclusively 
of " Wattles" or Australian Acacia ; others eoni aiu only a small proportion of ^Eucalyp- 
tus, while others have not been successful owing to bad locality or other reasons. 
The chief good plantations are 

Near Ootacamund 

1. Aramby ....... 38 acres planted 1863-65 

2. Governor's Shola ..... 80 1870-72 

(part, however, is Acacia Melanoxylori). 

3. Norwood . . 26 1872-73 

4. Cally ........ 14 1870 

5. Arnikal ....... 11 1873 

6. Baikie ...... 33 1874 

Near Wellington 

7. Newman ....... 35 1870-71 

8. Old Forest . . . . . . . 200 1872-73 

or, including smaller ones, about 500 acres altogether. Colonel Beddome in his Report 
of 12th June 1876, from which the above is taken, says that in Aramby the growth 
is very unequal, some being 30 to 40 inches in circumference, others only 3 to 4 
inches ; that about 504 were then found per acre. Measurements of 15 of the 
largest trees, made by Mr. Gass, gave an average girth of 34 inches, height 85 feet, 
and average contents 23 cubic feet, but these cannot be taken for an average. 

Mr. Gass found in the Newman plantation,' then 5 to 6 years old, an amount of 
material of 152 tons per acre, and Colonel Beddome is of opinion (Report of 20th July 
1878) that the best treatment of Eucalyptus plantations, so as to get the greatest 
profit, will be to cut for coppice every 5 or 6 years, obtaining at the cuttings at 
least 100 tons per acre. The growth of Eucalyptus is sometimes very fast. Captain 
Campbell Walker in his paper on the " Plantations and Firewood Reserves in the 
Madras Presidency," read at the Forest Conference of 1875, says that the growth is 
often 1 foot per month during the first few years ; and Colonel Beddome in his Report 
of July 1878 says that a Eucalyptus tree 12 years old, recently felled at Ootacamund, 
gave 144 cubic feet, which amounts to 1 foot per month, which is the same as was stated 
by Captain Campbell Walker. It would be extremely useful, however, before definitely 
basing the working plans of the Nilgiri Eucalyptus plantations on simple coppice 
with a 5 or 6 years' rotation to make further and careful measurements of the 
amount of material per acre at different ages. 

The Eucalyptus Globulus has been tried at numerous places all over India, chiefly 
on account of the reports that it would prevent malaria, and that it was valuable 
in reclaiming marshy land. Whatever may be the truth about these questions, the 
tree has almost universally failed in the plains, and in the Himalaya it has only 
succeeded in a few localities. At Simla, whether from frost or for what reason, 
it seems to die down yearly, sending up vigorous shoots to replace the dead stem ; 
at Darjeeling its growth has been slow, and the trees formed merely thin poles, prob- 
ably the effect of too much damp ; while its chief success has been at Ranikhet and 
Abbottabad. At Shillong, in the Khasia Hills, it had been said to be a failure, but 
in his review of the Assam Forest Report for 1876-77, Colonel Keatinge called atten- 
tion to the fact that the IS. G-lobulus, though a failure at the Shillong plantation, had 
yet grown well in other situations in that station, and that several self-sown seedlings 
were thriving under the old trees. 

The seeds of Eucalyptus are usually very small, those of E. Globulus being 
perhaps the largest of the species usually tried in India ; the seed, if good, germinates 
well usually, and the plants at once begin to grow fast, but they are very tender of 
transplanting, so that that operation has to be very carefully done. On the subject of 



190 MYRTACE^E. [Eucalyptus. 

the transplanting of Eucalyptus, the following memorandum was drawn up by Colonel 
H. R. Morgan, Deputy Conservator of Forests, Madras : 

" The seed, which should be procured in January or February, should be placed in 
beds in rows 6 inches apart. When the plants are 6 inches high, they should be taken 
up and placed 6 inches apart in beds ; the roots should be shortened to 4 inches. 
When 3 feet in height, the plants are taken up with a ball of earth round their roots, 
moss is bound tightly round the ball, and the plants are left in beds well earthed up 
about the roots, and watered till the young rootlets show through. They may then 
be put out. April is the best month for planting, as the plants are then able to make 
strong roots before the monsoon. When moss is not available, bamboo pots may be 
used, taking care to keep the large end of the joint for the top of the pot ; the hole at 
the bottom to be plugged with grass. The plants should be placed in the pots when 8 
inches in height, and left till they are 2 feet high and the roots show through ; then 
thrust the roots through, and the plant comes out with a ball of earth attached to the 
roots. Pits should be 18 inches cube." 

Weight, Mr. Newbery's " Descriptive Catalogue of the Specimens in the Museum 
at Melbourne, illustrating the economic woods of Victoria," gives 44 Ibs. on an average ; 
our specimen gave 43 Ibs. The weight and value of P., calculated from the average 
of the six experiments given at page 203 of Laslett's " Timber and Timber Trees," 
were W = 64 and P = 534. Wood strong and tenacious, durable, extensively used in 
Australia for beams, railway sleepers, piers and bridges ; also for ship-building. The 
wood from the Nilgiri plantations has scarcely been used, except for firewood or 
charcoal. The leaves give an ^essential oil used in medicine, and paper has been 
made of the bark. 

Ibs. 

W 1094. Nilgiri Hills, 7,400 feet age 18 years, height 95 feet . . 43 
W 1095-7. 6,000 2,3,4 42, 43, and 60 feet , 



3. PSIDIUM, Linn. 

1. P. Guava, Raddi; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 468; Brandis 232; Kurz i. 
476; Gamble 40. P. pomiferum and P. pyriferum, Willd. ; Roxb. tfl. 
Ind. ii. 480. The Guava Tree. Vern. Amrut, amrud, safri-dm, Hind. ; 
Peyara, Beng. ; Amuk, Nep. ; Modhuriam, Ass. ; Piyara, Beng. ; Segapu, 
koaya. Tarn. ; Jama, coya, Tel. ; Pela, Mai. ; Sede, Kan. ; Malaga beng, 
Barm. 

A small evergreen tree, with smooth and thin greenish gi'ey bark, 
peeling off in thin flakes. Wood whitish, moderately hard, even- 
grained. Pores small, numerous. Medullary rays moderately broad, 
short, the distance between them many times greater than the transverse 
diameter of the pores. 

Introduced from America and now cultivated and occasionally semi- wild al lover 
India. 

Weight, Wallich gives 44 Ibs. ; our specimen 42 Ibs. ; Skinner 47 Ibs. and P = 618. 

Cultivated for its fruit. The bark is used in medicine as an astringent, and 
(or the leaves) for dyeing in, Assam. Skinner says that the wood works well and 
smoothly, that it is used for wood-engraving and for spear handles and instruments. 

Ibs. 
1371. Gonda, Oudh 42 



4. EUGENIA, Linn. 

Indian genera of lives. It C< 

\ T oith-Kast and South India a 

a, 4 in the North -\Vest, and 

number in Kasti-rn Denial. Few <>!' them arc. however, of wry great, importance; and 
besides those here described, it will snlliee to mention onlv one or two of the most 



One of the largest of the Indian genera of trees. It contains about 77 trees, chiefly 
found in the moist zones of North- Kiist ;md South India and Harma ; 33 occur in South 
India, and 30 to 40 in IJnrma, 4 in the North-West and Central India, and a lar^v 



Eugenia. ] 



MVRTACKAJ. 



191 



common. A list taken from Mr. Dutbie's description in Volume II. of the Flora 
Indica, pages 471 to 500, is, however, given for the fcake of the references : 



SECTION I.-JAMBOSA. 



1. E.formosa, Wall. 



. North-East Himalaya 
down to Burma. 

2. E. amplexicaulis, Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 483 ; Kurz Chittagong. 

i. 493. 

3. E. malaccensis, Linn. ..... 

4. E. polypeiala, Wight ; Kurz i. 493 (E. anyus 

tifolia, Roxb. Pi. Ind. ii. 490). 

5. E. diospynfoiia, Wall 

6. E. Munronii, Wight ; Beddome cix. 



(Cultivated). 

Khasia Hills, Eastern 
Bengal, Chittagong. 

Khasia Hills, Sylhet. 

Kluisia Hills, Western 
Ghats. 

Chittagong, Burma, Cey- 
lon. 

(Cultivated). 



7. E. aquea, Burm. ; Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 492 

Beddoine cix ; Kurz i. 494. 

8. E. Jambon, Linn. ; Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 494 

Beddorne cix.; Brandis 233; Kurz i. 495 
Gamble 40. 

9. E. macrocarpa, Roxb. PL Ind. ii. 497 ; Kurz i 

492. 

10. E. javanica, Lamk. ; Kurz i. 494 (E. alba, Andaman Islands. 

Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 493). 

11. E. Wallichii, Wight 



Eastern Bengal, Burma. 



. North-East Himalaya 

down to Burma. 

Var. E. lanceafolia, Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 494 ; Gamble 40 North and East Bengal. 

12. E. grandis, Wight Eastern Bengal, Burma. 

13. E. lepidocarpa, Wall. ; Kurz i. 490 (under Burma. 

E. grandis). 

14. E. Beddomei. Duthie Tinnevelly. 

15. E. pachypkylla, Kurz i. 490 .... Teuasserim. 

16. E. tristis, Kurz i. 490 Ditto. 

17. E. hemisphcerica, Wight ; Beddome t. 203 . Western Ghats, Ceylon. 

18. E. lanceolaria, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 494 . . Sylhet. 

19. E. bifaria, Wall. (E. laurifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. Ditto. 

ii. 489). 

20. E. Kurzii, Duthie 



21. E. albiflora, Duthie ; Kurz i. 491 

22. E. Iceta, Ham. (E. Wightii, Beddome cix.) 

23. E. ramosissima, Wall. ; Gamble 40 . 

24. E. Helferi, Duthie .... 

25. E. mangifolia, Wall 

26. E. inophylla, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 496 . 



North-East Himalaya to 

Burma. 
Burma. 

Western Ghats. 
North-East Himalaya to 

Sylhet. 
Mergui. 

Assam, Eastern Bengal. 
Eastern Bengal, Burma. 



SECTION II.-SYZYGIUM. 

27. E. Thumra, Roxb. PL Ind. ii. 495 ; Kurz i. 488 . 

28. E. rubens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 496 ; Kurz i. 488 . 

29. E. cymosa, Lam. ; Kurz i. 486 .... 

30. E. toddalioides, Wight [E. toddalieefolia, 

Wight ; Gamble 41 (Misprint}']. 

31. E. myrtifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 490 ; Kurz i. 486 

32. E. acuminatissima, Kurz i. 487 .... 

33. E. Arnottiana, Wight ; Beddome cvii. Vern. 

Nawal. 

34. E. davijlora, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 488; Kurz i. 

480 ; Gamble 41. 

35. E. leptantha, Wight; Kurz i. 480 . 



Burma. 

Chittagong, Burma. 
Eastern Bengal, Burma. 
Sikkim, Mergui. 

Eastern Bengal, Burma. 

Mergui. 

Western Ghats. 

North-East Himalaya 
down to Burma, Anda- 
mans. 

Sikkim, Burma, Andii- 
mans. 



19-2 



MYRTACEJE. 



[Eugenia. 



36. 

37. 

38. 



39. 

40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 
54. 

55. 

56. 

57. 
58. 
59. 

60. 
61. 



E. Wightiana, Wight ; Beddome (E. lanceolata, Western Ghats, Ceylon. 

Wight; Beddome ex). 

E. pellucida, Duthie (E. contracta, Kurz i. 481) 
E. zeylanica, Wight ; Kurz i. 481 (E. spicata, 

Lam. ; Beddome t. 202. E. glandulifera, 

Eoxb. PI. Ind. ii. 496). 
E. grata, Wall. ; Kurz i. 480 .... 



E. rubricaulis, Miq 

E. montana, Wight ; Beddome cvii. . 

E. bracteolata, Wight ; Kurz i. 482 . 

E. lissophylla, Thwaites ; Beddome cviii. . 

E. venusi'a, Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 491 ; Kurz i. 487 . . 

E. Gardneri, Thw. ; Beddome cviii. . 

E. caryophyllcea, Wight ; Beddome cviii. . 

E.frondosa, Wall 

E. areolata, DC. ...... 

E. khasiana, Duthie ...... 

E. revoluta, Wight ; Beddome cvii. . 

E. oblata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 493 ; Kurz i. 488 . 

E. calophyllifolia, Wight ; Beddome cvii. . 

E. rubicunda, Wight ; Beddome cviii. 

E. cuneata, Wall. ...... 

E. brachiala, Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 488 (E. cinerea, 
Kurz i. 483). 

E. polyantha, Wight 

E. malabarica, Beddome t. 199 . 

E. alternifolia, Wight ; Beddome t. 198 

E. tetragona, Wight ...... 

E. occlusa, Miq. ...... 

E. operculata, Roxb. 



Var. E. Paniala, Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 489 

Var. E.olovata, Wall. 

62. E. StocJcsii, Duthie 

63. E. lalsamea, Wight ; Kurz i. 485 ; Gamble 41 . 

64. E.fruticosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 487 ; Kurz i. 485 

65. E. Jambolana, Lam. . . . 

Var. E. caryophyllafolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 486 . 

Var. E. obtusifolia, Roxb. Fl. lud, ii. 485 . . . 

65. E. Heyneana, Wall 



SECTION III. EUGENIA. 

66. E. Jbssinia, Duthie (E. cuneata, Beddome) 

67. E.floccosa, Beddome t. 200 

68. E. codyensis, Munro 

69. E. macrosepala, Duthie 

70. E. calcadensis, Beddome ex 

71. E. bracteata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 490 ; Beddome ex. 

72. E. Rottleriana, W. and A. ; Beddome ex. . 

73. E. argcntca, Beddome ex 

74. E. Mooniana, Wight ; Beddome ex. . 

75. E. microphylla, Bcddomo ex 

7<>. 1C. xittf/ttHi/'xittftuHt, IViMoiiir 1. 27:* . 

77. A'. wi/mtili-Hxis, JJnldomi' ex 



Burma. 

Eastern Bengal, Burma, 

Andamans, Western 

Ghats. 
Assam, Khasia Hills, 

Burma. 
Tenasserim. 
Nilgiris. 
Tenasserim. 

Western Ghats, Ceylon. 
Tipperah, Burma. 
Western Ghats, Ceylon. 

Ditto, ditto. 

Nepal. 
Ditto. 

Khasia Hills. 
Nilgiris. 

Assam down to Burma. 
Nilgiris. 
Tinnevelly. 
Khasia Hills, Eastern 

Bengal. 
Burma. 

Ditto. 
Wynaad. 
Assam, Carnatic. 
Sikkim, Khasia Hills, 

Sylhet. 

Nicobar Islands. 
Sub-Himalaya, Eastern 

Bengal, South India, 

Burma. 

Eastern Bengal, Burma. 
Northern Bengal, Burma. 
Concan, Wynaad. 
Sikkim, Eastern Bengal, 

Burma. 

Sylhet to Burma. 
Throughout India. 



Central India, Western 
Ghats. 



Western Ghats. 

Tinnevelly. 

Nilgiris, Ooorg. 

Northern Kaiiara. 

Tinnevelly. 

Eastern IJengal, South 

India, Western Ghats. 
Southern India. 
Wynaad. 
Southern India, 

Ghats. 
Travancoiv. 
Tinnrvrlly. 

Wynaad. 



Eugenia.'] MYRTACE^. 193 

E. Jambos, Linn. Vern. Q-ulabjaman, Hind. ; Malle nerale, Coorg; is the "Rose 
Apple" cultivated for ornament and for its fruit. v E. Arnottiana, Wight. Vern. 
Nawal, Tarn., is a large tree on the hills of South India at above 4,000 feet elevation. 
E. alternifolia, Wight ; Vern. Manchi moyadi, Tel., is a large tree of the forests of 
the hills in the Cuddapah and North Arcot Districts of Madras. E. aquea, Humph., 
is an evergreen tree of South India and Burma. E.fruticosa, Roxb. Vern. Moung- 
zebri, M;igh ; Thabyaynee, Burin., is an evergreen tree of the forests of Chittagong 
and Burma; while E. ramosissima, Wall, and E. lancecefolia, Roxb., are handsome 
trees of the Eastern Himalaya and Sub-Himalayan tract. 

Wood rough, hard and moderately hard, seasons well. Some species 
have concentric bands of softer tissue and others have not. The pores 
are from small to moderate-sized. 

1. E. formosa, Wall. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 471 ; Kurz i. 492; Gamble 
40. K ternifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 489. Vern. Barajaman, Nep. ; 
Bunkonkri, Mechi ; Bolsobak, Garo ; Famsikol, Lepcha. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark greyish white, smooth, thin. 
Wood grey, hard. Pores moderate-sized. Medullary rays fine, and 
very fine, numerous, prominent. 

Eastern Himalaya and Sub- Himalayan tract, near streams ; Chittagong and Tenas- 
Berim. 

Weight, 61 Ibs. per cubic foot. Has large, very handsome flowers and large fruit. 

Ibs. 
E 2956. Tista Valley, Darjeeling 61 

2. E. malaccensis, Linn.: Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 471; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 483 ; Kurz i. 493. Vern. Thabyoo-thabyay, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Wood reddish grey, rough, soft. 
Pores moderate-sized and large. Medullary rays broad or moderately 
broad, visible on a radial section. 

Cultivated in Btngal and Burma for its fruit. 

Weight, Wallich gives 30, our specimen 38 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

iba. 
B 309. Burma (1867) 38 

3. E. grandis, Wight; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 475; Beddome cvii. ; 
Kurz i. 489. E. cymosa, E,oxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 492. Vern. Jam, Beng. ; 
Battijamby Sylhet ; Zebri, Magh ; Touny thabyay, Burm. 

An evergreen tree. Wood red, rough, hard. Pores small, joined by 
fine, wavy, concentric lines. Medullary rays fine, wavy, numerous, uni- 
form and equidistant. 

Eastern Bengal, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 
Weight, 51 to 52 Ibs. 

B 314. Burma (1867) 51 

B 2256. Andaman Islands (1866) 52 

B 2713, 48 Ibs., brought from Tavoy by Dr. Wallich in 1828, has a structure simi- 
lar to that of E. grandis. 

4. E. Kurzii, Duthie; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 478; Kurz i. 491, 
U. cerasiflora, Kurz; Gamble 41. Vern. Jdmnn, Nep.; Sunom, Lepcha. 

A large evergreen tree. Bark J inch thick, whitish grey. Wood 
reddish grey, moderately hard, rough. Pores moderate-sized, numerous, 
often subdivided. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad. 

2 A 



194- SiPfirff*^ MYRTACE^J. \_Eugeuia. 

Hills of Bengal and Burma, from 3,000 to 6,000 feet. 

Weight, 37 to 561bs. per cubic foot. 

ibs. 

E 701. Sepoydura Forest, Darjeeling, 5,500 feet 56 

E 2955. Tukdah Forest, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet (young tree) . . 37 

5. E. tetragona, Wight; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 497 : Kurz i. 484. E. 
pracox, Roxb.; Gamble 41. Vern. Kenima, chamlani, Nep.; Sunotn, 
Lepcba. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood brownish or olive grey, shining, 
hard. Pores moderate-sized, numerous, uniformly distributed, oval and 
subdivided. Medullary rays fine, visible on a radial section. 

Hills of Northern Bengal up to 6,000 feet, Chittagong. 

Weight, 47 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used occasionally for building and for the 
handles of tools and for charcoal. 

iba. 

E 682. Sepoydura Forest, 5,500 feet, Darjeeling . . . 46 
E 144,6. Mishmi Hills (Griffith, 1836) 48 

6. E. operculata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 486 ; Braudis 234; Kurz i. 482. 
FJ. nervosa, DC. ; Beddome cvi. Vern. Rai jdman, paiman, jamawa, 
dugdugia, Hind, ; Yethabyay, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree, leaves turning red in the cold 
season. Bark grey or dark brown, rough, with irregular hard scales, 
leaving cavities when they exfoliate. Wood reddish grey, hard. 
Pores small, often in radial lines. Medullary rays very fine, closely 
packed, extremely numerous. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna to Assam, Chittagong, Burma, Western 
Ghats and Ceylon. 

Weight, 47 Ibs. per cubic foot. Used for building and agricultural implements. 
The fruit is eaten. 

ibs. 

O 334. Gorakhpur (1868) 51 

B 305. Burma (1867) 43 

7. E. obovata, Wall. ; Gamble 40. E. operculata, Roxb. var. obovata ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 498; Kurz i. 482. Vern. Kiamoni, Nep. ; Jung song, 
Lepcha ; Boda-jam, Mechi. 

An evergreen tree, leaves turning red in the cold season. Bark 
white, smooth. Wood grey, rough, moderately hard. Pores moderate- 
sized, very numerous, joined by faint, concentric bands. Medullary rays 
fine. 

Savannah forests of Bengal and Burma. 
Weight, 51 Ibs. per cubic foot. Fruit eaten. 

ibs. 
E 584. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 51 

8. E. Jambolana, Lam.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 499 Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
484; Beddome t. 197; Brandis 233; Kurz i. 485 ; Gamble 40. Vern. 
Jdman, jam, phalinda,jamni, phaJani,pharenda,phauu<l(i< /></h//<ni, Hind. ; 
Jam, Beng. ; Jamo, Uriya ; Phoberkuug, Lepcha ; Cluunbu, Garo ; Kor-jam, 
Mechi ; Jamu, Ass.; Naval, navvel, nawar, naga, Tarn. ; Nera/c, Mysore ; 
Narala, Kan. ; Nasedu, nairuri, narcijt^ Tel.; Naindi, Condi; Jamb ill, 
Mar. ; Mahadan, Cingh. ;/'/>//', C/KI/CK, k<tn, Mngh ; T/niLi/tti-pyoo, Burin. 

An cvcr^n en 1rc<-. Hark \ inch thick, li^lit Lvrcv,\vith Largepatobttl 
of darker colour, smooth, with shallow di-pressioiis caused ly exfoliation. 



Eugenia.} MYRTACEJ?. 195 

Wood reddish grey, rough, moderately hard, darker near the centre, no 
distinct heartwood. Pores moderate-sized" and small, numerous, fre- 
quently oval, elongated and subdivided. Medullary rays fine, numerous ; 
the interval between the rays less than the diameter of the pores. 
Faint, fine, concentric bands of softer tissue. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastwards, ascending to 5,000 feet in Kumaun ; 
throughout India and Burma. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 120, 481bs. per cubic foot; according to Kyd. 
(Saljam ?) 45 Ibs. ; the average of our 23 specimens gives 49 Ibs. Skinner gives 
P = 600 and Kyd 577. Wood fairly durable. Five sleepers of it were laid down in 
1870 on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway, and taken up in 1875, when they were 
reported to be fairly sound and not touched by white ants. 

Used for building, agricultural implements and carts, also for well-work, as it resists 
the action of water well. The bark is used for dyeing and tanning, and is astringent 
and used in medicine for cases of dysentery. The fruit is eaten. It is one of the trees 
on which the " tasar " silkworm is fed. 

Ibs. 



P 1192. 
P 452. 


Madhopur, Punjab .... 


. 40 
. 44 


O 209. 
O 210. 
O 211. 
O 224. 


Garhwal (1868) . 
,, ,, ..... 
,, ,, ..... 


. 51 
. 47 
. 49 
. 44 


O 239. 
O 2993. 
O 527. 
O 535. 


" (1874) .';;;; 

Dehra Dun 


. 40 
. 47 
. 59 
. 64 


O 875. 
O 337. 
O 338. 
C 195 


Mohun Forest, Kumaun Bhabar 
Gorakhpur (1868) . 
,, ,, ..... 
Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 


. 58 
. 51 
. 42 
. 52 


C 1135. 


Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces (with { 


i slightly different 
56 


C 2761. 


Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces . 


. 43 


C 1251. 
E 664. 
E 2377. 
E 1396. 
E 1958. 
E 413. 
B 3065. 
No. 51. 


Gumsur, Madras . 
Rakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai 
Sivoke Forest 
Chittagong .... 
,, .... 
Sundarbans .... 
Burma (1862) 
Cevlon Collection . 


57 
54 
44 

48 

48 

52 
36 



E 2199 (43 Ibs.) received from Assam under the name of E. mangifolia, Wall. 
tHook. Fi. Ind. ii. 480, resembles in structure E. Jambolana. 

B 2292 (56 Ibs.) received from the Andamans in 1866 under the name of Eugenia 
sp. has a moderately hard, compact, grey wood, with the structure similar to that of 
E, Jambolana, which is not yet known to grow in the Andamaus. 

No. 1 of Adrian Mendis' Ceylon Collection (49 Ibs.) is E. sylvestris, Wight ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 493 ; Beddome cvii. (Syzygium sylvestre, Thwaites Enuin. 116. 
Vern. Alubo, Cingh.) In structure it resembles E, Jambolana. 

9. E. Heyneana, Wall.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 500, E. salicifolia, 
Wight; Beddome cix.; Brandis 234. Vern. Panjam-btil Mar. ; Hendi, 
Gondi; Gambu, Kurku. 

A large shrub or small tree with grey bark. Wood similar to that 
of E. Jambolana, but pores smaller. 

Bombay Ghats, Berar and Central Provinces. 

Ibs. 
C 2786. Mel?hat, Berar 38 



196 MYRTACE2E. {Eugenia. 

10. E. sp. Vern. Thai y ay, Burm. 

A tree with hard, close-grained, red wood. Pores small, in irregular 
patches of soft tissue, joined by wavy, concentric lines. Medullary rays 
fine, numerous. 

Ibs. 
B 316. Burma (1867) 55 

5. BARBINGTONIA, Forst. 

Contains about 8 Indian species chiefly from Burma. B. speciosa, Forst. ; Hook. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 507 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. li. 636 ; Beddome cxii. ; Kurz i. 496. Vern. Kyaigyee, 
Burm. ; Doddd, Andamans, is an evergreen tree of the sea-shore of the Andamans. 
B. pterocarpa, Kurz i. 498; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 509. Vern. Kyaitka, Burm., is an 
evergreen tree of tli e tropical forests of Pegu and Martaban. Four other species are 
described as found in Tenasserim, viz., B. conoidea, Griff., B. augusta, Kurz, B. Hel- 
feriy C. B. Clarke, and B. macrostachya, Kurz (including B. pendula, Kurz). 

Wood soft or moderately hard. Pores small, in short radial lines 
between the numerous broad, or moderately broad, medullary rays. 
Numerous transverse bars between the rays. 

1. B. acutangula, Gaertn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 508 ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 635; Beddome t. 204; Brandis 235; Kurz i. 497. Vern. Ijdl, samun- 
dar phul, pannidri, ingar. Hind. ; Hijdl, samundar, Beng. ; Kinjolo, 
Uriya; Hendol, Ass. ; Kanapa, batta, kurpd, JcadamiCj Tel.; Piwar, Mar.; 
Kyaitha, kyainee, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark inch thick, dark brown, 
rough. Wood white, shining, warps in seasoning, moderately hard, 
even-grained. Pores small, in radial groups between the broad and very 
broad, rarely fine and moderately broad, long medullary rays, which form 
the greater part of the wood. The space between the medullary rays, 
where not occupied by the pores, consists of narrow bands of firm tissue 
with fine transverse bars of lighter colour. The radial section is beau- 
tifully mottled with the medullary rays, which appear as irregular plates. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, Oudh, Bengal, Central and South 
India, Burma. 

Weight, Skinner, No. 20, gives 56 Ibs. ; while Kyd's experiments (Stravadium 
acutangulum) give only 39*3 Ibs. Our specimen weighed 46 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
Benson's experiments with bars of Burma wood 3 feet X 1 '4 inch X 1 "4 inch 
gave P = 648 ; Skinner P = 863, while Kyd's experiments on Assam wood in bars 2 
feet X 1 inch X 1 inch gave P = 315. Said to be durable. 

The wood is used for boat-building, well- work, carts, rice-pounders and by cabinet- 
makers. The bark is used to intoxicate fish, also for tanning ; and, as well as the leaves 
and fruit, in native medicine. Beddome says the wood turns black when buried in mud. 

Ibs. 

C 1132. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 

B 814. Burma 46 

2. B. racemosa, Blume; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 507; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
634- ; Beddome cxii. ; Kurz i. 490. Vern. 8amudra 3 cuddapah, Tarn., 
Mai, ; Kyai-bevg, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. "Wood white, very soft, porous. 
Pores small and moderate-sized, numerous, uniformly distributed. 
Medullary rays moderately broad, long, equidistant. 

Western Coast, Andaman Islands and Ceylon. It is mentioned from Assam by 
G. Mann in Assam Forest Repdtt, 1874-76. Vern. Kvmringak, Ass., but JB. acutan- 
yula may be meant. 



Barrtngtonia. ] 



MYRTACEJ:. 



197 



Skinner, No. 21, gives weight 53 Ibs. (?) per cubic foot and P = 819 ; he also says 
it is used for house and cart building, and that it ha been tried for railway sleepers. 

Ibs. 
B 1993. Andaman Islands (Kurz, 1866) 27 

6. CAREYA, Roxb. 

Besides the species described ; C. sphccrica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 636 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 511 ; Kurz i. 500, is a large deciduous tree of the Chittagong Hills ; and C. herbacea, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 638 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 510 ; Brandis 237 ; Gamble 41. Vern. 
Bhooi dalim, Beng. ; Chuiva, Nep., is a small undershrub of grass lands in Bengal, 
Oudh and the Central Provinces, generally bringing out its beautiful pink flowers in 
April and best after the grass has been burnt by jungle fires. 

1. C. arborea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 638 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 511; Bed- 
dome t. 205; Brandis 236; Kurz i. 499; Gamble 41. Vern. Kumbi, 
Kumlh, Jchumbiy Hind.; Pilu, Banda; Gnmar, Mandla, Balaghat ; 
Kumriy Chhindwara; Gu-mmar, Gondi; Boktok, Lepcha; Dambel, Garo ; 
Ay ma, pailae y poota-tammi , Tarn. ; Budd-durmi, buda darini, dudippi, 
Tel. ; Gavnldu, Mysore ; Bambway, Burm. ; Kabooay, Talcing ; Tagooyi, 
Karen ; Kahatte, Ciugh. 

A large deciduous tree, leaves turning red in the cold season. Bark 
\ inch thick, dark grey, with vertical and diagonal cracks, exfoliating in 
narrow flakes ; inner substance reddish, fibrous. Sapwood whitish, large ; 
heartwood dull red, sometimes claret-coloured, very dark in old trees, even- 
grained, beautifully mottled, seasons well, very durable, moderately 
hard. Pores oval, small and moderate-sized, subdivided. Medullary 
rays numerous, fine, equidistant and uniform ; the space between two 
consecutive rays equal to the diameter of the pores. The medullary rays 
are visible on a radial section as narrow bands. 

Sub- Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, Bengal, Burma, Central and 
South India. Growth fast, a round in the Bengal Fruit Museum gave 4 rings per 
inch of radius. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following experi- 
ments : 



Experiment by whom 
conducted. 


Year. 


Wood whence procured. 


Number 
of experi- 
ments. 


Size of 
scantling. 


Weight. 


Value 
of P. 


Wallich 




Goalpara 




Ft. In. In. 


Ibs. 

40 




Adrian Mendis 


1855 


Ceylon .... 







38 




R. Thompson . 


1869 


Central Provinces 







60 





Skinner, No. 38 


1862 


South India . 




Various. 


60 


870 


Benson .... 




Burma . . 




3 x 1'4 xl'4 


47 


Q9Q 


Brandis, NOB. 62, 63 


1862 


.... 


... 




65 




11 ... 


1864 


>f ... 


4 


3x1x1 


60 


880 


... 


M 


... 


6 


2 x x 1 


51 


655 


Kjd 


1831 


Assam .... 


1 


2x1 x 1 


61 


670 


Commt. Dept. . 




Moulmein. 






50 


960 


Smythiea .... 


1878 


See list below . 


12 





64-5 






198 MYRTACE^I. [ Careya. 

Wood durable ; the specimens brought by Dr. Wallich from Tavoy in 1828, and that 
brought from the Mishmi Hills by Dr. Griffith in 1836, were quite sound on being cut 
up, though they had been stored for 50 years in Calcutta. The wood is little used 
except for agricultural implements. It is being tried for railway sleepers on the 
Eastern Bengal and Northern Bengal State Railways, but the result of the experi- 
ment is not yet known. Kurz says it is used in Burma for gun-stocks, house-posts, 
planking, carts, furniture and cabinet-work. It stands well under water. Fuzes made 
from its bark are used to make slow matches. Its bark gives a good fibre for coarse, 
strong cordage, and is used in native medicine as an astringent. 



O 208. 
O 228. 
1479. 
C 1131. 
C 2747. 
E 624. 
E 2378. 


Garhwal (1868) 

Kheri, Oudh .... 
Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces . 
Moharli Reserve (sapwood) . 
Rakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai . . . 


ibs. 
. 53 
. 53 
. 59 
. 58 
. 37 
. 48 
. 51 


E 1441. 
B 2703. 
B 2685. 


Mishmi Hills (Griffith, 1836) 
Tavoy (Wallich, 1822) 


. 56 
. 59 
. 56 


B 2710. 
B 2228. 
B 3147. 
No. 41. 


Andaman Islands (1866) .... 
(Home, 1874) . . . 
Ceylon Collection 


. 51 
. 55 

. 56 
. 38 



7. PLANCHONIA, Bl. 

1. P. littoralis, Van Houtte; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 511. P. valida, 
Blume; Kurz i. 500. Vern. Bambway nee, Burm.; Baila da, And. 

An evergreen tree. Wood reddish brown, with yellow specks, very 
hard, close-grained. Pores moderate-sized and large, often subdivided, 
in rounded and elongated patches, which are sometimes joined by narrow, 
undulating bands of softer tissue. Medullary rays very fine, numerous, 
bending. The pores are frequently filled by a yellow substance, and are 
prominent on a vertical section. 

Evergreen coast forests of the Andaman Islands. 

Weight, our specimens give 61 to 64 Ibs. per cubic foot ; Bennett gives 56 Ibs. and 
P = 600. A valuable wood, which should be better known ; it seasons well and takes 

a fine polish. , 

ibs. 

B 514. Andaman Islands 64 

B 2495. (Home, 1874, No. 7, Youaygyee) . . 61 



ORDER XLVII. MELASTOMACE^J. 

An Order containing 13 Indian Genera of shrubs or small trees. They are chiefly 
found in South India or Teiiasseriin. They belong to 5 Tribes, viz., 

Tribe I. Osbeckiese Osbeckia, Otanthera and Mela- 

stotna. 

II. Oxysporese Oxyspora, Kendrickia, Allomor- 

phia, Blastus, Ocktkockurit voA 
Anerincleist it .v. 

M III. Medinillese Anplectrum, Medinilla. 

IV. AstroniesB PteriniHt/nt. 

V. Memeeylece Memecylon. 

Oryspora paniculata, DC.; Hook. Fl. Lul. ii. 525; (JamMc 41 is a lav-v hand- 
some shrub of tlu- Eastern Himalaya and Kliasiu Hills. Mtmtcylon contains about 



Oafjeckia.} MI.I.ASTOMA( . 100 

20 species of shrubs or small trees. M. umbellatum, Burm. ; Beddome t. 206 ; 
Kurz i. 516. Vern. Udatalli, Kan., is ;i small tree of the hills of South India, 
Arracan and the Andamans, whose wood is said by Bcddome to be like boxwood and 
by VunSomeren to be durable. M. edule, Koxb. ; ISt-ildom" cxiii. ; Kurz i. 512. Vern. 
Alii, Tel.; Anjan, kurpa, Bombay, is a small tree of the Eastern (ihals of South 
India, Teiiasscrim and the .Audamans, with a strong, hard wood and edible fruit, while 
M. amabilc, Bedd. and M. yracilc, Bedd. are small trees of the Western Ghats. 
The remaining genera contain shrubs or climbers oi' little forest interest. 

1. OSBECKIA, Linn. 
Contains a number of handsome-flowering herbs and shrubs of little importance. 

1. 0. crinita, Benth.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 517. 0. stellaia, Don; 
Gamble 41. Vern. Number, Lepcha. 

A shrub. Bark greyish brown, smooth. Wood light brown, moder- 
ately bard. Annual rings marked by a wbite line and more numerous 
pores. Pores moderate-sized, scanty. Medullary rays crooked, fine, tbe 
distance between tbe rays equal to tbe diameter of tbe pores. 

Eastern Himalaya and Khasia Hills from 4,000 to 8,000 feet. 
A very pretty shrub, common about Darjeeling. 

E 3310. Darjeeling, 6,500 feet. 

2. MELASTOMA, Linn. 
Four Indian species. 

1. M, Malabathricum, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 523; Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 405; Kurz i. 503; Gamble 41. The Indian Rhododendron. Vern. 
Choulisy, Nep. ; Tungsram, Lepcha; Shapti, lunka, Mecbi; Myetpyai, 
Burm. 

A large shrub. Back reddish brown, thin, smooth. Wood moier- 
ately bard, light brown, with medullary patches. Pores moderate-sized, 
often in concentric groups, and surrounded with \\hite tissue. Medul- 
lary rays short, fine to moderately broad, numerous, unequally distri- 
buted. Concentric bands of soft tissue often joining the pores. 

Throughout India up to 6,000 feet, chiefly near watercourses. 

This is probably the Lutki bush on which, according to Mr. Brownlow of Cachar 
(Journal of the Agri-Horticultural Society of Calcutta), the silkworm Atlacus Atlas is 
often found, and i'ed on which it gives a very white silk. 

E 3275. Borojhar Eeserve, W. Duars. 



ORDER XLVIII. LYTHRARIE^J. 

Contains 8 Indian Genera of trees or shrubs all belonging to the tribe Lythreae. 
Of these, 6 Genera are here described. Pemphis acidufa, Font.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 
573 ; 13eddoine cxvii. ; Kurz i. 518, is an evergreen shrub of the sea-coast of Malabar, 
Tenasserim and the Andamana, while Crypteronia panicnlata, 131. ; Kurz i. 519. 
(T. pulescens 131. and C. </Iabr, Ul. in Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 574.) Vern. Ananpho, 
ljurin., is an evergreen tive of the upper tropical and moist forests ot Chittagong and 
Burma. Brandis in his Burma List. 1862, No. 113, says it has a widish, close but not 
straight-grained wood, used occasionally for cart-wheels, but more usually for burning. 

Medullary rays fine or very fine and very numerous. 



200 LYTHRARIE,E. [ Woodfordia. 

1. WOODFORDIA, Salisbury. 

1. W. floribunda, Salisb.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 572; Brandis 238; 
Gamble 42. W. tomentosa, Beddome cxvii. W. fruticosa, Kurz i. 518. 
Grislea tomentosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 233. Vern. Ddwi, thawi y saufha, 
dhaula, Hind. ; Gul daur, Kangra; D/tai, Kumaun ; Dhewti, Oudh ; 
Jj/iuvi, surtdrij C.P. ; Pitta, petisurali, surteyli, Gondi; Khinni, dhi, 
Kurku; Da/iiri, laldairo, Nep. ; Chungkyek dum, Lepcha; Jali/co, Uriya ; 
Jargi, Tel.; P/iulsatti, Mar. ; Datti, Bhil. 

A large shrub with smooth bark, marked by longitudinal raised lines 
or protuberances, peeling off in thin scales. Wood reddish white, hard, 
close-grained. Pores small, uniformly distributed, sometimes in radial 
lines, medullary rays fine and very fine, closely packed. 

Common throughout India, ascending to 5,000 feet in the Himalayas. 
Cunningham gives weight 58 Ibs., P = 730 ; our specimen weighs 46 Ibs. The 
flowers give a red dye, which is used to dye silks. 

Ibs. 

C 2794. Melghat, Berar 46 

E 876. Chenga Forest, Darjeeling Terai 

2. LAWSONIA, Linn. 

1, L. alba, Lam. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 573; Beddome cxviii. ; Brandis 
238 ; Gamble 42. L. inermis, Linn.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 258; Kurz i. 
519. The Henna Plant of Egypt. Vern. Mehndi, Hind. ; Dan, Burm. ; 
Manghati, Uriya ; Maritkondi, Tarn. ; Gorantlii, Kan. 

A shrub ??ith thin, greyish-brown bark. Wood grey, hard, close- 
grained; alternate bands of tissue, with fewer and more numerous pores, 
which may possibly be annual rings. Pores small and joined by faint, 
short, interrupted concentric bands. Medullary rays fine. 

Wild in Beluchistan, on the Coromandel coast and perhaps in Central India. 

Cultivated throughout India as a hedge plant and for its leaves, which, powdered 
and made into a paste, give the " henna '' dye which is used to dye the nails, skin and 
beard. 

C 2000. Nimar, Central Provinces. 

3. LAGERSTROMIA, Linn. 

Contains 11 Indian species, dispersed principally over South India and Burma, 
while a few extend to North-East India and Assam, and one to North-West and 
Central India. L. indica, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 575; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 505 ; Kurz 
i. 521 Vern. Telinga-china, Hind., is a handsome shrub, with pink flowers, cultivated 
in gardens in most parts of India. L. calyculata, Kurz i. 522. Vern. Pymmahpyoo, 
Burm., is an evergreen tree of the Martaban Hills. L. floribunda, Jack., a small tree 
of Tenasserim and L. villosa, Wall. ; Kurz i. 524. Vern. Young kalay, a deciduous 
tree of the forests of the Pegu Yoma and Martaban. 

The pores are of different sizes, the small pores being arranged in 
narrow, concentric bands, which join the lines of large pores. Medullary 
rays uniform, equidistant, line and numerous. 

1. L. parviflora, Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 575; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 505; 
Beddome t. 31 ; Brandis 239 ; Kurz i. 521 ; Gamble 42. Vern. Bdkli, kat 
dhaura, dhaura, lendya, seina, sida, asid, Hind. ; Sida, Beng., Mechi, 
Ass. ; fiorderi, bordengri, Nep. ; Kanhil, Lepcha ; Shida, G6ro ; Shej, 



Lagentrom. la.] i u A u i KJK . 

Banda; Seji, Bijeragogarh ; Ka/cria, Guz.; Sahine, Chanda ; Chinangi, 
Tel. ; Chungi, pilugu, Hyderabad ; Nana y bondara, nandi, bellinandi, sma, 
lendi, Mar. ; Ventaku, cheninge, Kan. ; Lendya, Baigas ; Sina, nelti, leria, 
Gondi ; CheJcerey, Kurku ; Tsambelay, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree with light brown, thin bark, exfoliating in long, 
thin, woody scales. Wood very hard, grey or greyish brown, often with 
a reddish tinge, darker coloured near the centre, hard. No annual rings. 
Pores moderate-sized and large, often subdivided, uniformly distributed 
and frequently joined by narrow, irregular, wavy bands and lines cf 
softer texture, distinctly visible on a longitudinal section. Medullary 
rays fine, numerous. 

Sub-Himalayan Tract from the Jumna eastwards, Oudh, Bengal, Assam, Central 
and South India. 

The weight and transverse strength have been given by the following experi- 
ments : 

Ft. In. In. Weight. Value of P. 

Kyd in 1831 specimens from Assam in bars 2X1X1 found 52 757 
Skinner, No. 86 from South India various 40 467 

Brandis, No. 63 Burma, 1862 . . . . 40 
Smythies in 1878, average of 9 specimens ... ,,52 

Wood tough, elastic, seasons well, works freely and is fairly durable. It coppices well. 
Ten sleepers laid down on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway in 1870 were reported, 
on being examined in 1875, to be quite sound. A number of sleepers are being tried on 
the Northern Bengal State Railway, but the result is not yet known. It is used for 
ploughs and other agricultural implements, for construction, for buggy shafts and axe 
handles. It gives a very good charcoal. It gives a sweet gum from wounds in the 
bark. The bark is used for tanning. It is one of the trees on which the " tasar " 
silkworm is fed. 

Ib 3 . 

232. Garhwal (1868) 45 

O2999. (1874) 51 

O 339. Gorakhpur (1868) 54 

C 196. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 49 

C 2749* ) M oharli Reserve, Central Provinces 50 

C 1140. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces ..... 60 

C 2768. Melghat, Berar . ' 54 

E 666. Bamunpokri, Parjeeling Terai 52 

E 2379. Sukua Forest 54 

E 785. Kami-tip, Assam 

2. L. lanceolata, Beddome t. 32 ; Brandis 240. L. parviflora, Roxb. 
var. majuscula, C. B. Clarke; Hook. Fl. Ind. i. 575. Vern. Banddra, 
nandi, Kan.; Ndna,sokutia } Mar.; ttoda, bondaga, Dekkan. 

A large tree, with leaves bluish white beneath. Inner wood red, 
moderately hard. Pores large and moderate-sized, joined by wavy con- 
centric bands of soft texture, which are often interrupted. Medullary 
rays fine, numerous, uniform, equidistant. 

Forests of the Western Ghats as far north as Khandeish, Mysore and Court- 
allum. 

Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 57 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 

C 956. Guzerat, Bombay 

W 1220. North Kanara 57 

3. L. microcarpa, Wight; Beddome t. 30; L. lanceolata, Wall.; 
Hook, Fl. Ind. ii. 570; Brandis 24-0. Vern. Benteab, venteab, Tarn. ; 

2 B 



202 



LYTHRABIEJ5. 



[ Lagerstromia. 



Ventuku, Tel.; Bolundur, billi nandi, Kan.; Nandi, Coorg; Nanah, 
Mar. 

A large tree with smooth white bark, peeling off in thin flakes. 
Wood red, moderately hard. Pores large and small, often subdivided and 
frequently joined by narrow, irregular, wavy bands and lines of softer 
texture. Medullary rays extremely fine, very numerous. Distinct white 
concentric lines, which probably indicate the annual rings. Pores 
marked on a longitudinal section and medullary rays visible on a radial 
section as numerous narrow plates. 

Western forests of the Madras Presidency. 

Growth moderately fast, 6 to 8 rings per inch of radius. The weight and trans- 
verse strength have been determined as follows : 



Experiment by whom 
conducted. 


Year. 


Whence pro- 
cured. 


Number of 
experi- 
ments. 


Size of bar. 


Weight. 


Value of 
P. 










Ft. In. In. 






Skinner No. 85 . 


1862 








Various 


41 


619 


Puckle 


1859 


Mysore 


5 


2x1x1 


41 


939 


List .... 


1863 









39 





Balfour 




Malabar 


3 


7x2x2 


49 


542 


Smythies 


1878 


South Kanara 


2 





48 






Much used in construction and for ship-building, also for coffee-cases, and for 
furniture. 

Ibs. 

W 765. South Kanara . . .' 48 

W 862. 48 

4. L. ReginaB, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 505 ; Beddome t. 29 ; Braudis 240. 
L. Flos-Regina, Retz ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 577 ; Kurz i. 524. Vern. Jarul, 
Beng. ; Ajhar, Ass.; Bolaskari, Garo ; Kadali, Tarn. ; Challd, Kan. ; 
Adamhoe, Mai. ; Taman, mota bondara, Mar. ; Kamaung, Magh ; Pymma, 
Burm. ; Murute, Cingh. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark smooth, grey to cream-coloured. Wood 
shining, li^ht red, hard ; annual rings marked by a belt of large pores. 
Pores of all sizes from extremely small to large, the latter often sub- 
divided, joined by narrow, wavy and often anastomosing concentric bauds 
of soft tissue, which contain the smaller pores. Medullary rays very or 
extremely fine, often indistinct. The wood in Burma is frequently very 
porous with an abundance of large pores. 

Eastern Bengal, Assam, Burma and Western Coast, extending north to Ratnagiri. 

Growth moderate ; our specimens show 7 rings per inch of radius. In 1876 Mr. 
Fisher measured 5 trees in the Sidli Forest, Goalpara district, Assam. The results 
were, on an average 

Iu. In. In. In. In. 

On a length of radius equivalent to a girth of 18 36 54 72 90 
No. of rings 15 25 39 51 <'>( 

On an average, thcroforo, the number of rings por inch of radius is 4'6 ; and the tree 
appears to add a cubit to itfi girth every 13 years on an average. The weight and 

1 r:\nsvi-rsc sin-ngtli luivr hotMi <lrti'Vinm<'<l ly the following experiments. 



Lag erst romia.] 



LYTHUARIE^. 



03 



Experiment by whom 
conducted. 


Year. 


Wood whence 
procured. 


Number of 
experiments. 


Size of bar. 


Weight. 


Value of P. 










Ft. In. In. 


Ibs. 




Wallich 




India 


... 




46-6 


... 


Adrian Mendis 


1855 


Ceylon 




... 


42 




Baker 


1829 


Bengal 


11 


2x1x1 




850 


Skinner, No. 87 ... 


1862 


South India . 




... 


40 


637 


Kvd 


1831 


Assam 




2x1x1 


37 


407 P 












38 


633 





M 


ft 


... 




38 


383 ? 


Benson 




Burma 




3 x 1-4 x 1-4 


38 


849 


Forbes Watson 




,, 


... 


3 x 1-5 x 1-5 


36 


651 


Brandis, Nos. 61, 62 


1862 









40-5" 




it >i i 


1864 





4 


7x2x2 


47 


680 


Commissariat Department 




Monlmein 






38 


822 


Smythies .... 


1878 


As below 


10 




43 





* Average of 37 and 44. 

The most valuable timber of Sylhet, Cachar and Chittagong, and in Burma the 
most valuable after teak. It is used in ship-building and for boats and canoes, all 
kinds of construction, timber and carts. The Ordnance Department use it for many 
parts of their gun-carriages. In South India it is used for building and in Ceylon for 
casks. It gives a resin. It is cultivated for ornament all over the hotter parts of 
India and even as far north as Lahore. 



E 620. Eastern Diiars, Assam 

E 1228. Sibsagar, Assam 

E 2188. Nowgong, Assam . 

E 1272. Cachar 

E 410. Sundarbans 

E 710, Chittagong 

W 726. South Kanara . 

B 808. Pegu . 

B 3067. Burma (1862) . 

B 2717. Tavoy (Wallich, 1828) 



Ibs. 
48 
40 
40 
38-5 
47 
47 
46 
39 
40 
42 



5. L. macrocarpa, Wall.; Kurz i. 524. L. Flos-Regma, Retz; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 577. Vern. Jarul, Beng-. ; Koonpymmah, Burra. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Wood red, moderately hard, in 
structure resembling that of L. Regina, but the bauds of white tissue 
more prominent and large pores fewer. 

Burma in Pegu and Martaban. 
Weight, 45 to 48 Ibs. per cubic foot. 



B 296. 
B 3068. 



6. 



Burma (1867) 
(1862) 



Iba 
48 
45 



L. hypoleuca, Kurz i. 523; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 577. Vern. 

Burm. ; JPdbdd, And. 

A lar<*e deciduous tree with thin whitish bark. Wood red, hard. 
Pores very small to very large, in fine, wavy, concentric, anastomosing, 
but sometimes interrupted lines of softer tissue, alternating with darker 
wood of firmer texture, in which the very fine medullary rays are dis- 
tinctly visible. 

Andaman Islands. 

(Growth slow, 10-18 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 41 to 50 Ibs. accord 



204 LYTHRAJME^:. [ Lagentfomia. 

Major Protheroe ; our specimens give an average of 39 to 40 Ibs. ; Bennett gives 
41 Ihs. and P = 570. The wood is used largely in the Andamans for building, 
shingles and other purposes. 

B 510. Andaman Islands 

B2202. (1866) 45 

B2274. 38 

B 2283. 34 

B2496. (Home, 1874, No. 2) . . . 44 

7. L. tomentosa, Presl ; Hook. PI. Ind. ii. 578; Kurz i. 522. 
Vern. Laiza, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark inch thick, grey. Wood grey or 
greyish brown, close-grained, moderately hard. Pores from very small 
to very large, the latter often subdivided, joined by numerous concentric 
lines, alternating with broad bands of firmer tissue, in which the fine 
medullary rays are prominent. 

Burma. Frequent in Pegu and Martaban. 

Weight, according to Brandis' Catalogue, 1862, No. 59 (L. pubescens, Wall.), 53 
Ibs. ; Braudis' 3 experiments in 1864 with bars 3 ft. X 1 inch X 1 inch gave : Weight 
38 Ibs. and P = 588. Our specimens give 46 and 53 Ibs. The timber is valued 
for bows and spear handles, and is also used for canoes and cart-wheels. 

Ibs. 

B 572. Prome i 46 

B 2533. Burma (1862) ..... .53 

4. DUABANGA, Ham. 

1. D. sonneratioides, Buch. ; Kurz i. 525 ; Gamble 42. Lager- 
stromia grandiflora, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 503. Vern. Bandorhulla, Beng. ; 
Lampalia, Nep. ; Dur y Lepcha ; Kochan, kokan, Ass. ; Jarul-jhalna, 
Cachar ; Bondorkella, bolchim, Garo; Baichua, Magh ; Myoukgnau, Burm. 

A lofty deciduous tree, with light-brown bark, peeling off in thin 
flakes. Wood grey, often streaked with yellow, soft, seasons well, neither 
warps nor splits. Pores large and moderate-sized, often oval and sub- 
divided, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine, very numerous, 
wavy. Pores well marked on a longitudinal section. 

Eastern Bengal ascending to 3,000 foot, Assam and Burma. 

Growth fast, 5 rings per inch of radius. Weight, according to Brandis' Burma 
List of 1862, No. 64, 30 Ibs. per cubic foot; our specimens give an average of 32 Ibs. 
The wood does not warp or split, and canoes cut out of it green are at once used, even 
when liable alternately to wet and the heat of the sun. Is used in Northern Bengal 
and Assam very extensively for tea-boxes, for which purpose it is admirably fitted. It 
is also made into canoes and cattle troughs. The seeds are extremely small and the 
seedlings very minute at first, but the growth is very fast. Seedlings at the Bamun- 
pokri rlantation in Bengal, which had come up on the sites of old charcoal kilns (stv 
" Indian Forester," Vol. iv. page 345), attained a height of 10 feet in two years, with 
proportionate girth and fine spreading branches. 

E 652. Rakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai 32 

E 2380. Sukna Forest, Darjeeling Terai 

E 950. Eastern Duars, Assam 

E 1230. Sibsngar, Assam 36 

E 1430. AHsam ... 

E 1285. Cachar ... . 32 

E 1499. Sylhet . .... 

E 713. Chittagong 

Ii Su7. IViru . . . 30 

B Hl'3. Amlumans (Kur/. 180(5) (youipj tree) 



Svnueratia.] i. \TUKAI.; 205 

5. SONNERATIA, Linn. f. 

Contain* 4 Indian trees found in the coast forests of Sind, Bengal, Malabar, 
Arractin, l. J egu, IVnasm-riiu and the Andaniaus. Besides the two described : S, alba. 
Sin.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 580; Kurz i. 52(5, is found in the shore forests of the Anda- 
inans and S, Griffithii, Kurz i. 527. Vern. Tapyoo, in those of Burma. 

1. S. acida, Linn, f.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 579; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 506^; 
Beddome cxviii. ; Bnindis 242 ; Kurz i. 520. Veru. Orc&a, archakd, 
Bung. ; Tapoo, tamoo, Burm. 

A small evergreen tree. Wood grey, soft, even-grained. Pores 
small, oval and subdivided, very numerous, uniformly distributed. 
Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. 

Tidal creeks and littoral forests of India, Burma, and the Andamans. 
Weight, 31 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is said by Beddome to be used for models, 
and in Ceylon to be a good substitute for coal in steamers. The fruit is eaten in the 
Sundarbans. 

Ibs. 
E 395. Sundarbans 31 

2. S. apetala, Buch.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 579; Roxb.Fl. Ind. ii. 506; 
Beddome cxviii. ; Kurz i. 527. Vern. Keowra, Beng. ; Kanpala, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Sapwood grey ; heartwood reddish 
brown, moderately hard. Pores small, numerous, oval and subdivided. 
Medullary rays fine, very numerous. 

Tidal creeks and littoral forests of Bengal and Burma. 

Weight, 44 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is said by Kurz to be good for house-build- 
ing, packing-boxes, etc. 

Ibs. 
E 399. Sundarbans 44 

6. PUNICA, Linn. 

1. P. Granatum, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 581; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
499 ; Beddome cxix. ; Brandis 241 ; Kurz i. 528 ; Gamble 42. The 
Pomegranate. Vern. Andr y ddriin, damu, Hindi; DdUm y Kumaun; 
Dalimde, Kan. ; Thale, Burm. 

A shrub or small tree. Wood light yellow, with a small, darker 
coloured, irregularly shaped heartwood, compact and close-grained. 
Pores very small, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine, very 
numerous. Medullary patches common. 

Wild in the Suliman Range, between 3,500 and 6,000 feet, Salt Range and North- 
West Himalaya. Cultivated in many parts of India and Burma. 

Growth slow, 18 rings per inch of radius (Brandis). Weight, Mathieu Fl. For., p. 
169, gives 52 to 63 Ibs. ; one specimen weighs 57 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood not used, 
but might be tried as a substitute for boxwood. The fruit is generally eaten, but the 
best kinds come from Afghanistan. The flowers are very handsome, bright scarlet, 
and give a light-red dye ; the bark and the rind of the fruit are used for tanning and 
for dyeing morocco leather, and the root-bark is an effectual authelmintic. 

Ibs. 

P 106. Sutlej Valley, Punjab 57 



ORDER XLIX. SAMYDACEJE, 

Contains two genera, Casearia and Homalium. 



206 SAMYDACEJS. [ Casearia. 

1. CASEARIA, Jacq. 

Nine Indian species. <?. Vareca, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 418; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 593 ; 
Kurz i. 530 ; Gamble 43, is an evergreen shrub of the banks of streams in Northern 
and Eastern Bengal. C. esculenta, Roxb., C. rubescens, Dalz. ; Beddome t. 41, and 
C. wynaadtmis, Beddome cxx., are small trees of the forests of the Western Ghats. 
C. Kurzii, C. B. Clarke ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 594, is a tree of Chittagong. 

Wood yellowish white, moderately hard, rough. Medullary rays 
fine, numerous. Pores small or very small, often in radial groups or 
lines. 

1. C. tomentosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 421 ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 593 ; 
Beddome cxix. ; Brandis 243. Vern. Chilla, chilara, bairi,bhari, Hind.; 
Maun, Manbhum ; Men, wasa, gamgudu, Tel. ; Lainja, massei, karei, 
Mar.; Girari, Uriya; Thundri, Gondi ; KJiesa, Kurku. 

A small tree. Bark inch thick, brittle, exfoliating in more or less 
square flakes. Wood yellowish white, moderately hard, rough, close- 
grained. Pores small and very small, sometimes in radial lines. Medul- 
lary rays fine and very fine, wavy, equidistant, very numerous. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastwards, Oudh, Eastern Bengal, Central 
and South India. 

Weight, 41 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used to make combs. The bark is bitter ; it 
is used for adulterating the " Kamela" powder and the pounded fruit for poisoning 

fish. 

Ibs. 

O 1393. Gonda, Oudh . . . . 41 

O 3085. 

03089. Kheri, Oudh 

C 1183. Ahiri Keserve, Central Provinces 41 

C 2802. Melghat, Berar (young) 38 

2. C. graveolens, Dalzell; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 592; Brandis 243. 
Vern. CkiUa t n6ro, kathera,pimpri, Hind. ; Girchi, Gondi; Rewat, Kurku. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark dark grey, with a few longitudinal 
wrinkles. Wood light yellow, moderately hard, rough, even-grained. 
Pores small, often oval and subdivided. Medullary rays fine, equidistant, 
very numerous, visible as shining plates on a radial section. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab eastwards, Oudh, Central India. 
Weight, 40 to 50 Ibs. Wood not used ; the fruit is used to poison fish. 



O 240. Garhwal (1868) . 


Ibs. 
42 


O 271. 


40 


O 1456. Bahraich, Oudh . 
O 3090. Kheri, Oudh . 


49 



3. C. glomerata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 419; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 591; 
Kurz i. 530; Gamble 42. Vern. Mrjur, Sylhet; Burgonli, Nep.; Sugvat, 
Lepcha. 

A large evergreen tree. Wood yellowish white, moderately hard, 
rough. Pores small, in radial lines. Medullary rays of two sizes ; 
numerous very fine rays between fewer moderately broad, giving on a 
radial section a beautifully mottled appearance. 

Eastern Bengal ascending to 6,000 feet, Chittagong. 

Weight, 45 to 48 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used for building, charcoal and 
sionally for tea-boxes. 



SA\IYI>\< 

UM. 

E 691. Chuttockpur Forest, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet . . . .48 
E 2381, ,: .... 45 

2. HOMALIUM, Jacq. 

Contains eight trees, chiefly Burmese. H. zei/lanicum, Bth., Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 596 ; 
Beddome t. 210, and H. travancoricum, Beddome t. 211, are large trees of the 
Western Ghats. H. minutiflorum, Kurz i. 532, H. propmquum, C. B. Clarke ; 
Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 597, and H. Grifiitldanum, Kurz i. 531, are small trees of 
Burma. H. Schlichii, Kurz i. 532, is an evergreen tree of the tropical forests of 
Chittagong ; and H. nepalense, Bth., is found in Nepal. 

1. H. tomentosum, Bth.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 596; Brandis 243; 
Kuvz i. 531. Blackwellia tomentosa, Vent, ; Brandis' Burma Catalogue, 
1862, No. 58. Vern. Myonkshaw, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree with thin, very smooth, white or greyish white 
bark. Wood brown, with dark-coloured heartwood, very hard, heavy 
and close-grained, splits in seasoning. Pores small, in radial lines 
between the closely-packed and fine medullary rays, which are bent out- 
wards where they touch the pores. Tiie distance between the rays is less 
than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

Chittagong and Burma. 

Weight, Brandis in Burma List, 1862, No. 58, gives 56 Ibs. His experiments made 
in 1864 were as follows : 

No. Size of bar. Weight. Value of P. 

2 3' x 1" x 1" 53 880 

3 2' x 1" x 1" 54 868 

Our specimens give an average of 58 Ibs. This may be the wood experimented 
on by Skinner, No. 53 (see also under Dalbergia lanceoJaria, p. 128) Weight 62 Ibs., 
P = 1003. He calls it "Moulmein lancewood" and Moukshow. The wood is durable 
and is used for the teeth of harrows and for furniture. 

Ibs. 

B 331. Burma (1866) 63 

B 2534. (1862) 50 

B 2692. Tavoy (Wallicb, 1828) 61 

B 2699. 64 

B 2702. ........ 55 



ORDER L. PASSIFLORE^J. 

Only one species. Carica Papaya, Linn.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 824; Brandis 
244; Kurz i. 533; Gamble 43. The Papaw Tree. Vern. Papaya, Hind, ; Perinji Kan.; 
Thimbawthee, Burm., is a small, soft -wooded, fast-growing tree which was introduced 
from South America, and is now cultivated all over India for its fruit. The tree has 
the property of rendering meat tender by its being soaked it in its juice or by suspend- 
ing the joint under it. The Passion Flowers, Passiflora, herbaceous or perennial 
climbers, belong to this family. 



ORDER LI. DATISCEJE. 

Two Genera. Datisca cannabina, Linn.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 656. Vern. Alcalbir, 
bhang j aid, Hind., is a tall, erect herb resembling hemp and found in the Punjab 
Himalaya. It gives a red or yellow dye. 



208 DATISCKE. [ Tetratneles. 

1. TETRAMELES, R. Br. 



1. T. nudiflora, R. Br.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 657; Beddome t. 
Brandis 245 ; Kurz i. 535 ; Gamble 43. Vern. Malnakat t Nep. ; 
Payomko, Lepcha ; Belong, Garo; Sandugaza, Beng. ; Tseikpoban, Magh ; 
Thitpouk, Burm. ; Bolur, Kan. 

A very large deciduous tree, with cylindrical, often much-buttressed 
stem. Bark grey-brown, brinkled. Wood white, very light, soft. Annual 
rings marked by a belt of closer pores. Wood cells large. Pores large, 
often in short, zigzag, transverse lines. Medullary rays fine to moderately 
broad, clearly marked, the distance between the rays equal to the diame- 
ter of the pores. 

Sikkim, Garo Hills, Chittagong, Western Ghats, Burma and the Andamans. 
Growth very fast. The wood may be found useful for tea-boxes. 

E 3288. Rinkheong Reserve, Chifctagong. 



ORDER LII. CACTE2E. 

Contains only the Prickly Pear, Opuntia Dillenii, Haw. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 657 ; 
Brandis 245 (Cactus indicus, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 475.) Vern. Nagphana, ndgphansi, 
Hind. ; Papdsh Icalli, Kan. ; Chaffal send, Dekkan. An erect, fleshy, thorny shrub 
common all over the arid and dry zones of India and often planted as a hedge. The 
stems have been used in time of scarcity as fodder. It was originally brought from 
America. 



ORDER LIII. ARALIACE^B. 

Contains 16 Genera of usually small, soft- wooded trees or shrubs, erect or climbing. 
They are divided into four Tribes, viz., 

Tribe I. Aralieae ..... Aralia and Pentapanax. 

Acanthopanax, Helw'mgia, Poly- 

scias, Heptapleunim, Trevesia, 
Brassala and Dendropanax. 

. . . . Arthrophyllum, Heteropanax, 
Brassaiopsis, Macropancuc, 
Hedera and Gambled, 
IV. Plerandrese .... Tupidanthus. 

Aralia contains 6 shrubs or small trees, the chief of which are A.foliolosa, Seem., 
and A. armata, Seem. Vern. Somri, Nep. ; Kajyang, Lepcha, small trees of the 
hills of the N.E. Himalaya with large 2-3 pinnate leaves, prickly stems and the 
general aspect of tree ferns. A. cachemirica, Dene. ; Brandis 248, is a shrub of the 
higher elevations of the Himalaya from Kashmir to Sikkim. Pentapanax contains 
4 species of usually climbing epiphytic shrubs : .P. Leschenaultii, Seem., P. sub- 
cor datum, Seem., and P. racemosum. Seem., are large climbers of the Sikkim Hills. 
Acanthopanax aculeatum, Seem., is a shrub of the Khasia Hills. Polysrias 
acuminata, Wight ; Beddome t. 213, is a tree of the hills of South India above 
4,000 feet elevation. Trevesia palmata, Vis. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 732 ; Kurz. i. 539 ; 
Gamble 44. (Gastonia palmata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 407.) Vern. XLajpati, N^p. ; 
Suntong, Lepcha ; Baw, Burm., is ;in cvcr^ivcn palm-like tree with large palmate 
leaves and bi^ fruit, found in the Eastern Himalaya. Eastern Bengal and 15nrma. 
Brassaia capitata, C. B. Clarke; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 732, is a tree of the Nilgiri Hills. 
Arthrophyltum diverstfolium, 131. ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 733. (A. jtirtinicHin, Bl. ; 
Kurz i. 540), is jm t-vt-rgrccu palui like tree of the Andaman*. Hctcropanax fragt-iois. 



Helwingia. ] A R ALT ACE*:. 209 

Seem.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii, 731; Brandis 249; Kurz 541 ; Gamble 44. Vern. Lai 
totilla, Nep. ; Siriokhtem, L<prh:i ; Ee**eru, Assam; TZbwa, Caohav ; : Tachansa, 
Burin., is a small tree of the sub-Himalayan tract from Kumaun to Assam, Eastern 
Bengal, Chittsigong 1 and Burma. It is important as being a tree upon wl 
Leaves, as well as on those of the Castor Oil plant, the " Eri " silkworm of Assam 
(Attacns Jiir'nii) is IVd. Tupidanlhus calyptratus, H. f. and Th., is an evergreen 
scan dent tree of the eastern slopes of the Arracan Yorna. 

The Chinese rice-paper is the pith of Aralia papyrifera, Hk., a tree of Formosa. 

Wood white, generally soft. Pores small, often arranged in concentric 
bands. Medullary rays distant, broad or moderately broad, generally 
several lines of pores between two rays. 

1. HELWINGIA, Willd. 

1. H. himalaica, Hook. f. and Th.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 726; Gamble 
44. Vein. Lnbbor 3 Lepcha. 

A large shrub. Wood white, moderately hard, pith large. Pores 
.very small, arranged in groups or short concentric lines. Medullary 
rays short, fine to moderately broad. 

Eastern Himalaya, above 7,000 feet, Khasia Hills. 

A curious shrub with simple leaves and flowers in umbels from the centre of the 
leaves, like those of Ruscus. 

E 3342. Darjeeling, 7,000 feet. 

2. HEPTAPLEURUM, Gaertn. 

Contains about 10 trees or climbers, among which 6 species occur in South India, 
2 in Burma and 4 in the Sikkim Himalaya. H. impressum, C. B. Clarke; Hook. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 728. (//. tomentosum, Ham. ; Gamble 44). Vern. .Baloo chinia, Nep. ; 
Santong, Lepcha, is a handsome tree of the North-East Himalaya, from Kumaun to 
Bhutan, common in the forests from 6,000 to 10,000 feet, and recognised by its woolly 
leaves. It has a white, soft wood. H. glaucum, C. B. Clarke ; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 
728; Gamble 44. Vern. Chinia, Nep.; Hloprongzam, Lepcha, is a tree of North- 
East Himalaya and the Khasia Hills, in which latter locality, as well as in Burma, is 
also found H. liypoleucum, Kurz i. 539, a small branched tree, and H. Khasianum, 
C. 1>. Clarke. H. racemosum, Beddome t. 214, is a large tree of the Western Ghats 
and Ceylon. H. rostratum, Beddome cxxii., and H. Wallichianum, C. B. Clarke, 
are trees of the Western Ghats. H. venulosum, Seem. ; Brandis 249 ; Kurz i. 538 ; 
(Gamble 44 (Aralia digitata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 107) Vern. Dain, Hind.; Singhata, 
Nep., is a climbing shrub or small tree of most parts of India. 

1. H. elatum, C. B. Clarke; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 728; Gamble 44. 
Vern. Chinia, Nep. ; Prongzam, Lepcha. 

A tree. Bark in thick, greyish brown. Wood white, soft. Struct- 
ure similar to that of Macropanax undulatum. 

Himalaya, from Kumaun to Bhutan, between 5,000 and 7,000 feet. 
E 3326. Kangirurn, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet. 

3. BRASSAIOPSIS, Dene, and Planch. 

Contains several small palm -like trees of the Eastern Himalaya, Eastern Bengal 
and Burma. B.palmata, Kurz i. 537, is found in the forests of Chittagong and the 
Andnmans, and B. Hainla, Seem.; Hook. Fl. Ind. ii. 735; Gamble 44. Vern. 
Ti? better, Nep. ; Suntong, Lepcha, is a common small tree in the forests of the outer 
Sikkim Himalaa. 



JilO ARALiACEjE. [Brasst'wpsis. 

1. B. mitis, C. B. Clarke; Hook. Fl. lud. ii, 73(3. . sp. ; Gamble 
44. Vern. Moqchini, Nep. ; Suntong, Lepcha. 

A small tree with thin grey bark, and soft, white, spongy wood. 
Pores small, in groups and undulating lines. Medullary rays short, 
broad and very fine, marked on a radial section as shining plates. 

Sikkiui Himalaya, above 5,000 feet, common at Darjeeling. 

Growth moderately fast, 5 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 241bs. per cubic feet. 

Ibs. 

E 2382. Kangbnl Forest, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet .... 24 

4. MACROPANAX, Miq. 

Besides the species described, M. oreophilum, Miq. ; Kurz i. 541, is an evergreen 
tree of the forests of the Martaban Hills above 5,000 feet. 

1. M. undulatum, Seem. ; Gamble 45. Vern. Ckinia, Nep. ; 
Prong zam, Lepcha. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree; wood soft, yellowish white, even- 
grained. Pores small, numerous. Medullary rays broad, often with a 
few fine rays intervening, prominent on a radial section as shining 
plates giving the wood an elegant reticulate appearance. The distance 
between the rays is many times larger than the diameter of the pores, 
there being many lines of pores between each pair of rays. 

Eastern Himalaya, up to 5,000 feet. 
Weight, 30 Ibs. per cubic foot, 

Ibs. 

E 688. Chuttockpur Forest, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet .... 30 

5. HEDERA, Linn. 

1. H. Helix, Linn.; Brandis 248; Gamble 45. The Ivy, Yern. 
Halbambar, arbambal, Jhelum ; Karmora, mandia, Kashmir; Kurol, Che- 
nab; Kuriy kariir, Ravi; Mr&mbrtim, dakdri, Beas ; A 'arluru , luiniiiri, 
kadeoli, Sutlej ; Bdnda, Kumaun ; Dudela, "Nep. 

A large woody climber. Wood white, soft, porous. Annual rings 
marked by a broad belt of pores and by less numerous pores in the 
autumn wood. Pores small, very numerous. Medullary rays short, 
moderately broad. 

Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan, between 3,000 and 9,000 feet; Khasia Hills. 
Growth slow, 22 rings per inch of radius. Weight, our specimen gives 31 Ibs. ; 
Mathieu Fl. For. p. 174, gives 27 to 44 Ibs. 

n.s. 

H 69. Mashobra, Simla, 7,000 feet 

H 3010. Kotgarh, Simla, 7,500 feet . . . . . , 3-1 



ORDER L1V. CORNACE^l. 
7 (iciirni of Indian trees or shrub*. They are generally dispersed ovei 

India, but .are chirlly found in the Himalayas. They may In-divided into two sections 

Section I. With hermaphrodite flowers . Alangiinn, A/cr/m, Conine and 

J\litx/i.i-i(t. 
II. "With diuriou- llnxvi-rs . . Atd-nl'" -.nd 



Afangi'tni.'] 211 



arborea, W\ght ; i5.-ddoiiK t. 21(5, is a tn-i- <>l ih.> foivsis of the 
between 2,000 and 7, HDD IWl. Torricellia Jiliqfolia, DO.; ( Suable 45, is 
a small tree of the Eastern Himalay 6,000 and 10,000 feet. Nyssa 

, Hook. f. and Th., is found in the Eastern Himalaya and Khasia Hills. 



Wood close-grained, apt to warp. Pores generally small or very 
small. Medullary rays fine and numerous. 

1. ALANGIUM, Lam. 

Contains two species, one of which is here described. A. Sundanum, Miq. 
Vern, Affnara, And., is an evergreen climbing shrub of the tropical forests of the 
Andamans. 

1. A. Lamarckii, Thwaites; Beddome t. 215; Brandis 250. 
A. hexapetaluw, lloxb. PI. Ind. ii. 502. A. decapetalum, Lam. ; Kurz i. 
5 1 ;3. Vern. Akola, thaila. Hind. ; Akar-kanta, bag/i ankurd, Beng. ; 
Alanffi, Tarn. ; Uryu, udagu, Tel. ; Ankola, Kan. ; Uru, Gondi. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree. Bark J inch thick, grey. Sapwood 
li^ht yellow; heartwood brown, hard, close and even-grained. Pores 
small, scanty, in radial lines between the fine, closely packed medullary 
rays, which often bend outwards ; the transverse diameter of the pores 
being slightly larger than the distance between the rays. 

Sub- Himalay an tract from the Gauges eastwards, Oudh, Bengal, Central and South 
India. 

Growth moderately slow, 5 rings per inch of radius. Weight, according to Skinner, 
No. 13, 49 Ibs. per cubic foot; our specimens give 49-56 Ibs. Skinner gives P = 875. 
The wood is used for pestles, for oil-mills, wooden cattle-bells, and other purposes, 
and is valuable for fuel. It coppices well. The fruit is eaten, and the bark used in 
native medicine. 

Ibs. 
C 3116. Chanda, Central Provinces ....... 56 

D 1082. North Arcot, Madras ........ 49 



2. MARLEA, Roxb. 

Besides the species here described, M. tomentosa, Endl. ; Kurz i. 545. Vern. 
Gorapongse, Burm., is a large evergreen tree of the tropical forests of Martaban, said 
by Kurz to have a pale brown, close-grained wood with a silvery lustre. 

1. M. begoniaefolia, Roxb. PI. Ind. ii. 261; Brandis 251; Kurz i. 
544; Gamble 45. Vern. Garkum, budhal, lumbri, North- Western 
Provinces ; Bodara, Beas ; Sidlu, Chenab ; Prot, Kashmir ; Tilpattra, 
chitpattra y kurkui, Jhelura ; Tumri, Kumaun ; Timil, Nep. ; Palet, Lepcha ; 
Tapuya, Burm. ; Mar lea, marliza, Sylhet. 

A small tree, with smooth, thin, grey bark. Wood white, soft, even- 
grained. Annual rings marked by a belt of numerous pores. Pores 
moderate-sized and large, small in the outer portion of each ring. 
Medullary rays short, wavy, fine and moderately broad, prominent on 
a radial section. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan, ascending in the North-West to 
6,000 feet, and in Sikkim to 9,000 feet; Khasia Hills, Eastern Bengal, Chittagong and 
Martaban. 

Growth moderately fast, 5 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 42 Ibs. per cubic foot. 



212 CORN ACE*!. [ Mar lea. 

The wood is used for native Louses in Sylhet. The leaves are sometimes given as 
fodder to cattle. 

Ibs. 

H 2831. The Glen, Simla, 6,000 feet 42 



3. CORNUS, Linn. 

Besides the three species here described, C. sanguinea, Linn. ; Brandis 253, the 
Dogwood, was found by Dr. Stewart in the Punjab Himalaya at 7,000 feet. 

Numerous small pores and numerous fine medullary rays, often of 
different width. 

1. C. macrophylla, Wall. ; Brandis 252 ; Gamble 45. Vern. Kasfr, 
kacJnr, haleo y altian, haddu, harm, nang, kandara, kaksh, kachur } kochan, 
Mgsha, ruchia, Hind. ; Patmoro, Nep. 

A small tree, with rough, brown bark, splitting into small squares. 
Wood pinkish white, hard, close-grained, warps badly and has an 
unpleasant scent. Annual rings marked by a narrow line without pores, 
on the outer edge of each ring. Pores small, numerous. Medullary 
rays short, moderately broad, with fewer fine rays, giving the wood on a 
radial section a beautifully mottled appearance. 

Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan, between 3,000 and 8,000 feet. 
Growth moderate, 8 to 9 rings per inch of radius (Brandis) ; our specimens had 15 
rings. Weight, 44 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood gives good gunpowder charcoal. The 
fruit is eaten and the leaves given as fodder to goats. 

Ibs. 

H 84. The Glen, Simla, 6,000 feet 45 

H 924. Hazara, 6,000 feet 43 

2. C. oblonga, Wall. ; Brandis 253 ; Kurz i. 545. Vern. Kagshi, 
Sutlej ; Dab, Kunawar; Rasmol, bakdr, ban-baMr, hald, Hind. 

A small tree, with reddish brown, rough bark. Wood pinkish white, 
hard, even-grained, warps and has an unpleasant scent. Annual rings 
marked by a belt without pores at the outer edge of each ring. Pores 
small, numerous. Medullary rays fine, very numerous, with a few 
slightly broader ones. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan, between 3,000 and 6,000 feet ; 
Martaban Hills in Burma, between 4,000 and 7,000 feet (Kurz). 

Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 48 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 

H 150. Sainj, Giri Valley, 4,000 feet 46 

H 3094. Tarwa Forest, Julung, Simla, 4,000 feet .... 50 

3, C. capitata, Wall. ; Brandis 253 ; Gamble 45. Benthamia 
frrtf/ifera, Lindley. Yern. Thammal, tharbal, thanvar, thesi t bamaur, 

bamoraj Hind. ; Tnmbiik, Lepcha. 

A small deciduous tree, with thin, greyish brown bark. Wood whitish, 
with reddish brown heartwood, warps in seasoning, very hard, close- 
grained. Pores very small. Medullary rays numerous, moderate-sized 
and fine. 

Himalaya from the Beas to Bhutan, between 3,500 and 8,000 feet; Khasia Hills. 
Growth slow, 16 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 45 Ibs. per cubic foot. The 
wood is used only for lire wood. This is probably the Curn us, */>., of whose wood 5 



Corn us.] CORNACE^. 213 

maunds were sent to the Isbaporc Gunpowder Agency in 1865 (Bengal Forest Report, 
1865-66, page 2), of the result of which experiment we have no record. The fruit 
is red, strawberry-like, and is cairn and made into preserves. The tree is very hand- 
some when in flower with its large cream-coloured involucre. 

Ibs. 

H 78. Mashobra, Simla, 7,000 feet 

H 94. Simla, 6,000 feet 45 

4. AUCUBA, Thunb. 

Contains one large shrub or small tree of the Eastern Himalaya. A.japonica, 
Thunb. is a well-known shrub of English gardens, recognised by its shining leaves, 
blotched with yellow. 

1. A. himalaica, Hook. f. and Th. ; Brandis 254- ; Gamble 45. Vern. 

Phul aiiiphl, Nep. ; Singna, tapalhyer, Lepclia. 

A small evergreen tree, with thin, smooth, dark-grey bark. Wood 
black when fresh cut, becoming 1 lighter-coloured on exposure, hard and 
close-grained. Pores extremely small. Medullary rays of two classes, 
numerous fine rays between fewer broad or very broad ones, visible on 
a radial section as irregular plates and bands. 

Siklum Himalaya between 5,000 and 9,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 20 rings per inch of radius (Gamble) ; one specimen, E 3327, shews 
10 rings. Weight, 55 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 

E 2383. Rangbiil Forest, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet .... 55 
E 3327. Eangirum 6,000 .... 



ORDER LV. CAPRIFOLIACE^E. 

Contains 6 genera belonging to the two following tribes : 

Tribe I. Sambucea3 Sambticus and Viburnum. 

II. Lonicerece Abelia,Lonicera,Leycesteria 

and Pentapyxis. 

Wood close-grained. Pores very small or extremely small, uniformly 
distributed. Medullary rays fine to extremely fine, numerous. 

1. SAMBUCUS, Linn. 

Contains 3 Indian species. S. Elulus, Linn. ; Brandis 260. The Dwarf Elder. 
Vern. Richh Jcas, muskfcidra, ffanhula,Jhe\\na; Gandal, gwandish, sisJce tasar, Chenab, 
is a herbaceous plant from a perennial root stock, found in the valleys of the Jhelum 
and Upper Chenab. 8. adnata, Wall. ; Brandis 576 ; Gamble 46. Vern. Chiriya- 
baug, Nep., is an undershrub of Nepal and Sikkim found from 6,000 to 10,000 feet. 
Kurz gives S. Thunb ergiana, Bl., as an undershrub of Ava and the Kakhyen Hills. 

1. S. javanica, Reinw. ; Gamble 46. Vern. Galeni, Nep. 

A small tree. Bark light brown, rather corky. Wood white, soft. 
Pores small, in groups. Medullary rays distant, fine to broad. Pith 
large, about J inch in diameter. 

Eastern Himalaya from 4,000 to 8,000 feet, Khasia Hills. Chiefly found in 
second-growth forest. 

E 3133. Mangwa Forest, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet. 



:U I- CAPini'oi.i.u i:.i:. [Jlfjitniinn. 

2. VIBURNUM, Linn. 

Contains about 15 species, mostly Himalayan. Three species occur in the 
Nilgiris, seven in the North-West Himalaya, and about twelve in the Eastern 
Himalaya and Khasia Hills. 

V. corylifolium, Hook. f. and Th. ; Gamble 46, is a small tree of Sikkim and the 
Khasia Hills, V. nervosum, Don ; Brandis 259. Vern. Ambre, amrola, art, Ravi ; 
Ris, dab, Beas ; TUllcain, thalein, Sutlej, is a shrub of the Himalaya above 7,000 feet, 
from Kumaun to Sikkim. V. cordifolium, Wall, and V. punctatum, Ham. ; Beddome 
t. 217 ; Brandis 260 ; Gamble 46, are shrubs of the Outer Himalaya from Kumaun to 
Bhutan, the latter occurring also in the Western Ghats. V. involucratum, W all. ; Gamble 
46, Vern. G-orakuri, Nep., is a shrub of the Himalaya, chiefly eastern. V. fcetidum, 
Wall., V. odoratissimum, Ker, and V. Simonsii, Hook, f . and Th., are all from the 
Khasia Hills. V. hebanthum, W. and A.; Beddome cxxiv., is a small tree of the 
Western Ghats and Ceylon. 

The Guelder Rose, cultivated in gardens in Europe, is V. Opulus, Linn., and the 
Laurustinus is V, Tinus, Linn., indigenous in the Mediterranean region. 

Bark thin. Wood hard and close-grained, characterised by very 

numerous, very fine medullary rays and very small pores. Annual rings 

indistinctly marked, generally by a narrow line of firmer wood. The wood 

of F. Ititescens is softer, the pores larger, and the annual rings not visible. 

All species here described, with the exception of V. erubescens and 

V. lntescens,&\'Q marked by distinct and numerous medullary patches, visible 

on the horizontal and vertical sections. The European species, both 

those with deciduous leaves, V. Opulus and F. Lantana, and the evergreen 

V. Tinus have no medullary patches. 

1. V. COtinifolium, Don; Brandis 258. Vern. Mar ghwalaiva, Trans- 
Indus ; Rich uklu, bankunch, Jhelum ; Eichabi, kilmich, guch, Kashmir ; 
Bathor, pdpat kalam, kliimor, rdjal, tumma, Chenab ; Kdtonda, Ravi ; 
Jawa, khatip, tustus, sussu, Sutlej ; Gwia, guya, Kumaun. 

A large deciduous shrub, with greyish brown bark, J inch thick. 
Wood white, hard to very hard, close-grained. Pores very small, uni- 
formly distributed. Medullary rays fine and very fine, extremely 
numerous. On a horizontal section are seen linear, concentric, but short 
and interrupted patches of soft tissue, which shew on a vertical section 
as undulating lines of darker colour and of varying length. 

Suliman Range, North- West Himalaya, between 4,000 and 11,000 feet. 
The ripe fruit is eaten. 

H 2869! JNagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet. 
H 76. Mashobra, 7,000 

2. V. Mullaha, Ham.; Brandis 258, 576. V. stellulatum, Wall. Vern. 
Jal bdgu, Jhelum ; AmliachajpJwlsel, Kashmir ; Lai titmaliya, Kumaun ; 
Eri, ira t Simla. 

A shrub. Bark dark grey, reticulate. Wood white, moderately 
hard ; structure the same as that of F. cotinifolium. 

North- West Himalaya from 6,000 to 10,000 feet. Fruit eaten. 

H 2834. The Glen, Simla, 6,000 feet. 
H 2866. Nagkanda, 8,000 

3. V. coriaceum, Bl. ; Brandis 259 ; Gamble 46. Veru. Kala tit- 
maliya, Kumaun; Bara gorakuri, Nep. 



Filjitrnum.~\ CAi'un OI.IAC K.L. 215 

A large shrub or small tree. Bark grey brown, rather corky. Wood 
similar to that of V. cotinifolium', but the pores larger aiid the medullary 
rays slightly broader. 

Himalaya from the Sutlej to Bhutan at 4,000 to 8,000 feet, Khasia Hills, Nil- 
giris and Ceylon. 

Weight, 50 Ibs. per cubic foot. The Nepalese are said to extract from the seeds 
an oil which they use for food and for burning. 

Ibs. 

H 2835. The Glen, Simla, 6,000 feet 50 

4. V. erubescens, Wall.; Beddome cxxiv. ; Brandis 258 ; Gamble 
46. Vern. Ganne, Nep. ; Kancha, Lepcha ; Damshing, Bbutia. 

A small tree, with thin gi'ey bark. Wood very hard, reddish, close 
and even-grained. Pores very small. Medullary rays undulating, fine 
and very fine, very numerous. No medullary patches. ' 

Himalaya from Kumaun to Bhutan, between 5,000 and 11,000 feet; Nilgiris 
and Ceylon. 

Weight, 59 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood might do as a substitute for boxwood and 
for carving. Used for house-posts in Sikkim. It grows well and quickly from 
cuttings. 

Ibs. 
E 2384. Rangbul, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet 59 

5. V. lutescens, Bl. ; Kurz ii. 2; Gamble 46. 

A large shrub. Bark greyish brown, thin. Wood reddish, soft. 
Pores moderate-sized, very numerous. Medullary rays fine, very numer- 
ous. Annual rings not visible. 

Terai and Lower Hills of Sikkim, Assam, Khasia Hills, in clamp evergreen 
forests. 

E 3273. Muraghat Reserve, W. Duars. 

6. V. fcetens, Decaisne ; Brand is 259. Vern. Giich, ukln, ktinrfi, 
Jhelum; Kilmich, guch, twillim, Imldra, jamdra, Kashmir; Tilhavj, 
pulmu, tildts, turn, Cheuab ; Talhang, tandei, tundhe, tundni zendiii, 

Kavi; Talhang, t/ielain, tselain, tkilkain, Sutlej; Guya^ Kumaun. 

A large shrub with grey bark. Wood white, hard to very bard, 
close-grained. Wood similar in appearance and structure to that of 
V. cotinifolium. 

North- West Himalaya, from 5,000 to 11,000 feet. 
Weight, 53 Ibs. per cubic foot. Fruit eaten. 

Ibs 

H 53. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 53 

H 2886. 

H 3015, Matiyana 

E 975. Chumbi Valley, Tibet, 10,000 feet . . . . . ... 

8. ABELIA, Brown, 

1. A. triflora, R. Brown; Brandis 257. Vern. Ath-i, paklawar, Trans- 
Indus ; Chela biita, Jhelum ; Ban lakharu, salanker, Chenab ; Dal&ng, 
kufsdi, Ravi ; Zbang, matzbany, jpeni, Sutlej ; Mwiri, gogatti, kumki y 
Kumaun, 



216 CAPRIFOLIACE^E. [Amelia. 

A large shrub. Bark grey, with longitudinal fissures. Wood grey- 
ish or bluish white, hard, close and even-grained. Pores extremely small, 
except those at the edge of each annual ring, which are small and con- 
tinuous. Medullary rays very numerous, moderately broad and very 
fine, the former short. 

Safedkoh and Suliman Range, North-West Himalaya, between 4,000 and 10,000 
feet. 

Has very pretty flowers, but the wood is not used. Weight, G5 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 
H 2937. Naldchra, Simla, 7,500 feet 65 

4. LONICERA, Linn. 

Contains 26 species, 21 of which are erect and 5 climbing. They are mostly small 
shrubs of the Himalaya, 2 only being found in the Nilgiris and Western Ghats. 
The Himalayan species are mostly from high altitudes, some occurring only in Tibet. 
L. spinosa, Jacqaeinont ; Brandis 255, is a small rigid shrub of the inner arid Hima- 
laya. L. hypoleuca, Decaisne, Brandis 256. Vern. Kharmo, kodi, Chenab ; Zhiko, 
rapes ho, Sutlej, is a small shrub of the Inner Himalaya. L. Myrtillus, Hook. f. and 
Th., is a shrub of the Inner Himalaya from the Indus to Sikkim, from 9,000 to 12,000 
feet. L. ligustrina, Wall. ; Beddome cxxiv., is a shrub, common on the Nilgiris, where it is 
used as a hedge-plant : it is also found in the Himalaya. Of the climbing species, 
Jj.japonica, Thunb. ; Gamble 46. Vern. Duari lara, Nep. ; and L. glabrata, Wall. ; 
Gamble 45. Vern. Betlara, Nep. (No. E 2863, Tukdah, Darjeeling, with a soft brown 
wood, large pores and the structure of a climber) come from the Eastern Himalaya; 
while L. Leschenaultii, Wall., grows in the Malabar hills from 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 
The European Honeysuckle is L. Periclymenum, Linn. 

1. L. quinquelocularis, Hardwicke; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 537; Brandis 
255. Vern. Jarlangei, adei, Trans-Indus; Phut, Jhelam ; Titabaitri, 
pdkhur, Kashmir ; Bakhru, Chenab ; Klium, sdi, Ravi ; Dendra, Beas ; 
Kliunti, krauntij takla,zbang, razbam, bhajra, bhijaul, bijgai, Sutlej; Bet 
kukri, bhal kukra, cheraya, kurmali, Kumaun. 

A large deciduous shrub. Bark thin, grey, with longitudinal fissures, 
peeling off in long shreds. "Wood white, with a brown centre, very hard 
and close-grained. Annual rings marked by a narrow continuous belt 
of pores ; in the remainder of the annual ring the pores are extremely 
small. Medullary rays short, fine, numerous. 

Suliman Range, North-West Himalaya, between 2,500 and 9,000 feet. 
Used only for firewood. Cattle are fed on the leaves. Weight, 52 Ibs. per cubic 
foot. 

H 81. Mashobra, Simla, 7,000 feet 

H 2874. Nagkanda, 8,000 feet 52 

H 3180. Dungagalli, Hazara, 7,000 feet 

2. L. orientalis, Lamarck ; Brandis 256. 

A shrub. Bark peeling off in thin fiakes. Wood white, with a 
darker centre, moderately hard. Structure the same as that of L. quhi- 
quelocularis. 

North-West Himalaya, from Kashmir to Kumaun, 8,000 to 10,000 IV. 

II 2000. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 fei-t. 
H 3017. Hattu, Simla, 10,000 feet. 



Lou leer a . "| aiFOLIA c K#: . 217 

3. L. angustifolia, Wall.; Braudis 55. Vern. Geang, Jannsar j 
Pilrn, philku, Sutlej. 

A small shrub, with smooth, grey bark, exfoliating in broad flakes, 
Wood white, very close-grained. Structure similar to that of L. qnin- 
quelocularis, but pores much .smaller. 

Himalaya from the Indus to Sikkim, 6,000 to 10,000 feet, Fruits eaten. 
Wright, 60 UN. per cubic foot. 

11)8. 

H 2843. Mahasu, Simla, 8,500 feet GO 

H 2875. Nagkunda, Simla, 8,000 feet . . . .... 

4. L. alpigena, Linn. ; Braudis 256. 

A shrub. Bark grey brown, peeling off in irregular papery flakes, 
Wood moderately hard, structure similar to that of L. quinqnelocularis. 

North -West Himalaya from Kashmir to Kumaun, 8,000 to 10,000 feet. 

H 2912. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet. 
H 3016. Hattu, Simla, 10,000 feet. 

5. LEYCESTERJA, Wall. 

1. L. formosa, Wall.; Brandis 256 ; Gamble 46. Vern. Malkarr, 
saunjla, nalkaru, Jcamaliya, Kumaun ; Tunguk, Lepcha. 

An erect shrub with hollow, generally herbaceous, stems. Bark 
grey, shining. Wood resembling in structure that QiLonicera, but with 
slightly broader medullary rays. 

Throughout the Himalaya from the Sutlej to Bhutan, from 5,000 to 10,000 feet. 
H 2849. Mahasu, Simla, 8,000 feet. 

6. PENTAPYXIS, Hook. t. 

Contains 2 species. P. glaucopJiylla. Hook, f., is a shrub of the Sikkiui Himalaya, 
from 5,000 to 9,000 feet. 

1. P. stipulata, Hook, f ; Gamble 45. Lonicera stipulata, Hook. f. 
and Th. in Journ. Linn. Soc. ii. 165. Vern. Berikuru, Nep. 

A large shrub, with greyish brown bark. Wood white, soft. Pores 
extremely small. Medullary rays fine and very fine. No annual rings. 

Sikkim Himalaya, from 6,000 to 10,000 feet, ver} r common on hill-sides cleared of 
forest, around Darjeeling. 

E 2866. Kangbul, Darjeeling, 7,000 feet. 



ORDER LVI. RUBIACE^E. 

A large and very important forest Order containing many trees which are valuable 
for their timber, besides plants which have valuable properties, chiefly as medicines 
and d}'es. It contains 44 Genera, divided into 13 Tribes, viz., 

Tribe I. Naucleese ..... Sarcocephalus, Anthocephalus, 

Cephalanthus, Adina, S(e- 
phegyne, Nauclea and 

U near i. 



18 RUBIAC I 

Tribe II. Cinchonese .... Cinchona, Hymenopogon, Hy~ 

menodictyon aud Luculia. 

III. Rondeletieso .... Wendlandia. 
IV. Hedyotideae .... Pedyotis, 
V. Mussaendese .... Mussa?nda,Adenosacme,Myrio- 

neuron and Urophyllum. 

"VI. Gardeniese .... Byrsophyllum, Webera, Ran- 

dia, Gardenia, Hypobath- 
rum, Petunga, Moi'in- 
dopsis, Hyptianthera and 
Diplospora, 

VII. Retiniphyllejie .... Scyphiphori . 
VIII. Guettardeas .... Guettarda and Timonins. 
IX. Vangueriese .... Plectronia and Vanaueria. 
X. Ixorese ..... Ixora, Pavetta and Coffea. 
XI. Morindeo? .... Morinda and Qynochihodes. 

XII. Psychotriese .... Psychotria, Ctiasalia, Lasi- 

anthus, Saprosma and 
Hyd&opiytum. 

Pcederia, Hamiltonia and 
Leptodermis. 

Sarcocephalus cordatus, Miq. ; Beddome t. 318 ; Kurz ii. 63 (Nauclea cordata, 
Roxb, Fl. Ind. i. 508). Vern. Maoolet-tan-shay, Burin.; Bakmi, Cingh.,is a deciduous 
tree of Burma and Ceylon, with a light, soft, perishable wood, weighing 23 to 34 Ibs. 
per cubic foot. Beddorne says it is used for sandals, common furniture, doors and other 
purposes. Cephalanihus naucleoides, DC. ; Kurz ii. 68, is a small tree of Upper 
.Burma. Uncaria contains several scandent shrubs, U. pilosa, Roxb. PI. Ind. i. 520 ; 
Kurz. ii. 70 ; Gamble 47. Vern. Baisi Tcara, Nep. ; KahuTcrile, Lepcha, is a straggling 
shrub of Sikkim, Eastern Bengal and Burma, with large hooked sterile peduncles of the 
shape of a buffalo's horn, and handsome globular flower heads. U. sessilifructus, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. i. 520; Kurz ii. 71; Gamble 47. Vern. Pinri, Lepcha, is a climber of 
Sikkim, Eastern Bengal, Chittagong and Burma. Kurz gives also U.ferruginea, DC., 
U. sessilifoUa, Roxb., and U. Icevigata, Wall, as climbing shrubs of l>urma ; while 
U. Gambler, Hunter ; Roxb. Fl. Ind'. i. 517 ; Beddome cxxix., is a scandeut shrub of 
Ceylon and the Malay Archipelago, whose leaves produce the astringent extract called 
" Gainbier," or " Terra japonica," which is used for chewing with pan leaves and 
areca nut in the same way as cutch in India, and of which large quantities are 
prepared and used throughout the Malay Archipelago. 

Hymenopogon parasiticus, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 73 ; Gamble 47. Vern. Kurximla, Nep., 
is an' epiphytic shrub of the North-East Himalaya and Burma. Luculia ffratis.it ma, 
Sweet. Kurz ii. 71 ; Gamble 47. Vern. Dowari, Nep. ; Simlrangrip, Lepcha. is u large 
shrub with handsome long-tubed pink flowers, found in the hills of Sildiim and iu 
Upper Burma. Its leaves are used in dyeing. Weight 23 Ibs. (Wallich. No. 13). 

Hedyotis contains only small climbing shrubs. They are very numerous, aud 
many of the specii-s are used in dyeing. 

Musscenda contains about 7 large shrubs remarkable for having one of the lobes of 
the calyx enlarged into a membranous, usually white leaf. M.frondosa, Linn. ; Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. i. 557 ; Beddome ex xi. ; Gamble 48. Vern. Asari, Nop ; Tmnherh, Lqu-ha ; 
Maasenda, Ciugh., is a handsome shrub of the North-East Himalaya, InMigal, South 
India and Burma, with yellow flowers and large white calycine le:it'. often oultivated in 
gardens. M. macrophylla, Wall.; Kur/ ii. 57; Gamble IS, is a small tree of 
second growth forest in the Sikkim Himalaya; also found iu the Andamans. Kurz 
mentions 5 other species as occurring in Burma. Atlcii'ixacinc lonffifolia, Wall. ; Kur/ 
ii. 54; Gamble 48. Vern. Pitamari, Nep., is a shrub of the North-East Himalaya and 
Burma, remarkable for its pretty snow-white berries. Myrioncuron nutatm, R. Br. ; 
Kur/ ii. 65, is a shrub of ChittatfOng. l7ri>/>/tyl/nnt cor.tains 3 shrubs or small (ivos of 
Martaban and Tenasserim and 2 small lives >f Oylon. 

Byrwp&yllum Ivlrandnan, JJed.lume 1. :^i, is a small tree of the hills of Travan- 
core. II i/i>nl><tt!irit ni rticcmosum, Kur/ ii. 51 (Ifii/i</iit raconosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 
525) Vdii. I'lchui'ia. lien^., is a shrub nf Eastern Bengal and of the swauip forests of 
Pi-git and Arra.;au. Petunga Roxlurnhii . 1HV Vern. J/inir. Beng.. is ti small tree of 






the Sundarbans with hard white xv.md ; un<l Moi'indvpxis ;<j l ill t iris, Kurz, a tree of 
Pegu, Martaban and Tenas^eriin. 7////y//^////"/Y/ ,ifrirt<t, W. and A.; Brandia 274 
(Hypobathrum xtrirtitin., Km-/ ii. 5<>, Ruml'm .t/firttt, lloxb. Fl. Ind. i. 526), is an 
reen shrub of Oudh, Northern I"iigal, Chittagong and Burma. Diplosjxra 
singularis, Korth. ; Kurx ii. 50 (? No. IJ 11)1)8, Andamans. Vcrn, T/iittoo, with white 
wood, rough, with numerous prominent medullary rays ; weight 30 Ibs.), is a tree of 
Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

Scypkiphora hydrophyllacea, Gaertn. ; Beddoine cxxxiv. 3; Kurz ii. 4, is a small 
simple-stemmed shrub of the coast forests of the Andamans and Ceylon. 

Tiuiun-ittfi f //rf/Y.vrt//.v (Polyphragmon flavet&ns), Kurz ii. 38 (? No. B. 1987, Anda- 
mans. Vern. TinJwunbeny, Burm , with a hard, light-brown wood ; weight, 48 Ibs.), is 
a small tree of the tropical forests of the Andamans. 

Vangueria contains :{ species. V. edulis, Vahl. ; Kurz ii. 33. Vern. Voa vanga, 
10 a thorny shrub of Madagascar, cultivated in Bengal for its edible fruit. Kyd calls it 
Moyen, and gives weight 43 Ibs., P = 430. V. spinustt, Roxb. Fl. lud. i. 526; Kurz 
ii. 31 ; Gamble 49. Vern. Ssay-ma-Jkyee, Burm., is a thorny small tree of Bengal and 
Burma; and V pubescens, Kurz ii. 34, a tree of the Eng and dry forests of Burma. 

Gynochthodes macrophylla, Kurz, is a scaudent shrub of the coasts of South 
Andaman. 

Psychotria and Lasianthus contain a large number of small evergreen shrubs of 
Bengal, Burma and South India. Chasalia curviflora, Thw. ; Kurz ii. 14; Gamble 
49. Vern. Antabi, Lepcha, is a small shrub of the hills of Northern Bengal, Burma and 
Ceylon. Saprosma contains 4 shrubs of South India and 2 of Burma. Hydnophy- 
tum formicarum, Jack ; Kurz ii. 8, is a small epiphytic shrub with an enlarged tuber- 
like trunk found on trees in the swamp forests of the Andamans. 

Pcederia contains several shrubs or climbers. P. lanut/inosa, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 76, is 
a large climber of the forests of Burma ; and P.fcetida, Wild. ; Koxb. Fl. Ind. i. 683-; 
Gamble 49. Vern. Gundha badhuli, Beng. ; Gundali, Hind.; Padebiri, Nep. ; 
TaTcpcedrilc, Lepcha, is a thin climber of Bengal and Burma, with handsome flowers, 
and fruit which is said to be used in Sikkim by Nepalese and Lepchas to blacken 
the teeth, and prevent toothache. Hamiltonia suaveolens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 554 ; 
Beddome cxxxiv. 12; Brandis 278; Gamble 49. Vern. Mvskei, kantalu, fisauni, 
Chenab ; Nigyi, tulenni phul, gohinla, Ravi; Kanera, puddri, Beas ; Phillu, Sutlej ; 
Padera, Kumaun ; Bainchampa, Nep., is a shrub of the North-West Himalaya, 
Sikkim (rare), Behar, Central and South India, with handsome lilac flowers; the wood 
is said by Brandis to be used in Chamba to make gunpowder charcoal. 

Besides the genera described from India, which include such important ones as 
Cinchona, Coffea and Morinda, many genera contain plants of economic use. Cephaelis 
Ipecacuanha, Rich., is the Ipecacuanha plant which has been largely propagated in 
India, but which has proved very difficult to naturalise or grow in such a way as to 
make its cultivation pay. " Mac'der " is given by Eubia cordifolia, Linn., the Manjit 
plant, common all over the Himalayas and largely exported ; while many other genera 
are cultivated in gardens for the beauty of their flowers, and among the commonest 
of these are Serissa, Catesbcea and Hamelia, besides the numerous Ixoras and 
Gardenias, some species of which are described herein. 

Wood white, yellow, or rarely red, close-grained, generally soft or 
moderately hard ; no heartwood. Pores small or very small ; in Antho- 
cephalus Cadamba and a few other species, moderate-sized. Medullary 
rays uniform, equidistant, fine or very fine, very numerous, often closely 
packed. 

The species which were formerly united under the old genus Nauclea, 
genera Nos. 1 to 4, have an exceedingly uniform structure. The wood 
seasons well, is soft, but close and even-grained. Pores numerous, 
small to moderate-sized. Medullary rays fine, very numerous. 

1. ANTHOCEPHALUS, A. Richard. 

1. A. Cadamba, Bth. and Hook f.; Brandis 261; Gamble 46. 
Navclea 'Jadamlta, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 512; Beddome t. 35. Sarcocephalns 



220 



[ Autkocephalus. 



Cadamla, Kurz ii. 63. Vern'. Kaddam, karam, Hind., Beng. ; Bol-kaJarii, 
Chittagong ; Pandur, Lepcba ; Kodnm, Mcchi ; Roghu, Ass.; Kadambo, 
Uriya; Fella cadamba, Tarn.; Kadambe, rudrak-shamba, Tel.; Heltega, 
arsanatega, Mysore; Kadam, Mar.; Kadda tailu, kadaga, kadwal, 
Kan. ; Halartiba, Cingh. ; Maoo, sanyepang, Magh ; Maoo, maookadoon, 
Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark grey, with numerous regular, longitu- 
dinal fissures. Wood white, with a yellowish tinge (an old specimen 
from Burma, yellowish grey), soft, even-grained. Pores large, oval, 
elongated, subdivided, sometimes in short radial lines. Medullary rays 
fine, numerous, close together, bent outwards where they touch the pores. 

Wild in Northern and Eastern Bengal, Pegu and the Western Coast ; cultivated in 
Northern India. 

Growth variable, 5 to 15 rings per inch of radius, average moderate, 9 rings per 
inch. The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments : 



Experiment by whom 
made. 


Year. 


Wood whence 
procured. 


Weight. 


Number 
of experi- 
ments. 


Size of scantling. 


Value of 
P. 








Ibs. 




Ft. In. In. 




Buckle, No. 19 . 


1859 


Mysore 


43 


2 


2xlxl 


616 


yd . . . 


1831 


Assam 


36 




2x1x1 


560 


Cunningham 


1854 


Gwalior 


47 


5 


2x1x1 


618 


Jrandis, No. 67 . 


1862 


Burma 


37 








Vallich 




Travancore 


38 








mythies 


1878 


Bengal 


40 


2 






" 


" 


Assam 


32 


1 







Wood used for building ; in Assam, Cachar and occasionally in Darjeeliug for tea- 
boxes. Cunningham (1854) says that it is used for beams and rafters on account of 
its cheapness and lightness, and that it is good for joiner's work, but that it is a brittle 
wood. The flowers are offered at Hindu shrines and the fruit eaten. It is often 
cultivated for ornament, and is very much used as an avenue tree in Bengal. Kurz, 
evidently quoting Brandis' 1862 List, No. 67, says " wood, a deep yellow ;" this is not, 
however, the case with our specimens, and it may be suggested for investigation whether 
the Burma wood has not a more yellow colour than the Indian. 

Ibs. 

40 



E 650. Rakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai 

E 3153. Pankabavi, Darjeeling (damp) 

E 3144. Julpigori, Bengal .. 

E 1435. Assam .... 

B 2535. Burma (1862) 



50 
40 
32 
32 



2. ADINA, Salisbury. 

Contains 3 Indian .species. A. polycephala, Hook. f. and Bth. (Naudea poly- 
cephala, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 65), is a small evergreen tree of Chittagong and Tenasfcerim. 

1. A. COrdifolia, Hook. f. and Bth. ; Brandis 263 ; Gamble 46. 
Nauclea, cordifolia, Koxb. Fl. Ind. i. 514; Beddome t. 33; Kurz ii. 66. 
Vern. Haldu^tardu^caram, Hind. ; Bangkcbtkeli-kadamjpetpnriii 
Beng.; Karam, Nep. ; Tikkoe, Bahraich and Gonda; Hard it, 
kurmi, Gondi ; Holonda, Uriya; Shangdonc/^ G6ro; Roghn, Ass. ; 
kadambe, Tarn, j Bandaru, dudagu, paspn kaJumbe, Tel. ; Hedde t 
peitega, arsanalSga, ycliada, alnnui , Kan. ; Hcdit, Mar. ; Kulony, Cingh, ; 
Thaing, Magh ; llnnnheiig, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Hark soi'l, \ inch thick, grey,, rough, AVond 
yellow, moderately hard, even-grained, No heartwood, no annual i 



. ] 



KIT, i i 



Pores small, numerous, uniformly distributed, more numerous and 
more closely packed than in Stephegyne pafQifolia* Medullary rays very 
fine, of uniform width, not prominent, numerous, distinctly visible on a 
radial section, finer and more uniform in width than those of S.parvi folia. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, ascending to 3,000 feet, through- 
out the moister regions of India, Burma. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following experi- 
ments : 











Number 






Experiment by whom 
made. 


fear. 


Wood whence 
procured. 


Weight. 


of 

experi- 


Size of bar. 


Value of 
P. 










ments. 












Ibs. 




Ft, In. In. 




Pm-klr, No. 26 . 


1859 


Mysore 


36 


4 


2x1x1 


464 


Skinner, No. 99 . 
Cunningham 

BlMtldis 


1862 
1854 
1864 


South India 
Gwalior 
Burma . 


42 
49 
43 


"2 
7 


2 x"l"x 1 
3x1x1 


6(J4 
586 
760 


JJramUs, No. 65 
H. Thompson 


1862 
1868 


Central Provinces 


42 

47 









C. P. List . 
Smythies . 


1873 
1878 


Different Pro'vinces 


42 

45 


i'i 


::.::: 


::: 



The wood seasons well, takes a good polish, and is durable, but somewhat liable to 
warp and crack. It is good for turning, and is extensively employed in construction, 
for furniture, agricultural implements, opium boxes, writing tablets, gun-stocks, combs 
and occasionally for dug-out canoes. 



215. Garhwal (1868) . 

O 2994. (1874) . 

O 1491. Kheri, Oudh 

O 340. Gorakhpur . 

C 825. Bairagarh Reserve, Berur 

C 2988. Jubbulpore (1863) . 

C 1136. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 

C 1245. Gumsur, Madras . 

E 2387. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai 

B 2538. Burma (1862) 

No. 35. Salem Collection . 



Ibs. 
43 
46 
48 
41 
48 
43 
44 
49 
50 
43 
40 



2. A. sessilifolia, Hook. f. and Bth. ; Brandib 264. Nauclea sessili- 
folia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 515; Kurz ii. 65. Nauclea sericea, Wall. Vern. 
Kum, Beng. ; Kumkoi, Chakma ; Thaing, Magh ; Teingala, thilpayouny y 
Barm. 

Wood yellowish brown, hard. Pores very numerous, moderate-sized, 
oval and subdivided, transverse diameter greater than the interval 
between the closely packed, fine, and uniform medullary rays. 

Chittagong and Burma. 

Weight, according to Brandis' Burma List of 1862, No. 70, 43 to 56 Ibs, ; our 
specimens give 55 Ibs. as an average of three. The wood is used in Chittagong for 
building purposes and firewood. In Chittagong it is perhaps the only gregarious tree, 
being commonly found on ilat places on the banks of rivers. 



E 1391. Chittagong . 
B 2537. Burma (1862) 
B 3069, 



Ibs. 

53 
56 

56 



Kt BiACE.K. 



[ Stephegyne. 



3. STEPHEGYNE, Korth. 

Contains about 4 species of Indian trees. S. diversifolia, Hook. f. and Bth. 
(Nauclea diversifulia, Wall., placed by Kurz under N. parvifolia). Vern. Bingah, 
Burin., is a tree of Burma (weight, 45 Ibs., Brandis' Burma List, 1862, No. 66), and 
S. tubulosa, Hook, f . and Bth. ; Beddorne cxxviii., is a tree of Ceylon. 

1. S. parvifolia, Hook. f. and Bth. ; Brandis 262. Nauclea parvi- 
folia, Roxb. Fl. Ind i. 513; Beddorae t. 34; Kurz ii 66. Vern, 
Kaddam, kallam, keim, kangei, Hind. ; Phaldu, Kumaun ; Mundi, Gondi, 
Baigas ; Kvtebi, Kurku ; Buta-kadambe, Tarn. ; Nir-kadambe, karmi, bata- 
ganapUy Tel. ; Conyu, hedu,yetega 3 kadwar y kadani, Kan. ; Kadamb, karamb, 
kalam, Mar.; Tamdk, Bhil ; Llelemle, Cingh.; Kumra, Bans\vara ; 
Hteinthay, Burm, 

A large deciduous tree. Bark inch thick, light grey, smooth, with 
shallow depressions left by exfoliating scales. Wood light pinkish 
brown, moderately hard, generally harder than that of Adina cordifolia. 
No heartwood. Annual rings visible. Pores small, numerous, uniformly 
distributed. Medullary rays very fine, numerous, not quite uniform 
in width. 

Throughout India And Burma. 

Growth moderate, 5 to 15, averaging 9 rings per inch of radius. The weight and 
transverse strength have been determined by the following experiments : 











Number 






Experiment by whom 
made. 


Year. 


Wood whence 
procured. 


Weight. 


of 
experi- 


Size of bar. 


Value of 
P. 










ments. 












Ib8. 




Ft. In. In. 




Cunningham 


1854 


Gwalior 


35 


2 


2x1x1 


586 


Skinner, No. 100 


1862 


South India 


39 






683 


Brundis, No. 9 


1862 


Burma 


43 








E. Thompson 


L868 


Central Provinces . 


47 









Smyth ics .... 
A. Mendis, No. 35 . 


1878 
1855 


As In-low . 
Ceylou 


4'.'7 
42 


Vi 




... 

















The wood is easily worked and polishes well ; it is durable, if not exposed to wet. 
It is used for building, furniture, agricultural implements, combs, cups, spoons and 
platters, and for turned and carved articles. 

U.s-. 

Ajmere ...... . 

Garhwal (1868) .46 

Dehra Dun .11 

Gorakhpur .12 

Kheri, Oudh .44 

Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 



458. 

269. 

529. 

344. 
1481. 

178. 

186. 
1120. 



Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 
C 2783. Mrl^hal, Uorar 

B 561. Promt- 

I'. J-': > ,'.. liiirma (1862) 
No. 36. Salem Collection . 
:."). Ceylon Collection . 



46 

14 
14 

to 

:w 
it. 
12 



'idyyiie.1 KVI 223 

\V 1225 ^42 Ibs. ; growth moderate, 8 rings per inch o!' radius), received from 
North Kanara under the name of AnUnx-citlnilux JJadamba, is in structure similar to 
S. prrij'<>litt< but has red heart wood, wit li darker streaks. It is 'probably Nauclea 
, Dnl/i'll, Bomb. PI. 118; Beddoine exxix. Vern. Ahnau, Kan. 



2. S. Sp. Gamble 46. Vern. Kale, kalikat, Nep. 

A large tree. Bark brownish white. Heartwood orange yellow, 
sapwood reddish. Wood moderately hard. Pores large and moderate- 
sized, very numerous, filled with u gummy substance. Medullary rays 
fine, very numerous, undulating. 

Weight, 44 Ibs. per cubic foot. Used for building. 

Ibs 
E 2385. Chenga Forest, Darjeeling ....... 44 

4. NAUCLEA, Linn. 

Contains 3 or 4 Indian trees. N. elliptica, Dalz., a large tree of the Western 

Coast, has been referred to above. N. purpurea, Roxb. ; Beddome cxxix., is a tree of 

the Eastern Ghats of South India. Kurz gives N. excelsa, Bl., as a large evergreen 
tree of Pegu. 

1. N. rotundifolia, Roxb. PI. Jnd. i. 516; Kurz ii. 67. Vern. Bmgah, 
Bunn. 

Wood yellowish brown, moderately hard, close and even -grained. 
Pores small and moderate-sized. Medullary rays fine, uniform, very 
closely packed, the transverse diameter of the pores being greate? than 
the interval between two successive rays. 

Burma and the Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 47 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood not used, but likely to be of value. 

B 2536. Burma (1862) ........ 51* 

B 2288. Andamans (1866) ........ 44 



B 2233 (47 Ibs.), sent from the Andamans in 1866 under the name Htainlyoo 
resembles in structure N. rotundifolia, except that it has slightly larger pores. 

5. CINCHONA, Linn. 

A la-mis of about 36 species of trees or shrubs found in a narrow belt along the 
Andes of South America, between 2,300 and 8,000 feet elevation. Several species give 
the Peruvian bark or Cinchona of commerce, the value of which depends upon the 
presence of certain alkaloids which are known as " quinine," " cinchonine," " cinchoni- 
dine," &c., and which are so valuable as febrifuges. 

The Cinchona trees were first brought to India in 1860, chiefly through the labours 
of Mr. C. E, Markham, C.B., who was sent by the Secretary of State in 1859 to Peru 
to collect plants and seeds of the different kinds. The plants he brought did not live, 
but the seeds were sown and the trees planted in the Nilgiri Hills. In 1862 
Dr. T. Anderson instituted the plantations at Rangbi in Sikkim with plants and seeds 
brought by him from Java. There are 4 principal species cultivated in the Indian 
plantations : viz., C. succirubra, Calisaya, officinalis and mwrantha. 

1. C. SUCCirubra, Pavon ; Brandis 265 ; Gamble 47. Red Bark. 
"Wood yellow, moderately hard. Pores small, in radial lines. 
Medullary rays closely packed, fine and very fine. 



2-24- HUBIACEJE. [ 

Cultivated on the Nilgiris and other hills of South India, at the plantations of 
Rangbi and Poomong in Sikkim, on the hills east of Toungoo in Burma and in parts 
of the Satpura Range in Central India. This species thrives at a lower elevation 
than the others, but is comparatively poor in quinine, though rich in cinchonine and 
cinchonidine. From this species is chiefly derived the "Cinchona Alkaloid," which is 
now largely manufactured at the Government Plantation of Rangbi. 

TT 1 Q^'7 ^ 

t' [ Rangbi, Darjeeling, 3,700 feet. 
xu oio/ . ) 

2. C. Calisaya, Weddell ; Brandis 266 ; Gamble 47. Yellow Bark. 
Wood reddish-grey, moderately hard, even-grained. Pores small, 

in short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, closely packed. 

Cultivated in Sikkim at moderate elevations. 

It yields perhaps the most valuable of the Cinchona barks, rich in alkaloids, among 
which quinine forms | to f ths. 

E 3158. ) Bangbi ' Dar J eelin ' 3 ' 700 feet 

3. C. officinalis, Linn.; Brandis 266; Gamble 47. Loxa or Crown 
Bark. 

Wood yellowish grey, similar in structure to that of C. Calisaya. 

Cultivated at high elevations on the Nilgiris, in Ceylon and in Sikkim, but not 
extensively. 

Its bark is rich in alkaloids, of which more than one-half is quinine. 

E 1356. 



E 3159! ] Ran bi ' Darjeeling, 3,700 feet. 



6. HYMENODICTYON, Wall. 

Contains about 4 species. H.flaccidum, Wall. ; Brandis 268 ; Gamble 47, is a tree 
of the hills of Eastern Bengal and the outer Himalaya as far west as the Juuma. 
H. obovatum, Wall.; Beddome t. 219; Brandis 268. Vern. Telia media Jcai, 
Tarn. ; Mallay tanak, Madura ; Earwai, Bombay, is a large tree of the Western 
Ghats. 

1. H. excelsum, Wall.; Beddome cxxx. ; Brandis 267. Cinchona 
excels**, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 529. Vern. Bartu y barthoa, Pb. ; Bhaulan, 
bhalena, bhamina, dhauli, kukurkat, bhurkm , phaldu, bhohdr, potw y 
Hind. ; Dondru, dandelo, Panch Mehals ; Bhoursdl, Mar. ; Sagapu, Tain. ; 
Diidiyetta, dudippa, chetippa, burja, bandara, Tel. ; Bodoka, Uriya ; 
Manabina, Karuul. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark soft, J to f inch thick, grey, exfoliating 
in irregularly shaped, softish scales. Wood brownish grey, soft. Annual 
rings indistinctly marked. Pores moderate-sized, uniformly distributed, 
often in short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, very numerous, visible 
on a radial section. Numerous faint, white, transverse bars joining the 
medullary rays. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Punjab to Oudh, ascending to 5,600 feet ; Central 
and South India. 

Growth moderate, 6 to 7 rings per inch of radius. Average \\vight of our sptvinu'iis 
31'5 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood usi-d for ngricultural implements, scabbards, grain 
mt.'usui'1-s, jjalamiuiiis, toys and similar ai'tirk-s. The inner biirk i;s bitter and 



Hymenodictyon. ] RUBIACEJE. 225 

astringent, and is used as a febrifuge, and for tanning; the leaves are used as cattle 

fodder. 

Ibs. 
O 216. Garhwal (1868) .... . .28 

O 350. Gorakhpur (1868) 



O 1462. Bharaich, Oudh 

O 1482. Kheri, Oudh . 

C 1127. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 



32 
34 
32 



2. H. thyrsiflorum, Wall.; Kurz ii. 72; Gamble 47. Cinchona 
thyrsiflora, lioxb. Fl. lad. i. 530. Veru. Purgur y Hiiid. ; Khoozan, 
Burm. 

A deciduous tree. Bark 1 inch thick, grey, with corky flakes. Wood 
white or grey, soft. Annual rings indistinctly marked. Structure the 
same as that of H. excelsum. 

Northern and Eastern Bengal and Burma. 

Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight, according to Brandis' 
Burma List of 1862, No. 104, 28 Ibs. ; our specimens give an average of 33 Ibs. Used 
for black-boards and packing-cases. 

Ibs. 

E 1231. Sibsagar, Assam 26 

E 1286. Cachar 34 

B 279. Burma (1867) 31 

B 3070. (1862) 38 

B 559. Prome, Burma 33 

B 2287. Andaman Islands . . 34 



7. WENDLANDIA, Bartling. 

Contains about 12 Indian species. W. tinctoria, DC. ; Beddome cxxx. ; Brandis 
269 ; Kurz ii. 74 (Rondeletia tinctoria, Roxb. PI. Ind. i. 522 ; Wendlandia sp. 
Gamble 48.) Vern. Tula-lodh, Bengal. ; Kangi, Nep. ; Singnok, Lepcha ; Telli, 
Uriya ; Tamayoke, Burm., is a small tree of the forests of Kumaun, Oudh, Behar, 
Bengal and Burma, whose bark is used in Bengal as a mordant in dyeing. Several 
other species are found in the North-East Himalaya and several in Burma, chiefly 
Tenasserim, but the}' are unimportant. One or two are climbers. 

1. W. exserta, DC.; Beddome cxxx. ; Brandis 2fi8; Gamble 48. 
W. cinerea, DC. ; Gamble 47. Rondeletia exserta, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 
523. Vern. Chaulai, chila, chilkiya, ttta, birsa, tilfci, tilai, Hind.; 
Kanyi, Hlki, mimri, Nep.; Kursi, Seoni ; Marria, Gondi; Tilliah, Baigas 
in Mandla. 

A small deciduous tree with brown bark. Wood reddish brown, 
hard, close-grained. Pores small, medullary rays moderately broad and 
fine, the former short. Annual rings marked by firmer wood on the 
outer and more porous wood on the inner edge of each ring. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab eastwards, Oudh, Bengal Central and South- 
ern India. 

Growth fast, 4-5 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 47 Ibs. Wood used for build- 
ing and agricultural implements and used for house-posts in the Sikkim Terai. 

Ibs. 

O 1370. Gonda, Oudh 47 

E 589. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 

2. W, Notpniana, Wall. ; Beddome t. 224; Thwaites Euum. 159. 
Vern. Rameneidelle, Cingh. 

2 K 



226 uruiACKJB. -nnl'm. 

A small tree of South India and Ceylon, with a red wood, having a 
similar structure to that of W. exserta. 

No. 74. Ceylon Collection (marked W. bicuspidata) ... 48 

8. WEBERA, Schreb. 

Contains about 10 species of small trees, shrubs or climbers from Eastern Bengal, 
South India and Burma. 

W. oppositifolia, Roxb. PI. Ind. i. 698 ; Kurz ii. 47 is a small tree of Chittagong 
and Burma, said by Kurz to have a yellowish white, heavy, close-grained wood. 
W. glomeriflora, Kurz ii. 47, is a small tree of the Pegu Yomas. W~. myrtifolia, 
Kurz ii. 49, is a small tree of the swamp forests of Burma and W. monosperma, W. and 
A. ; Beddome cxxxiv., is a shrub of the Nilgiri Hills and Wynaad. Kurz also describes 
4 scandeut shrubs from Chittagong and Burma. Roxburgh gives W. scandens, 
Roxb. PI. Ind. i. 698. Vern. G-ajer koto,, Beng., as a climber ; and W. odorata, 
Roxb. PI. Ind. i. 699. Vern. Patagruja, Beng., as a small tree, of the forests 
of Sylhet. 

1. W. asiatica, Linn. ; Beddome cxxxiii. W. corymbosa, Willd. ; 
Roxb. PI. Ind. i. 697. Stylocoryne Webera, A. Rich. ; T hwaites Enum. 
158. Vern. Kankra, Beng.; Kachuria clidll, Cut tack; Komi, Tel.; Tar- 
ana, Cingh. 

A large shrub or small tree. Wood yellowish white, hard, close- 
grained. Pores small, very numerous, uniformly distributed. Medullary 
rays short, fine and extremely fine. 

Bengal, South India and Ceylon. 

Weight, 57 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is said by A. Mendis to be used in Ceylon 
for fishing-boats. 

Ib8. 

No. 84. Ceylon Collection 57 

9. RANDIA, Linn. 

Contains 10 to 12 species of shrubs or small trees, generally armed with strong 
axillary thorns. R. riffida, DC. ; Brandis 273 ; Gamble 48, is a shrub found in the 
forests' of the Eastern Himalaya, Nepal and probably Kumaun. R. fragrans, 
Beddome cxxxii. (Posoqueria fragrans, Kon.; Roxb. PL Ind. i. 717). Yern. 
Pedalli, Tel., is a shrub of South India, used to make hedges. R. Gardneri, Thw. ; 
Beddome cxxxii., is a small tree of the South Tinnevelly hills and Ceylon ; R. dekka- 
nensis, Beddome cxxxiii., is a small tree of the Anarnalais ; and R. speciosa, Beddome 
cxxxii., a climbing shrub of the Western Ghats, with sweet-scented flowers. R. nutans, 
DC. ; Kurz ii., 45 is a shrub of the forests of Pegu. 

"Wood smooth, close-grained, hard. Pores small or very small. 
Medullary rays fine and very fine. 

1. R. uliginosa, DC. ; Beddome cxxxii, ; Brandis 73 ; Kurz ii. 1 1 ; 
Gamble 48. Posoqueria uliginosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 712. Vern. 
Pinddlu, pindar, pandr, paniah, bharani, katiil, Hind.; Firalo, Beug. ; 
Maidal, Nep. ; Kaurio, Panch Mehuls; Pendra, Uriya ; Katil, pcmler, 
(i.)M(li; Gangru, gangdru, Kurku ; Nallaika, nalla k<ikixhii, r IVl. ; 
Wnyatta, Tarn.; Kar4,pendri, Kan.; Telphetru, panelra, phctra, piiidra, 
Mar. ; Tapkel, Bhil ; Mhaniben, mhnnpyoo, Burin. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark i inch thick, reddish brown, exfoliat- 
ing in thin flakes. Wood whitish tfivy, closi'-^raiwd, lianl, no heart - 
wood. Annual rings marked by a narrow belt without pores, Pores 






Ha ml i.,' KUBiAri 

small and very small,, numerous, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays 
fine and very fine, very numerous, distinctly visible on a radial section. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, Oudh, Bengal, Burma, Central 
and South India. 

Growth moderate, 6 to 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, the average of our 
specimens gives 48 Ibs. per cubic foot ; Brandis says 411bs. The fruit is eaten. 

Iba. 

O 542. Dehra Dun ......... 48 

O 1458. Bahraich, Oudh ........ 47 

O 1487. Kheri, Oudh ......... 51 

C 2782. Melghat, Berar ........... 

C 1186. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces ........ 

C 2756. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces ..... 48 

W 992. North Kanara . ....... 46 

2. R. dumetorum, Lam. ; Beddome cxxxii. ; Brandis 273 ; Gamble 
48. Posoqueria dumetornm, Willd. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 713. Yern. 
Mindla, mandkolla, arara, Pb. ; Mainphal, manyul, karhar, main, 
mainhuri, manneul, arar, Hind. ; Maidal, amulci, Nep. ; Gundrow, Mechi ; 
Gurdl, Rajbanshi; Panji, Lepcha ; Pativa, Uriya ; Madu karray, Tarn.; 
Manda, Tel.; Gera, galay, Mar.; Kuay, katul, Gondi ; Bhita, Kurku ; 
Kare, Kan. 

A deciduous thorny shrub or small tree, with grey bark. Wood 
white or light brown, compact, hard. Structure the same as that of 
H,, nliginosa. 

Throughout India, extending in the North -West Outer Himalaya as far as the 
Beas. 

Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radius, according to our specimens; Brandis 
says slow : that " a section of a tree known to be 65 years old, 4-inch radius, hollow 
inside, shewed 54 annual rings on 2 inches of the radius near the circumference." 
Weight, 55 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used for agricultural implements, fences and 
fuel. The bark of the root and stem and the fruit are used in native medicine, the 
latter as an emetic. The fruit is also used to poison fish, and when ripe is roasted 
and eaten. 

Ibs. 
262. Garhwal (1868) ...... 54 

1366. Gonda, Oudh ...... 50 

O 1461. Bahraich, Oudh ...... 62 

O 1488. Kheri, Oudh ...... 54 

C 2750. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces (young) 45 

C 2799. Melghat, Berar (young) .... 48 

p A.Q~\ ~) 

.qq' ? Khookloong forest, Darjeeling Terai ........ 

E 2386. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Terai . ........ 

3. R. tetrasperma, Bth. and Hook, f.; Brandis 272. Gardenia 
tetrasperma, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 709. Vern. Bara garrij batya gingaru, 
Kumaun. 

A small procumbent shrub with grey bark. Wood white, very hard. 
Pores very small. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. Medullary 
patches numerous and prominent, of a slightly bluish colour. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, ascending to 6,000 feet. 
Weight, 56 Ibs. per cubic foot. 



H 157. Simla, 6,000 ftvi 
H 2821. 5,000 . 



228 RUBIACE*). [ Gardenia. 

10. GARDENIA, Linn. 

Contains 12 to 15 Indian species of shrubs or trees. G. gummifera, Linn. ; Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. i. 708; Beddome cxxxiv. 1; Brandis 270. Vern. DekdmAli, kamarri, Hind.; 
Chitta matt a, chitnityal, gaqgaru, Tel. ; Chitta, bikfce, kambi, Kan., is a large shrub 
of Central and South India, with a white hard wood, and giving a yellow gum resin. 
G. montana, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 709. Vera. Teliga, tella kakisha, Tel., is a small 
tree of South India. G. coronaria, Ham. ; Kurz ii. 43, is a tree of Chittagong and 
Burma, with a heavy, close-grained wood. G. sessiliflora, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 40. Vern. 
Majeebouk, Burin., is a tree of the hills of Burma. Kurz describes several other 
Chittagong and Burma species of less importance. G.florida, Linn., of Indian gardens, 
is an introduction from China. 

Wood smooth, close-grained, hard. Pores small to extremely small, 
numerous, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays very fine to moder- 
ately broad. 

1. G. turgida, Roxb. PL Ind. i. 711 ; Beddome cxxxiv. 1. ; Brandis 
270; Kurz ii. 41. Vern. Thanella, khurrur, khuriari, ghurga, mhaner, 
Hind.; Karhdr, Banda; Paitjra, pendra, Gondi; Phurpata, Kurku; Khur- 
phendra, pendi i, phanda,phetra, Mar. ; Phetrak, Bhil ; Bamemia, Uriya ; 
Manjnnda, telel, Tel. ; Bongeri, Kan. ; T/iamengsanee, Burm. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark smooth, bluish grey, ^ inch thick, 
compact. Wood close-grained, hard, white with a purplish tinge, uo 
heartwood. Annual rings indistinct. Pores very small. Medullary 
rays fine and very fine, very numerous. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from Nepal to the Jumna, ascending to 4,000 feet ; Rajputana, 
Burma, Central and South India. 

Growth slow, 13 rings per inch of radius. Weight, according to R. Thompson 
56'5 Ibs. per cubic foot; our specimens give 541bs. Wood good, but splits and cracks 
in seasoning. 

Ibs. 

O 541. Dehra Dun 

O 1377. Gonda, Oudh 60 

O 1463. Bahraich, Oudh .... 



O 1489. Kheri, Oudh 

C 826. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar . 

C 2779. Melghat, Berar . 

C 1142. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 

W 993. North Kanara . 



50 
54 
58 
54 

48 



Nos. C 1248 and C 1309 (61 and 63 Ibs.) sent from Gumsiir under the name 
Gorahadu, have the same structure as, and probably are, this species. 

2, Gr. lucida, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 707 ; Beddome cxxxiv. ; Brandis 271. 
G. resinifera, B/oth. ; Kurz ii. 42. Vern. Dikamali, Hind., Guz. ; 
Konda manga, kokkita, tetta manga, C.P. ; Papar, Bijeragogarh j Karinga, 
karaingi, tella-manga, Tel. ; Kumbi, Tarn. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, greenish grey, exfoliat- 
ing in irregular flakes. Wood yellowish white, close-grained, hard, no 
heartwood, no annual rings. Pores extremely small. Medullary rays 
very fine. 

Central and South India, Chittagong. 

Weight, 39 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood useful for turning ; it is made into combs. 
It gives a gum resin from wounds in the bark. This gum is hard, opaque, yellow, 
^iv.-nish or brown, with a strong smell, and is used in the treatment of cutaneous 
diseases and to keep off flies and worms. 

IbR. 

C 1185. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 



(ffU'df'Hia.~\ RUBIAC! 229 

3. G. latifolia, Aiton ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 706 (? cf. Brandis 272) ; 
Beddome cxxxiv. 1.; Brandis 271. Veriu Pdpra, pdphar, pepero, ban 

pinddlu, Hind. ; Pannia bhil, gungat, bhandara, geggar, Gondi ; Phip- 
har, mali, Baigas ; Kumbay, Tarn. ; Pedda karinga, pureea, bikki, gaiger, 
Tel.; Rota-ranga, Uriya ; Ghogar, g.ogarli, Mar.; Gogar, Bhil. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, greenish grey, exfoliating 
and leaving smooth, conchoidal, rounded depressions. Wood light- 
yellowish brown, close and even-grained, hard, handsomely mottled, 
neither warps nor splits. No heartwood. Marked concentric annual 
rings. Pores extremely small, numerous. Medullary rays fine, short. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, Bengal, Central and South 
India. 

Growth moderate, 8 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 50 to 53 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
The wood is easy to work, durable, and is recommended to be tried as a substitute for 
boxwood; it is likely to be very good for engraving and turning. Combs are made 
of it. 

B 1173. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 53* 

B 2733. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces 50 

4. G. obtusifolia, Roxb. ; Kurz ii. 42. Vern. Yengkhat, Burm. 

A small deciduous tree with thin, grey bark. Wood white, moderately 
hard, even-grained. Pores small. Medullary rays moderately broad, and 
a large number of very fine rays, which are not very distinct. 

Burma. 

Weight, 55 Ibs. per cubic foot. It yields a yellow pellucid resin. 

B 817. Rangoon Division, Burma 55 

5. G. COStata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 704. G. coronaria, Ham. ; Kurz ii. 
43. Vern. Yengkhat, tsaythambyah. 

A small deciduous tree, with smooth, grey bark ; wood light brown, 
hard, close-grained. Annual rings indistinct. Pores small. Medullary 
rays fine, scanty, distinctly visible on a radial section as long horizontal 
plates. 

Chittagong and Burma. 

Growth slow, 14 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 51 Ibs. per cubic foot (Kurz 
identifies G. lucida, No. 72 of Brandis' Burma List of 1862 with this. Weight, 49 Ibs.) 
Used for making combs and for turning, but liable to crack. 

Ibs. 

B 284. Burma (1867) 50 

B 2540. (1862) 52 



11. GUETTARDA, Linn. 

1. G. speciosa, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 686 ; Beddome cxxxiv. 4; 
Kurz ii. 37. Vern. Lomdomah, And.; Nil piteha, Cingh. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree, with thin grey bark. Wood yellow, 
with a tinge of red. Pores small, often in radial lines. Medullary rays, 
moderately broad and very fine. 

Tidal forests along the shores of the Andaman Islands and Ceylon. 
B 1971. Andaman Islands (Kurz, 1866) 49 



230 ia uiA( i [Plecff- 

12. PLECTRONIA, Linn. 

Contains 10 to 12 shrubs, part of which are found in South India and Ceylon, and 
part in Burma and the Andamans. P. parviflora, Roxb. ; Beddome cxxxiv. 5 ; 
(Canthium pawiftorum, Roxb. PI. Ind. i. 534) Vern. Balsu, Tel., is a thorny shrub of 
South India, whose wood is hard and used for turning, and whose leaves are eaten in 
curries. 

1. P, didyma, Bth. and Hook. f. ; Kurz ii. 35. Canthium didymum, 
Gaertn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i.535; Beddome t. 221 ; Brandis 276. Vern. 
Tolan, Uriya ; Neckanie, nalla balsu, Tarn., Tel. ; Abalu, Kan. ; ArsiU, 
Bombay ; Poruwa, Cingh. 

A large shrub, Wood grey, hard. Pores very small, numerous, 
uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine and very fine, numerous. 

South India, Ceylon and Tenasserim. 

Weight, 57 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used for agricultural purposes. 

11)8. 

No. 16. Salem Collection . 57 

13. IXORA, Linn. 

A large genus containing some 30 or more Indian and Burmese shrubs or small 
trees. Beddome describes 7 species from South India, and Kurz 24 (excluding 
Pavetta) from Burma, while many species come from Eastern Bengal and Assam. 
I. coccinea, Linn. ; Roxb. FL Ind. i. 375; Beddome cxxxiv. 7 ; Kurz ii. 26 (/. jBandhuca, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii, 376). Vern, Rangun, rajana, Beng. ; Bandhuka, Sans., is a well- 
known scarlet-flowered shrub called the "Flame of the Woods," indigenous in South 
India, Chittagong and Burma and cultivated in gardens all over India. I. stricta, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 379 ; Kurz ii. 26, is another scarlet -flowered species from Tenasserim. 
I. acuminata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 383 ; Gamble 48. Vern. Churipat, Nep., is a hand- 
some shrub of Sikkim, Assam and Eastern Bengal with large, crowded coiynibs of 
scented white flowers. I. undulata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 385; Gamble 48. Vern. Paluka- 
jui, Beng. ; Pari, Nep. ; Takchirnyok, Lepcha, is a small tree of Bengal, and I. villosa, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 383. Vern. Chunari, Beng., of Sylhet. I. barbata, Roxb., and 
I.polyantha, Wight; Beddome cxxxiv. 7, are small trees of the Western Ghats. 

1. I. parviflora, Vahl. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 383; Beddome t. 222; 
Brandis 275 ; Kurz ii. 21. The Torch Tree. Vern. Kota gandhal, Hind.; 
Rang an, Beng. ; Disfi, Gondi ; Rural, lokandi, Mar. ; Shulundu kora, 
Tarn. ; Karipal, kachipadel, tadda pallu, Tel. ; Kori, Gondi; Korgi, Kan.; 
Tellu kurwan, Uriya; Maha ratambala, Cingh. 

An evergreen shrub or small tree. Bark \ inch thick, dark brown, 
exfoliating in irregular rounded scales. Wood light brown, smooth, very 
hard, close-grained. No heartwood. Annual rings indistinct. Pores 
very small. Medullary rays very fine and very numerous. 

Bengal, Burma, Central and South India. 

Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight according to Skinner, No. > 1 
66 Ibs. ; our specimen gives 57 Ibs. Skinner gives P = 717. The wood is well suited 
for turning and might do for engraving. Beddome says it is used for furniture and 
building purposes. The green branches are used for torches. 

Ibs. 
C 1156. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provin 57 

14. PAVETTA, Linn. 

Contains 6 to 8 species of Indian shrubs or small trees. P. /W/V<r, Linn. ; Bed- 
doraacrxriv. 7; Braadii.275 (^rora Pat* Fl. Ind. i. 385; Kur/ii. IS.) Vern. 



Pa i- till a.} 

Kukura chura, Beng. ; Pavetti, Tarn. ; X<'nt-p}>i't.. tapra, Tel. ; Paicctta, Cingh., 
Meenaban, Burm., is a common shrub of Bengal, South and parts of Central India 
and the Andaman Islands. P. Ircrijln,^', DC.j Beddome cxxxiv. 7, is a shrub of the 
higher ranges of the Nilgiris. Kurz, under fxora, describes 4 other species, viz. : 1. 
compactiflora, and /. naucleiflora, from Upper Tenasserim ; /. webera>folia, from the 
Andamans ; and /. recurva (Pcederia rccurva, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 684), from Chittagong. 

1. P. tomentosa, Smith; Beddome cxxxiv. 7. ; Brandis 275. Ixora 
tometitosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 3S6 ; Kurz ii. 19; Gamble 48. Vern. Padera, 
Kumaun ; Jui, Beng. ; Sundok, Lepclia; Papiri, impatta, nam-paputa, Tel. 

A large shrub with thin, smooth, brownish grey bark. Wood light 
brown, hard, close-grained. Pores extremely small. Medullary rays 
sliort, numerous, fine and very fine. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Ganges eastward-, ascending t<> I.>K)0 feet, Bengal, 
South India and Burma. 

ibs. 
O 3086. Gonda, Ondh 59 

15. COFFEA, Linn. 

O. bengalensis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 540 ; Beddome cxxxiv. 8 ; Brandis 277 ; Kurz ii. 28 ; 
Gamble 49. Vern. Kath-jahi, Hind. ; Kundrudi, Mechi, is a small shrub found in most 
parts of the moister regions of India. The berries are used as coffee by Mechis and 
Rajbanshis in Northern Bengal, but the coffee is of inferior quality. 

1. C. arabica, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 539 ; Beddome cxxxiv. 8 ; 
Brandis 276 ; Kurz ii. 27 ; Gamble 49. Vern. Bun (the berry), Kahwa 
(the same roasted and ground). 

A shrub with thin grey bark. Wood white, moderately hard, close- 
grained. Pores very fine and extremely fine. Medullary rays very fine, 
numerous. 

Indigenous in Abyssinia and Soudan, cultivated since the fifteenth century in 
Arabia and introduced thence to India. It has been cultivated in many pasts of India, 
but on a large scale only in Mysore, Coorg, the Western Ghats and Ceylon. It is 
occasionally found running wild in the forests. Growth moderate. 

P 3150. Coorg (20-25 years old). 

Prismatomeris tetrandra, Hook. f. and Bth. Genera PI. ii. 119 (Coffea tetrandra, 
Roxb. ; Kurz ii. 28) is an evergreen tree of the forests of Chittagong, the Martaban 
Hills and Andaman Islands up to 3,000 feet elevation. 

16. MORINDA, Linn. 

A genus of Indian and Burmese trees and shrubs, mostly giving a red or } T ello\v dvo 
from the root bark. Roxburgh Fl. Ind. i. 541 to 548, describes 7 species ; and Brandis 
p. 278 5> says that 5 out of these species " cannot well be specifically distinguished " and 
that " it will be more convenient to consider them as one under the name M. citrifolia, 
Roxb." The names of Roxburgh's 5 species are (1.) M. citrifolia, Roxb., from Pe<ni ; 
(2.) M. tinctoria, Roxb., cultivated ; (3.) M. bracteata, Roxb., from Can jam ; (4.)1lf. 
exserta, Roxb., of Bengal ; and (5.) M. multiftora, Roxb., from Nagpore and Berar. We 
will, however, retain the name M. exserta for our specimens at present. 

M. angustifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 547 ; Brandis 278 ; Kurz ii. 61. Veru. AsuqacJi, 
Ass. ; Kchai tun, Phekial ; Chemnig, chenyning, Garo ; Yaiyo, Burm., is an everWeen' 
tree of Bengal and Burma, whose bark and wood give a j T ellow dye- M. umbeuata, 
Linn.; Beddome cxxxiv. 9; Kurz, ii. 62. M. scanrJcns, Roxb. Fl. Tnd. i. 518. is aii 
fftergreen aoandent shrub of the Western Gh&te, Tenasaerim ;md Ceylon. Kurz de- 

BClibes 5 other spocirs from " 



232 RUBIACE^I. [ Morinda. 

1. M. exserta, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 545 ; Beddome cxxxiv. ; Brandis 
277; Kurz ii. 59. Vern. Al t ach, Hind.; Alleri, allddi, Panch Mehals; 
Hardij Nep. ; Noona, Tarn. ; Toghur, togara mogali, mogali, manja pavatti, 
Tel.; Achu, Uriya ; Nyau, Burm. ; AH, Gondi. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark corky, brittle, brown or 
grey, with numerous deep, longitudinal cracks. Wood red, often yellow, 
with red streaks, or brown, moderately hard, close-grained. Annual 
rings faintly marked. Pores small, scanty, generally in radial lines 
between the numerous, fine and moderately broad medullary rays. 

Bengal, Burma, Guzerat, South India. 

Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, according to Skinner, No. 97 
( M. citrifolia) 30 Ibs. per cubic foot ; Wallich 29 Ibs. ; our specimens give 41 Ibs. 
Skinner gives P = 410. The wood is durable : Wallich's specimen (No. B 2690), cut 
in Burma in 1828, was quite sound when cut up after 50 years in Calcutta. It is used 
for plates and dishes. The bark of the root is largely used for dyeing red and yellow. 

Ibs. 
C 1130. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces . . 36 



C 1307. Gumsiir, Madras 
C 1246. 

B 2690. Tavoy (Wallich 1828) 

No. 34. Salem Collection 



42 

47 
41 

40 



17. LEPTODERMIS, Wall. 

1. L. lanceolata, Wall. ; Brandis 279. Vern. Jogia padera, Kumaun. 

A small shrub of the North- Western Himalaya, generally on rocks 
between 5,000 and 10,000 feet. Bark thin, grey. Wood hard, white. 
Pores very small, scanty. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad. 

Ibs. 
H 2822. Simla, 6,000 feet . . . . . . . .48 



ORDER LVII. COMPOSITE, 

The largest Order of plants not only in India, but in the world. With very few 
exceptions, all the species are herbaceous. There are, however, genera containing shrubs 
or small trees. They belong to the following Tribes : 



Tribe I. VernonieaB 
,, IT. Asteroideae 
III. Inuloidera 
IV. Anthemideae 
,, V. MutisiacesB 



Vemonia. 

Microglossa. 

Blumea, Pluchea and Inula. 

Artemisia. 

Leucomeris. 



Microglossa volubilis, DC. ; Kurz ii. 82, is a large climber of the hills of Martaban 
and Tenasserim, found in second-growth forests. Blumea balsamifera, DC. ; Kurz ii. 
82 (Conyza balsamifera, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 427; Gamble 50) Vern. Poun(innt-thchi;t, 
Burm., is a shrub which comes up freely on old cultivated lands in Northern an. I Hast- 
ern Bengal and Burma. Pluchea indica, Less. ; Kurz ii. 83. Vern. Kayu, Burin., is 
a large evergreen shrub of tidal forests on the coasts of Chittagong, Burma and the 
Aixliimans. Inula eupatorioides, DC., and Inula Cappa, D(J., are small shrubs of 
the Himalaya. Leucomeris contains two species : L. sj>ccf(tbi/ift, Don. Vern. 
Pamva, Kumaun ; Bhoea, phusrae, Nep., a small tree of Nepal, also found in Garh- 
wal ; and L. decora, Kurz ii. 78, a d.ridii'nis tree of the Eng forests of Promc 



Ternonia. ] COMPOSITE. 233 

1. VERNONIA, Schreb. 

About 7 species of small trees or climbers. V. Wightiana, Bltb. and Hook, f . 
(Monosis Wightiana, Beddome t. 226), is a tree of the Nilgiri Hills. V. Kurzii, 
C. B. Clarke ; Kurz ii. 80, is a small tree of the toungyas in the Martaban Hills ; and 
V. arborea, Hani., is found in Tenasserim. The other three species are Burmese 
climbers. 

1. V. volkameriasfolia, DC.; Beddome t. '225; Gamble 50. V. acu- 
minata, DC. ; Kurz ii. 79. 

A small tree. Bark brown. Wood whitish, turning pale brown, 
moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized, often in short radial lines. 
Medullary rays numerous, fine and moderately broad. Pith large. 

Eastern Himalaya, South India and Burma. 

Weight, 3 1'5 Ibs. This is probably Kyd's Vernonia (major) Weight 31 '5 Ibs. 
P = 383. 

E. 3312. Pankabari, Darjeeling, 3,000 feet. 

2. ARTEMISIA, Linn. 

Contains the " Wormwoods," only one of which reaches the size of a small shrub. 
The leaves of many species are used as a febrifuge and in the preparation of 
"absinthe." 

1. A. vulgaris, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 420 ; Gamble 50. Vern. 
Naga, naga dona, dona, Hind., Beng. ; Titapat, Nep. 

Bark thin, with longitudinal fissures. Wood grey, hard. Pores 
very small ; in short radial lines between the distant, fine and moderately 
broad medullary rays. 

A gregarious shrub, coming up on old cultivations between 3,000 and 6,000 feet in 
the Sikkim Hills, and often covering large tracts of land until killed down by the 
tree growth which succeeds it. This is probably the Nagdana of Cachar, said by 
Mr. Brownlow to be one of the plants on which the Attacus Atlas silkworm is fed. 

Its ashes when burnt are considered to give a good manure for cultivation. 

E 2857. Tukdah Forest, Darjeeling, 5,000 feot. 



ORDER LVIII. GOODENOVIEJE. 

Sccevola Ronigii, Vahl. ; Kurz ii. 84 (8. Taccada, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 527.) Vern. 
Penglai htan, Burrn., placed by .Kurz under Campanulacece, but in this Order by 
Bentham and Hooker in the Genera Plantarum II. 538, is an evergreen large shrub, 
common in the tidal forests of Tenasserim and the Andamans. It has a soft, spongy 
pith, and coarse, milky, fibrous wood. 



ORDER LIX. VACCINIACE5J. 

An Order of small trees or shrubs, erect or epiphytic, of the mountains of Eastern 
and Southern India. It contains 4 genera : Agapetes, Pentapterygium, Vacciniiim 
and Corallolotrys. Agapetes contains about 16 species, mostly epiphytical. A. 
variegata, G. Don (Thibandia variegata, Wall. ; Royle t. 79, C"ratostema variegata, 
Roxb, Fl. Ind. ii. 4.13, Vaccinium variegatum, Kurz ii. 88) Vern. JaJamnt, Garo, 



234 VACCINIACE.E. [ FacciniiiM. 

is a shrub, often epiphytic, of the Khasia and Garo Hills, Sylhet, Chittagong and 
Tenasserim. A. obovata, Don (Vaccinium obovatum, Wight; Gamble 50) Vern. 
Batay, Nep., is a common shrub of the hill forests of Sikkim and Bhutan. A. 
saligna, Bth. and Hook. f. ; Gamble 50, is a large epiphytic shrub of the Sikkiin 
Hills from 1,000 to 5,000 feet, whose leaves are said by Hooker to be used as a sub- 
stitute for tea. A. Wallichiana, Wight, and A. hirsuta, Wight, are shrubs of 
Sylhet ; A. verticillata, Wight, and A. odontocera, Wight, of the Khasia Hills and 
Burma ; and A. auriculata, Griff., is an epiphytic shrub of Burma. 

Pentapterygium contains 3 species, among which P. serpens, Bth. ; Gamble 50. 
Vern. Kali hurchu, Nep. ; J^umbuten, Lepcha, is a haudsorne epiphytic shrub common 
on trees and banks about Darjeeling. 

Corallolotrys acuminata, Hook. f. and Bth. (Vaccinium acuminatum, Kurz ii. 
90), is an evergreen shrub of Eastern Bengal and Burma. 

1. VACCINIUM, Linn. 

About 12 species, of which 4 occur on the Nilgiris and the rest in Eastern Bengal 
and Burma. V. Leschenaultii, Wight ; Beddome t. 227. Vern. Anduvan, Nilgiris, 
is a pretty tree with an edible fruit, said by Beddome to have a fine-grained rose- 
coloured wood. F. rotundifoliiim, Wight, and V. neilgherrense, Wight ; Beddome 
cxxxvi., are also small trees of the hills of South India. F. Donianum, Wight; Kurz 
ii. 91, is a large shrub of Burma and the Khasia Hills. F. Dunalianum, Wight, is 
an epiphytic shrub of Sikkim. Bhutan and the Khasia Hills. 

1. V. serratum, Wight; Gamble 50. Vern. Charu t Nep. 
A shrub, often epiphytic. Bark brown with white lenticels. Wood 
white. Pores extremely small. Medullary rays broad, wavy. 

Sikkim, Bhutan and the Khasia Hills, from 4,000 to 8,000 feet. 
E 3296. Babookhola ; Darjeeling, 4,000 feet. 



ORDER LX. EEICACE^E. 

' Contains about 6 Genera of usually handsome-flowered Indian trees or shrubs ; some 
of these, however, especially the genera Cassiope and Diplarche, contain merely small 
prostrate heath-like plants, found in the Inner Himalaya. The Genera belong to 
2 Tribes, viz. : 

Tribe I. Andromedea3 . . . . Gaultheria, Caesiope, Pieris 

and JEnkianthus. 
II. Rhodorea3 Diplarche and Rhododendron. 

Gaultheria contains about 5 species. G.fragrantissima,7Va\\. ; Beddome cxxxvi. 
Vern. Kappuru, Cingh., is a common shrub of the Nilgiri and Pulney Hills and 
Ceylon. G. punctata, Bl. ; Kurz ii. 92 (in this he includes G. fragrantissimd) is 
an evergreen shrub of the hill forests of Martaban at 6,000 to 7,000 feet ; and G. 
Griffithiana, Wight ; Gamble 51, is a small shrub of the hills of Sikkim and Bhutan 
from 7,000 to 9,000 feet. Cassiope fastigiata, Don, Vern. Chhota lewar, Beas ; 
Seeru, Chor ; JEamba, Kumaun, is the "Himalayan Heather" of travellers in the 
North- West Himalaya ; it often covers large areas like the European heather. It was 
also found by Hooker in Sikkim at Mon Lepcha. The common " Heather" or " Ling " 
of Europe is Calluna vulgaris, Linn. 

Bark generally thin. Wood compact, even-grained. Pores uniform 
and uniformly distributed, small or very small, numerous. Annual rin^s 
generally marked by belt of porous wood. Medullary rays short, 
generally fine or very fine. 






Pieris. ] ERICACEAE. 235 

1. PIERIS, Don. 

P. lanceolata, Don, is a small tree of the Khasia Hills, and P. fonnosa, Don 
(Andromeda formosa, Wall. ; Brandis 280. Vern. Sheaboge, Nep.), an evergreen tree 
of the Himalaya from Kumaun to Bhutan. 

1. P. OValifolia, Don. Andromeda ovalifolia, Wall. ; Brandis 280 ; 
Kurz ii. 92 ; Gamble 50. Vern. Ayatta, eilan, dial, arnr, arwdn, aira, 
rattan/cat, erana, yarta, Pb. ; Aydr, Hind. ; Anjir, angiar, aigiri, jag- 
guckal, Nep. ; Piazay, Bhutia ; KangsJiior, Lepoba. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark brown, peeling- off in long narrow- 
strips, deeply cleft, tbe clefts often extending spirally round tbe stem. 
Wood ligbt reddish brown, moderately hard. Annual rings marked 
by numerous larger pores in the spring wood. Pores small in the spring 
wood, very small in the autumn wood. Medullary rays fine, short, marked 
on a radial section as long narrow bands. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Assam, usually between 4,000 and 8,000 feet, 
Khasia Hills, and hills of Mavtaban from 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 

Growth slow. Brandis says 34 rings per inch ; our specimens gave 18 rings per 
inch for the Simla and 6 rings for the Darjeeling specimen. Weight, 41 Ibs. per cubic 
foot. Wood not durable, warps and shrinks very badly in seasoning, is only used for 
fuel and charcoal. The young leaves and buds are poisonous to goats ; they are 
used to kill insects, and an infusion of them is applied in cutaneous diseases. The 
bark of the Darjeeling tree is not so characteristically thick ast hat of the North- 
West tree. 

Ibs. 

H 17. Simla, 7,000 feet 41 

E 3328. Darjeeling, 6,500 feet 

2. ENKIANTHUS, Lour. 

1. E. himalaicus, Hook. f. and Th. ; Gamble 50. Vern. Chothn, 
Nep. 

A small tree with thin [grey bark. Wood white, moderately hard, 
even-grained. Annual rings marked by a belt of more numerous pores. 
Pores very small and extremely small. Medullary rays moderately 
broad and fine. Numerous, wavy, fine, concentric bands of soft tissue. 

Sikkim Himalaya, 10,000 to 12,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 40 rings per inch of radius. 

E 976. Chumbi Valley, Tibet, about 10,000 feet. 

3. RHODODENDRON, Linn. 

Contains about 50 species, found chiefly and in great abundance and of great 
beauty in the inner Sikkiin Himalaya. Four species extend to the North-West 
Himalaya, three to the hills ot Burma, and one to the Nilgiris. Some species are 
epiphytic, and among these are found two which are perhaps the finest and largest 
flowering, viz. : J..Da2A0uue,Hook. f. ; Gamble 52. Vern. Guras,Nep. and H. Edge- 
worthii, Hook. f. ; Gamble 52, both of Sikkim, the first with very large cream coloured 
scented flowers, the second with woolly leaves and pure white flowers, having the odour 
of cinnamon. Some species are only small heath-like bushes found on the rocks at 
high elevations; among these are R. Anthopoyon, Don; Brandis 282. Vern. Nlchni 
Mfffankdf, ncra, Jlu'lum ; Tnzak-tsum, Kashmir ; Kdizaban, morua, talisa, Ravi; 
Talixri, Beas; 2W.svV. Sutlej ; Tulisfar, Kumaun; Palu, Bhutia, found in the Hima- 
laya from Kashmir to Sikkim above 11,000 feet, and on the Chor and Kedarkanta, 



2136 ERICACEAE. [ Rhododendron. 

with white or pale yellow flowers ; R. setosum, Don. Vern. Tsalu, Bhutia, a red- 
flowered shrub of Sikkim which, with the last, gives a very strong and somewhat 
unpleasant aromatic scent; and R. lepidotum, Wall. ; Brandis 282; Gamble 52. Vern. 
Tsaluma, tsuma, Bhutia, with reddish flowers. R.formosum, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 94, 
is a small shrub of the Khasia and Nattoung Hills, above 7,000 feet. R. moul- 
meinense, Hook.; Kurz ii. 94, an evergreen tree of the hills of Martaban and 
Tenasserim above 4,000 feet. R. Hodgsoni, Hook. f. ; Gamble 5, is a small tree of 
Sikkim from the wood of which the Tibetan yak saddles are frequently made, and 
whose leaves are used for plates and lining baskets. R. nivale, Hook, f., found at 
17,500 to 18,000 feet altitude in the Sikkim Himalaya, is a small shrub which probably 
attains the highest elevation of any known woody plant. 

The Indian rhododendrons are all characterised by even-grained 
wood, soft or moderately hard ; by very fine and extremely fine pores, 
more numerous in the spring wood ; and by fine, generally short medullary 
rays. The wood is apt to warp, with the exception of that of R. argen* 
teum and R. Falconeri t 

1. R. arboreum, Sm. ; Beddome t. 228 ; Brandis 281 ; Kurz ii. 93 ; 
Gamble 51. R. puniceum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 409. Vern. Chhdn, 
Hazara; Ardawal, Jhelum ; Manddl, Chenab; Chin, dru, Ravi; Bras, 
broa, burans, burunsh, Beas to the Sarda River ; Brus, Kumaun ; Bhordns, 
ffttrds t ghonds, taggu, lal gurds, Nep. ; Etok, Bhutia, Lepcha ; Billi, 
poomaram, Nilgiris ; Ma-ratmal, Cingh. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark 1 inch thick, reddish brown, peeling 
off in small flakes. Wood soft, reddish white or reddish brown, close 
and even-grained, apt to warp and shrink. Annual rings marked by a 
belt of slightly larger pores in the spring wood. Pores very small and 
extremely small, uniformly distributed. Medullary rays fine and 
moderately broad, short, visible on a radial section. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Bhutan between 3,000 and 11,000 feet, hills of 
Southern India and Ceylon, Karennee Hills in Burma. 

Growth slow : according to Brandis 14 rings per inch of radius ; our specimens give 
12 rings for the North- West specimens, and 22 to 36 rings for those from Sikkim. 

Weight, 41 '4 Ibs. per cubic foot on an average of 5 specimens, the Sikkim ones 
weighing 39, while the Simla specimens give 45 Ibs. The wood seasons very badly, and 
is chiefly used for fuel and charcoal, but is also sometimes employed for building and 
for making dishes, in Sikkim for " kukri " handles, boxes and other small articles, 
and on the Nilgiris for gun-stocks and posts. The flowers are eaten and are made 
into preserves ; they are commonly offered in temples. 

ibB. 
H 3171. Dungagalli, Hazara, 7,000 feet ....;.... 

H 14. Simla, 7,000 feet 45 

H 73. Mashobra, Simla, 7,000 feet 45 

E 371. Senchul forest, Darjeeling, 7,500 feet . . . . . 39 

^ 2 3gg;}Tonglo,Daijeeling, 10,000 feet . ... . . .39 

The two last are the species JR. Campbellice, Hook. f. ; Gamble 51, distinguished 
from R. arboreum, Sm., by the ferruginous tomentuin and cordate base of the leaf, 
but probably only a variety. 

2, R. argenteum, Hook. f. ; Gamble 51. Vern. Kali gurds, 
putting a, Ncp. ; Etok-amat, Lepcha. 

An evergreen tree. Bark reddish brown, peeling off in small scales. 
Wood yellowish, with darker heartwood, shining, soft, close and even- 
grfthied. Pores very small, somewhat more numerous in the spring wood. 



Rhododendron.] ERICACEAE. 237 

Medullary rays of two sizes,* very fine and very numerous between fewer 
short and moderately broad rays. 

Hills of Sikkim, common on the outer ranges round Darjeeling and Dumsong, from 
6,000 to 10,000 feet. 

. Growth slow, 27 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 391bs. per cubic foot. The 
wood warps less than that of R. arboreum. Flowers pure white, with a purple throat. 

Ibs. 
E 372. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 9,000 feet 39 

3. R. Falconer!, Hook. f. ; Gamble 51. Vern. Kurlinga, Nep. ; 
Kegu, Bhutia. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark reddish brown, peeling- off 
in flakes ; inner bark purple red. Wood reddish white, shining 1 with a 
beautiful satiny lustre, takes a beautiful polish, hard. Annual rings 
marked by more numerous pores in the spring- wood. Pores very small 
and extremely small. Medullary rays fine and moderately broad, short. 

Hills of Sikkim, especially the summit of Tonglo, at 10,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 17 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 39 Ibs. per cubic foot. Does 
not warp. Flowers cream-coloured. 

Ibs. 
E 369. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet 39 

4. R. barbatum, Wall. ; Gamble 51. Vern Gurds, chimal, Nep.; 
K&mu, Bhutia. 

A small evergreen tree. Wood light pinkish red, shining 1 . Annual 
rings marked by a belt of more numerous and larger pores. Pores 
very small and extremely small. Medullary rays fine and very fine, 
numerous. 

Eastern Himalaya, from 8,000 to 11,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 35 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 39 Ibs. per cubic foot. Flowers 
deep crimson. 

Ibs. 
E 375. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet 39 

5. R. campanulatum, Don ; Brandis 281 ; Gamble 52. Vern. 
Gaggar, yurmi, Kashmir; Sarngar, shinwala, Ravi; Shargar, Beas ; 
Simrung, Sutlej ; Chimul, Kumaun; Cheriala, teofosa, Nep. 

An evergreen shrub with thin grey bark. Wood light pinkish red, 
moderately hard. Annual rings distinctly marked by more numerous 
pores in the spring wood. Pores very small and extremely small. 
Medullary rays fine, very short. 

Inner Himalaya from the Indus to Nepal, between 9,500 and 14,000 feet. Outer 
ranges on Chor and Kedarkanta. Sikkim at 11,000 feet (C. B. Clarke). 

Growth moderate to slow. Our specimens shew 28 rings per inch of radius ; while 
Ailcin with Wallich's specimens found 8'4 rings per inch, very distinctly marked. 
Weight, 39 Ibs. per cubic foot. Flowers light pink, lilac or mauve. 

Ibs. 

H 121. Jalari Pass, Seoraj, Kulu, 10,000 feet 39 

H 128. Kotang Pass, Kulu, 13,000 feet 

6. R. fulgens, Hook. f. ; Gamble 51. Vern. Chimal, Nep. 

A small tree or large shrub. Wood grey, darker in the centre, 
moderately hard, even-grained. Annual rings marked by more porous 



238 ERICACEAE. [ Rhododendron. 

wood at the inner edge. Pores very small. Medullary rays short, fine, 
very numerous. 

Sikkim Himalaya, from 12,000 to 14,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 25 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 36 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
Flowers deep crimson. 

Ibs. 
E 2957. Sandiikpho, Darjeeling, 12,000 feet . . 36 

7. E. cinnabarinum, Hook. f. ; Gamble 51. Vern. Bulu, Nep. ; 
Kema Icechoong, Lepcha. 

A large shrub with thin grey bark. Wood grey, moderately hard, 
even-grained, warps. Annual rings not visible. Pores very small. 
Medullary rays short, fine. 

Sikkim Himalaya above 12,000 feet. 

Weight, 42 Ibs. per cubic foot. The leaves are poisonous and the smoke of the 
wood causes inflammation of the face and eyes, according to Hooker. Flowers scarlet. 

Ibs. 
E 2958. Sandukpho, Darjeeling, 12,000 feet 42 



ORDER LXL EPACEIDE^. 

An Australian Order, of which one species only extends north to Tenasserim, viz. 
Leucopogon malayanus, Jack ; Kurz ii. 95, an evergreen, small, rigid shrub. 



ORDER LXII. PLUMBAGINE^J. 

An Order containing only one Indian species, ^gialitis annulata, E. Br. ; 
Kurz ii. 96 (^E. rotundifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. Ill), is a small evergreen treelet witli 
a conically thickened trunk, found in the tidal forests of the Sundarbans, Chittagong, 
Arracan, Burma and the Andaman Islands. 



ORDER LXIII. MYESINE^E. 

Contains 6 Genera of Indian trees, shrubs, or climbers, belonging to the following 
Tribes : 

Tribe I. Mseseae ...... Mcesa. 

II. Eumyrsineae Myrsine, Samara, Ardisia 

ami ^Egiceras. 
III. Theophrasteae Reptonia. 

Wood compact, close-grained. Pores very small or extremely small, 
often in groups and radial or oblique lines. Medullary rays distant, 
broad. 

1. M^ESA, Forskal. 

Contains 10 to 12 species of shrubs or trees. M. indica A. DC. ; Beddome 
cxxxvii. ; Hrandis 283; Kurz ii. 99; (Iambic ~>'2 (/{...t/mfrt/s im/ira. Koxb. Fl, Ind. i. 
557) Vern. Kalsis, Kuinaun ; 2U&, Bombay ; Bilaunt, Ni-|>. ; P&etf ttjpoA, Mohi ; 
Ramjani, Beng. ; Tamomlan, Miigh, is a shrub ol' tin- Siib-Himalnvan tract from 
the Ganges to Assam, Bengal. Soiilh India and Burma. M. (tri/cntca, Wall. ; liraudis 



. ] MYI: 239 

283. Vern. Phusera, gogsa, tfind., is a large shrub of the outer Himalaya, in 
Kumaun and Nepal. M. macrophylla, Wall. ; Gamble 52. Vern. Phusera, Kumaun ; 
Bogoti, Nep. ; Tufjom, Lepcha, is a common small tree of the North-East Himalaya, 
especially in second-growth forest. M. ramentacea, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 99. Vern. Mai- 
;/////v//^,Syllict, is ;i small tree of Eastern J5cnir;il, Chittagong, Burma and the Anda- 
mans, also of second-growth forest, and said by Kurz to have a brown, heavy, close- 
grained, brittle wood. 

1. M. montana, A. DC. ; under M. indica, A. DC. in Brandis 283 ; 
Gamble 52. Vern. Bilauni, Nep. ; Purmo, Lepcha. 

An evergreen, gregarious shrub or small tree. Bark thin, reddish 
brown. Wood soft. Pores small, scanty, uniformly distributed. Medul- 
lary rays moderately broad, numerous. 

North-East Himalaya from Nepal eastwards, Eastern Bengal and Burma (var. 
1$. elonqata = M. paniculata, A. DC. ; Kurz ii. 99) often forming coppice-like denae 
second-growth forests at elevations from 3,000 to 6,000 feet on the Sikkim and Bhutan 
Hills. 

Growth rather fast, 6 rings per inch of radius ; used only for fuel and rough 
house-posts. 

E 2389. Tukdah Forest, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet. 

2. MYRSINE, Linn. 

Contains 3 to 5 species. M. capitellata, Wall. ; Beddome t. 234 ; Brandis 286 
(M. avenis, DC. ; Kurz ii. 105), is a small tree of Eastern Bengal, South India, Ceylon 
and Burma, said by Beddome to have a hard and durable timber. Weight, 22 Ibs. 
(Wallich). 

1. M. semiserrata, Wall.; Brandis 285; Kurz ii. 105; Gamble 52. 
Vern. Parwana, kmgkung, gogsa, bamora, gaunta, Hind.; Chupra, 
Kumaun; Bilsi, beresi, kalikatha,bilauni, Nep.; Tungcheong, Lepcha. 

A shrub, small or middling sized tree. Bark ash-coloured, dark, 
nearly black, with prominent dots. Wood red, hard. Pores extremely 
small, in small patches between the distant, broad medullary rays. 

Outer Himalaya from the Beas to Bhutan, from 3,000 to 9,000 feet, Nattoung 
Hills of Martaban. 

Wallich says the wood is chocolate-coloured, heavy, hard, handsome and used in 
Nepal for carpenters' work. It splits rather and is usually too small for anything 
but firewood. 

Ibs. 

H 2830. The Glen, Simla, 6,000 feet 51 

E 3322. Darjeeling, 6,500 feet . . . . . ~ 

2. M. africana, Linn. ; Brandis 286. Vern. Bebrang, kaMum, 
kokhuri, karnk, gugul, julru, chac/iri, pratshu, branchu, kkiishin, pdpri, 
banddru, bin sin, atuljan, Pb. ; Guvaini, pakari cha, chiipra, North- 
Western Provinces. 

A small, evergreen shrub. Wood white, moderately hard. Pores 
extremely small, often in short radial lines, between the distant, fine 
medullary rays. 

Afghanistan, Salt Range and Outer Himalaya as far as Nepal. 
IVuit used as an anthelminthic, sold under the name of Bebrany, and often used 
as a substitute for that of Samara Ribes. The shrub might be useful for hedges. 

H 2829. Simla, 6,000 feet 49 



MYRSINE^J. [ Samara. 

3. SAMARA, Linn. 

Contains about 10 species of shrubs or climbers, of which most are found in Eastern 
Bengal, South India and Burma. S. Ribes, Benth. and Hook. f. (Embelia Ribes, 
Burm. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 586 ; Beddome cxxxviii. ; Brandis 284 ; Kurz ii. 101 ; 
Gamble 53). Vern. Bebrang, Sylhet; Himalcheri, Nep.; *Kdrkanme, Bombay, 
is a large climber of Eastern and Northern Bengal, South India, Ceylon and Burma. 
The berries are used as an anthelminthic, and are used to adulterate black pepper. 
S. Jloribunda, Bth. and Hook. f. (Embelia Jloribunda, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 102 ; Gamble 
53). Vern. Himalcheri, Nep. ; Payong, Lepcha, is a large climber of the hills of Sikkim 
and of Nattoung in Burma. It has a pinkish-white wood with very broad medul- 
lary rays and large regular pores, sometimes subdivided and often in concentric lines. 
(E 3294, Sepoydura, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet.) S.frondosa, King ; Gamble 52. Vern. 
Amili, Nep. ; Monkyourik, Lepcha, is a common climber of the Darjeeling forests. 

1. S. robusta, Benth. and Hook. f. Embelia robusta, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 
587 ; Beddome cxxxvii. ; Brandis 284; Kurz ii. 102; Gamble 53. Vern. 
Amti, ambat, barbatti, byebering, Bombay; Bebrang, Oudh; Kopadalli, 
Gondi; Bharangeli, Kurku ; Kalay bogoti, Nep.; Aipmwaynway, Burm. 

A large shrub or small tree. Bark i inch thick, brown, with hori- 
zontal cracks. Wood reddish. Pores small, often in groups or short 
radial lines, the transverse diameter many times smaller than the distance 
between the extremely broad medullary rays. Yellow spots shewing in 
the middle of the rays. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, Bengal, Behar, Western India 
and Burma. 

Ibs, 

2478. Gonda, Oudh . . 37. 

2. S. undulata, Benth. and Hook. f. Choripetalum undulatum, A. 
DC. ; Gamble 53. Veru. Amilpati, Nep. 

A climbing shrub. Bark brown, with prominent lenticels. Wood 
yellowish white, moderately hard. Pores moderate-sized, more numer- 
ous in the inner part of each annual ring. Medullary rays moderately 
broad to broad, short, well defined. 

North-East Himalaya, 3,000 to 6,000 feet. 
E 3302. Tukdah, Darjeeling, 5,000 feet. 

4. ARDISIA, Sw. 

Shrubs or small trees. Brandis describes 2 from the North- Western Himalaya ; 
Beddome 9 species from South India and Ceylon ; and Kurz 20 from Burma and the 
Andamans ; while a large number occur in the North-Eastern Himalaya and E:ist'.Tii 
Bengal. A. humilis, Vahl. ; Beddome cxxxix. ; Brandis 287 ; Kurz ii. 110 ; Gambit 5;} 
(A. aolanancea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 580), Vern. Ban-jam, Beng. ; Hadna, Cuttack; 
Conda-mayur, Tel. ; Kantcna, maya rawa, C. Prov. ; Bodina gidda, Mysore ; 
Gyengmaope, Burm., is a large shrub of the moister zones of India and Burma, extend- 
ing as far to the north-west as the Jumna. A. Jloribunda, Wall. ; Brandis 287 ; 
Gamble 53, is a small tree of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna to Assam. A. 
pauciflora, Heyne, A. paniculata, Roxb., A. rhomboidea, Wight, and A. cUiptica, 
Thunb. ; Beddome cxxxviii., are common small trees of South India and Ceylon. 

1. A. crispa, DC. ; Kurz ii. 113. A. crenulata, Vent. ; Gamble 53. 
Vern. Chamlani, Nep. ; Dent/ok, Lepcha. 

A small erect shrub. Wood white, moderately hard. Pores extremely 
small. Medullary rays short, broad. 



Ar< Una. ] MYIISIM 211 

Eastern Himalaya, from 4,000 to 8,000 feet. Martaban at similar elevations. 
Has pretty wax-like flowers and bright red berries, which ripen in winter. Very 
coinmom undergrowth in the hill forests. 

E 3315. Pugraingbong, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet. 

5. ^EGICERAS, Gaertn. 

1. -ZE. COrniculata, Blanco; Kurz ii. 114. -J?. majus, Gaertn. ; 
Beddome cxxxix. ; lloxb. Fl. Iiid. iii. 130. Vern. Uahi, khalshi, Beng. ; 
Boot a yet, Burm. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark grey, i inch thick. Wood hard, close- 
grained. No annual rings. Pores small, uniformly distributed. Medul- 
lary rays short, scanty, between moderately broad and broad. 

Coast forests and tidal creeks of the Western Coast, Bengal, Burma and the 
Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 40 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used for firewood and for native huts 
in Jessore. 

Ibs. 

E 406. Sundarbans 40 

5. REPTONIA, A. DC. 

1. R. buxifolia, A. DC. -, Brandis 287. Vern. Garar, Afg. ; 
Guryura, Punjab. 

A large evergreen shrub or small tree. Bark thin, dark grey, 
tesselated by deep longitudinal and transverse cracks. Wood light brown, 
with irregular purplish-brown heartwood, very hard, heavy, close and even- 
grained. Annual rings indistinct. Pores very small, arranged in wavy, 
radial, branching and anastomosing narrow white belts, of varying 
width, joined by fine, wavy, concentric lines which divide the firmer 
and darker tissue into irregularly-shaped figures, in which the white, 
fine, numerous and regularly distributed medullary rays are distinctly 
visible. 

Salt Range and hills Trans-Indus. 

Weight, 71 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood worthy of attention. The fruit is eaten, 
and the seeds are strung in rosaries. 

Ibs 

P 169. Kohat : 71 

P 912. Salt Eange 



ORDER LXIV. SAPQTACEJE. 

Contains 9 genera of trees, sometimes of very large size, and chiefly found in the 
moist zones. These genera are ChrysopJiyllum, Sarcosperma, Sideroxylou, Achras, 
Isonandra, .Dichopsis, JSassia, Payena and Mimusops. 

Sideroxylon contains 4 species, the chief of which are 8. tomentosum, RoxK, Fl. 
Ind. i. 602 ; Kurz ii. 116 (Achras tomentosa, Beddome cxlii.). Vern. HoodiyoUa, Kan. ; 
Tliitcho, Burm., an evergreen tree of Western Mysore and the Prome district in Burma ; 
anl #. clenriioides, Bth. and Hook. f. (Achras elengioides, DC.; Beddome t. :'.>/>) 
Vern. Paid, Tarn. ; Holay, Burghers, a common tree of the Western Ghats, whose 
wood is said by Beddome to be dull red, straight-grained, dense, and to be used for 
house beams and carpenters' planes; and whose fruit is made into pickles and curries. 

Arhras Sctpota, Linn.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 181; Beddome cxlii.; Brandis L'^. 
Kur/ ii. 118. The Sapota, Sapodilla, Bully Tree or Neesberry. Vern. Simi, clupai, 
Tain. ; Simcf, ippa, Tel. ; Twottapat t Burm., is a tree of American origin, which is grown 



242 SAPOTACK-fi. [ Chry&oplniUum. 

in gardens in India as far north as Saharanpur for its fine, good-flavoured fruit. 
Isonandra Wightiana, DC. ; Beddome cxli., is a common tree of the Western Ghats 
and Ceylon. /. obovata, Griff. ; Kurz ii. 120 (probably Dichopsis), is an evergreen 
tree of Tenasserim yielding a sort of gutta-percha (B 2687, Tavoy, from Wallich, 
1828, is perhaps this). 

The Argan tree of Morocco which is found growing gregariously in forests in the 
Atlas Mountains is Argania Sideroxylon, R. S. Its leaves and fruit are used for 
fodder and an oil resembling olive oil is extracted from the seeds. 

Wood hard, smooth, dura ble. Heartwood dark-coloured, generally 
red. Pores small and moderate-sized, in short, wavy, radial lines, which 
are frequently oblique. Medullary rays numerous, fine, equidistant, 
joined by fine, transverse bars or concentric lines of softer texture. 

1. CHRYSOPHYLLUM, Linn. 

1. C. Roxburgh!!, G. Don; Beddome t. 286; Thwaites Enum. 174; 
Kurz ii. 118. C. acuminatum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 599. The Star Apple. 
Vern. Petakara, Beng. ; PithogarJch, Ass. ; Hali, Kan. ; Tarsi, Mar. ; 
Lawiiluj Cingh. ; Thankya, Burm. 

An evergreen tree. Wood white, close-grained, moderately hard. 
Pores small, in short radial lines between the numerous, very fine 
medullary rays. 

Bengal, Burma, Western Ghats and Ceylon. 

Weight, according to A. Mendis, 39 Ibs, per cubic foot ; Kyd gives weight 40'o Ibs. 
and P = 710. Wood used for building. Fruit edible. 

Ibs. 
No. 48. Ceylon Collection (called Sideroxylon sp.) . . , .39 

2. SARCOSPERMA, Hook. f. 

Two trees of the Eastern Himalaya : 8. Crriffithii, Hook, f., and 8. arborea 
Hook. f. (Sideroxylon arboreum, Ham. ; Kurz in Trans. As. Soc. Beng. xlvi. ii. 
229 ; Gamble 53). Vern. Pahar lampati, Nep. ; Kulyatzo, Lepcha, a large tree of 
the Eastern Himalaya which is used in Sikkirn to make canoes. 

No. E 3316 from Chenga Forest, Darjeeling Terai, is probably this. Bark light- 
reddish brown, thin ; wood pink, moderately bard, rather light (30'5 Ibs. per cubic 
foot). Pores moderate-sized, in long wavy, radial lines. Medullary rays very numer- 
ous, fine, equidistant, the distance between two rays much less than the diameter of the 
pores. Concentric lines very indistinct. 

3. DICHOPSIS, Thw. 

About 3 species : D. elliptica, Benth. and Hook. f. (Bassia elliptica, Dalz. ; 
Beddome t. 43). Vern. Panchoti pala, Tarn. ; Panchonta, Kan., is a very large tree of 
the Western Ghats, affording a good timber and an inferior description of gatta-peroha. 
D. caloneura, Bth. and Hook. f. (Isonandra caloneura, Kurz ii. 119), is a tree of the 
Andaman Islands. D. Gutta, Bth. and Hook.f. (Isonandra Gutta,Hook.), is th< 
which yields the " Gutta-Percha" of commerce, of which large quantities are export i-d t.> 
Europe from Singapore and the Malay Archipelago, where the tree is indigenous. 

1. D. polyantha, Benth. and Hook. f. in Gen. Plant, ii. 
Bassia polyantha, Walk Isonandra poti/unlha, Kurz ii. 119. Vern. Tali, 
Beng.; Sill-kurta, Cachar ; Thainban, i\l;i^li. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Wood red, hard. Pores moderate- 

gized, in wuvy radial lines, sometimes slightly ol>li<|ui'. Medullary i 

very fine, not prominent. Fine, wavy, parallel and equidistant <-'>n- 
centric lines. 



Dichopais. ] 



SAPO'I 



243 



C':n:liar, Chittagong and Arracan. 

Weight, 68 Ibs. per cubic foot. M"u<-h valued in Caclinr and Chittagong. Maun 
says it does not final, hid he must ivfei- \ <_MV.-M wood. Kurz says it yields a good 
quality of gutta-percha in laruv i|ii;m1ii y. Major Lew in says it is used in Chittagoug 
for making lieds, tools, A.C.. and is sawn into boards lor Ilie Calcutta market. 



127-1, 

UiM. 

I'.tr/j. 



C.-.rl.ar .... 

Svl'u.-t .... 

Chittagong 

llinkl'eon-; IJ. -serve, Chittagong 



Iba. 
53 

53 



4. BASSIA, Ron. 

Contains 3 species of Indian trees with milky juice, useful for their timber as well 
as for many other products. 

Wood moderately hard, heartwood red. Pores moderate-sized, in 
short radial lines. Medullary rays equidistant, the distance between the 
rays less than the transverse diameter of the pores. 

1. B. latifolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 526; Beddome t. 41; Brandis 289. 
Vern. Mahwa,mowa,mahua, Hind.; Mahwa, ma7iula,maul,J$eng. ; Moka, 
Uriya ; lllitpij elupa, Jcat illipi, Tarn. ; Ippi, yeppa, Tel. ; Mahu t Saigas ; 
Irup) irrip, irfiu, Gondi ; Mohu, Kurku ; Moho, Mar. ; llonge, Kan. ; 
Poonam, Mai.; fyiindah (the oil). 

A large deciduous tree. Bark inch thick, grey, with vertical cracks, 
exfoliating in thin scales. Sap wood large ; heartwood reddish brown, 
from hard to very hard. Annual rings indistinct. Pores moderate-sized, 
not numerous, in short, sometimes oblique, radial, wavy lines between the 
numerous, fine, medullary rays, which are joined by numerous parallel, fine, 
transverse bars. 

Indigenous in the forests of Central India, Cultivated and self-sown throughout 
India. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following experi- 
ments : 



Experiment by 
whom made. 


Year. 


Wood whence procured. 


Weight. 


Number of 
experiments. 


Size of bar. 


Value of P. 












Ft. In. In. 




Cunningham 


1854 


Gwalior 


68 


1 


2x1x1 


715 


Skinner, No. 22 


1862 


South India . 


66 






760 


Fowkc 


1859 




63 







585 


R. Thompson 


1808 


Central Provinces 


53 


... 






l.i.st. 


1873 




66 








Smythies 


1878 


As below . 


64 


9 








The wood is not much used, as the tree is so prized for its flowers that it is rarely 
felled ; it has been tried for railway sleepers in the Central Provinces, and Beddome says 
it is used for the naves of wheels, for door and window frames and panels, for furniture 
and 'country vessels. The flowers are an important article of food in many parts of 
India ; they are eaten raw or cooked, or made into sweetmeats. They are also distilled 
into a coarse spirit. Mr. V. Ball, quoted in Dr. Hunter's Statistical Account of 
Bengal, Vol. XVI., page 48, has described the collection and use of the Mahua flowers 
in Chota Nagpore. He says that first class trees often yield about 30 maunds. The 
right of collection is usually sold both in the Government forests and by private 
owners, at a rate per tree varying from 4 annas to 2 or 3 rupees. The maliua 



244 SAPOTACE^J. [ ~Baxsi a. 

flowers are usually eaten mixed with sal seeds or leaves of other plants. Full 
description of the collection in Palamow is given by Mr. L. R. Forbes quoted at 
page 243 of the same Volume. In that description he says that in the Palamow 
Sub-division there are nearly 114,000 mahwa bearing trees. He says the average 
yield of a tree is about 2^ maunds, and that the flowers sell at about 12 annas 
per maund. The fruit, ripe or unripe, is eaten ; it has two envelopes, the 
outer two of which are eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable, and the inner one is 
dried and ground into meal. From the kernel a greenish yellow oil is obtained, 
which is eaten by the Gonds and other Central Indian tribes, and is used to adulterate 
ghee and in soap-making. It solidifies at a low temperature, but melts at a temperature 
of 110 ; and though it keeps well in a cold climate, in a hot one it soon becomes 
rancid and separates into two parts, a clear fluid oil above, and a thick brown substance 
below. One seer of oil is obtained from 4 seers of kernels. 

266. Garhwal (1868) .60 

O 1493. Kheri, Oudh ........ 65 

H 2969. Kumaun, 5,000 feet .... 66 






C 827. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar 

C 2771. Melghat, Berar 

C 1116. Ah iri Reserve, Central Provinces 

C 2731. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces (young) 

C 1243. Gnmsur, Madras 



69 



60 
52 
63 



2. B, longifolia, Willd. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 523 ; Beddome t. 42 ; 
Brandis 290. Vern. Kat illupi, ehipa, Tarn. ; Ippi, yeppa, pinna, Tel. ; 
Hippe, Kan. ; Ellupij Mai. ; Mee, Cingh. 

A large evergreen tree. Heartwood red, moderately hard, close- 
grained. Pores moderate-sized, prominent on a vertical section, in short 
radial lines between the uniform, equidistant, numerous, fine medullary 
rays which are joined by fine transverse bars. 

South India and Ceylon. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 23, 60 Ibs. ; Adrian Mendis 61 Ibs. Skinner, 
gives P = 730, Mendis 724. Beddome says it is very flexible and durable ; that it 
is valued for ship's keels, for trenails and for planking below the water line ; and that 
it is used for carts, furniture and bridge construction. The flowers are eaten in the 
same way as those of B. latifolia, and an oil is expressed from the ripe fruit, which is 
yellow, semi-solid and used for burning, for soap, and to adulterate ghee. It is also 
used medicinally, as well as the leaves, bark and the juice of the bark and young fruit. 

Ibs. 
No. 53. Ceylon Collection 61 

3. B. butyracea, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 527 ; Brandis 290 ; Gamble 53. 
Vern. Ckiura, chaiura, phulel, Kumaun ; Cheuli, Oudh ; Phalwara, 
Hind.; Churi, Nep.; Yel,yelpote, Lepcha. 

A deciduous tree. Bark i inch thick, dark grey, wood light brown, 
hard. Annual rings marked by a dark line. Pores moderate-sized, 
somewhat smaller than those of B. lati/olia, in radial lines of different 
length between the numerous equidistant, fine medullary rays, which 
are joined by fine transverse bars. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from Kumaun to Bhutan, between 1,500 and 4,500 feet. 

Growth fast, 3 to 4 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 62 Ibs. per cubic foot. The 
pulp of the fruit is eaten, and from the seeds a vegetable butter is extracted, of the 
consistence of fine lard and of a white colour. It does not melt under 120 ami keeps 
a long time without deteriorating. It makes good soap, and is useful for eaiulles 
as it is said to burn without smoke or unpleasant smell. When jicrfiuned, it is \\<^\ 
as an ointment and as an external application for rheumatism. The (lowers are not 
eaten. The bark is used in Sikkim i<> poison lish. 

Ibs. 

E 622. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling o'J 



Pay en a.} SAI-OTA< ' 24-5 

5. PAYENA, A. DC. 

Two species. P. parallcloneura, Kurz ii. 121, is an evergreen tree of the tropi- 
cal forests of Martaban and Tenasserim. 

1. P. lucida, DC.; Kurz. ii. 121. Ceratophorus Wigldii, Ilassk. 
Isonandra poly and ra t Wight Icon. t. 1589. Veru. Dolu-kurla, Cachar. 

An evergreen tree. Wood red, hard. Pores moderate-sized, in short 
radial lines. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous, uniform, 
equidistant. Numerous parallel, wavy, concentric lines, not very pro- 
minent. 

Cachar, Tenasserim (?). 

Weight, 45 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is used for planking. 

Ibs. 
E 1275. Cachar 45 

6. MIMUSOPS, Linn. 

Contains 4 Indian species. M. Roxburghiana, Wight ; Beddome cxlii. ; Brandis 
293 Vern. Kanu pala, Tarn. ; Renga, Kan., is a common tree of the forests of the 
Western Ghats. Beddome, evidently quoting Skinner's No. 96, M. indica, Vern. 
Palava, Tarn., gives weight =48 Ibs. and P 845 ; and says that the wood is reddish 
brown, rather coarse-grained, but strong, fibrous, durable and easily worked ; Brandis, 
however, doubts whether this is a species of Mimusops. It is used for house- 
building and for gun-stocks. 

Evergreen trees. Heartwood red, very hard. Pores small, in 
oblique lines. The distance between the rays equal to, or larger than, 
the transverse diameter of the pores. Numerous wavy, concentric 
lines. 

1. M. Elengi, Linn.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 236; Beddome t. 40 ; 
Brandis 293 ; Kurz ii. 123. Vern. BuTcal, lohl, Beng., Mar. ; Mulsdri, 
maulser, Hind. ; Magadam, Tarn. ; Pogada, TeL ; Bokal, boklu, mugali, 
Kan. ; Bar soli > Mey war ; Favoli, ovalli, Mar. ; Elengi, Mai. ; Khaya, 
Burrn. ; Moonemal, Cingh. 

A large evergreen tree. Bark dark grey, rough, deeply cracked with 
vertical and transverse fissures. Sapwood large, whitish, very hard. 
Heartwood red. Pores small, in short lines, which are generally radial, but 
often irregular. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous, uniform and 
equidistant. Many parallel,, wavy, concentric bands. 

Wild on the Western Ghats as far north as Khandalla, Northern Circars, Burma, 
Andaman Islands and Ceylon. Cultivated throughout India. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 94, 61 Ibs. ; Wallich 46 Ibs. ; Adrian Mendis, 
61 Ibs. ; our specimens give 60 Ibs., leaving out the Salem specimen, which is extra- 
ordinarily heavy. Skinner gives P = 632. Beddome says the wood is used for house 
building, carts and cabinet work. Its fragrant star-shaped flowers are used for 
garlands and are distilled to make a perfume. The fruit is eaten, and the seeds give 
an oil. The bark is astringent and is used as a febrifuge and tonic. 

Ibs 

W 1223. North Knnara 62 

D 1073. Arcot _ 

B 2224. Andaman Islands 60 

B 2241. 58 

No. 56. Ceylon Collection r>l 

No. 13. Salem Collection (marked Bassia longifolia} ... 87 



246 



SAPOTACE.E. 



f MiniUSOpS. 



2. M. indica, A. DC. ; Brandis 291. M. hevandra, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 238.; Beddome cxli. Vern. Khir, khirni, Hiud. ; Rain, Meywar; 
j kannu palle/fum. ; Pallepanlo, palla pandn, Tel. ; Khirni, Mar. ; 
iy Gondi ; P<ih't, Cingh. 
A large evergreen tree. Heartwood red, very hard. Pores small, 
in wavy, radial and oblique lines. Medullary rays fine, uniform, equidis- 
tant, very numerous. Concentric wavy lines irregularly distributed and 
less prominent than in AJ. Elengi. 

Mountains of South India extending in Central India to the sandstone hills of 
Pachinarhi, north of the Godavari. It is only found on sandstone, and frequently 
associated with Buchanania angustifolia and Hardwickia binata. 

Weight, Skinner, No. 95, gives 70 Ibs. ; A. Mendis 68 Ibs. ; our specimen gives 
only 60 Ibs. per cubic foot. Skinner gives P = 944, Mendis 1,052. The wood is 
tough, even- grained and durable ; it is used for sugar-mill beams, oil-presses, house- 
posts and for turning. The fruit is eaten. 

Ibs. 
D 1283. Anamalai Hills ......... 60 

No. 65. Ceylon Collection ......... 68 



3. M. littoralis, Kurz ii. 123. M. indica, Kurz, And. Report; 
Brandis 292. Andaman Bullet Wood. Vern. Kappali, Burm. ; Logola, 
And. 

A large evergreen tree with thin, smooth, dark-brown bark. Wood 
red, smooth, very hard and close-grained. Pores extremely small, 
elongated, subdivided, often in radial lines. Medullary rays very fine, 
very numerous, uniform and equidistant. Numerous parallel, equidistant, 
fine, wavy, concentric lines. 

Coast forests of the Andaman Islands and Tenasserim, in the Andamans, forming 
nearly pure forests on the level lands behind the beach and the mangrove swamps. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments : 



Experiment by 
whom conducted. 


Year. 


Wood whence procured. 


Weight. 


Number of 
experiments. 


Size of bar 
used. 


Value of P. 


Brandis 



1864 
1865-66 


Andamans 

M 


67 
66 
68 
71 
65 
64 


7 
7 
11 
6 
3 
1 


Ft. In. In. 

6x2x2 
6 x 2 x U 
2xlxf 
2 x 1 x 1 
6x2x2 
6 x 2 x Ii 


748 
963 
1,091 
779 
931 
1,090 


Bennett , 
Smythies 


1872 
1878 


M 
M 

if 


68 
66 

72 


8 
'3 


2 x 1 x f 


1,206 
J,U8 



The wood is handsome, it is close-grained and durable, but apt to split. It is used 
in the Andamans for bridges and house-posts, and Major Ford (1866) said it had 
been sent to Calcutta to be tried for sleepers. He also .^ays the bark is used to give 
a red dye. 

Iba. 

B 513. Andaman Islands 41 

B 2212. (1866) 75 

B 2497. (Home, 1874, No. 6) 72 



Dioapyros."] MENACED. 247 



ORDER LXV. 

Containing 2 Indian Genera of lives or shrubs, Maba and Diovpyrot, A full 
description of all the species of this Order is found in Mr. W. P. Hiern's " Monograph 
of the Ebenacea?," Cambridge Phil. Soc. Trans, xii. 1873. 

Mala contains 5 species. M. niyresccns, Dalz. and Gibs. Bombay Flora, 
p. 142. Vern. Ralctrura, Kan., is a small tree of the Western Ghats. M. buxifolia, 
Pers. ; Beddome cxlviii. ; Kurz ii. 139 (Ferriola buxifolia, Willd. ; Eoxb, Fl. Ind. 
iii. 790.) Vern. Iramballi, eruvalli, humbilli, Tarn. ; Nella maddi, alii, pishinna, 
Tel. ; Kalu-hdbaraleya, Cingh. ; Mepyoung, Burin., is a small evergreen tree of South 
India and Tenasserim ; it is said to have a dark-coloured, hard and durable wood, 
weighing according to Skinner, No. 89, 58 Ibs. ; P = 875. M. micrantha, Hien:. 
(Holochilus micranthus, Dalz. ; Beddome cxlvii.), is a tree of the Sahyadri hills of 
the Bombay Ghats. M. merguiensis, Hiern ; Kurz ii. 139, is a small tree of the 
Mergui Archipelago. M. andamanica, Kurz ii. 140, is an evergreen shrub of the 
Andaman Islands (see page 253). 

1. DIOSPYEOS, Linn. 

Contains 41 or 42 species. From the list given below, which has been taken from 
Mr. Hiern's Monograph, it will be seen that 4 species are found in Northern India, 
15 each in Burma and South India, 9 in Eastern Bengal and 6 in the Andamans ; 
most of the Ceylon species have been omitted : 

Section I. MELONIA 



1. 

2. 


D. insignis, Thw. 
D. Tupru, Buch. 


. S. India, Ceylon. 


3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 


D. Melanoxylon, Roxb. 
D. sylvatica, Roxb. . 
D. JiLurzii,T{iern. 
D. ehretioides, Wall. . 
D. hirsuta, Linn. f. . 
D. burma?iica, Kurz . 
D. densiflora, Wall. . 


. S. India. 
. S. India, Ceylon. 
. Andamans. 
. Burma. 
. S. India, Ceylon. 
. Burma. 
. Burma. 



Section II. EBENUS 

10. D. oocarpa, Thw S. India, Ceylon. 

11. D. qucesita, Thw Ceylon. 

Section III. NOLTTA 

12. D. Brandisiana, Kurz . . . Burma. 

13. -D. pruriens, Dalz S. India, Ceylon. 

Section IV. GUNISANTHUS 

14. D. foliolosa, Wall $. India. 

15. D. pilosula, Wall E. Bengal, Burma, Andaman*. 

16. Z>. paniculata, Dalz. . . . S. India. 

Section V. GUIACANA 

17. D. Horsfieldii, Hiern . . . Burma. 



Section VII. EEMELINUS 
18. D. stricta, Roxb. 


, E. Beno-al 


19. D- varlegata, Kurz . 
20. D. dasyi>Jujll.a, Kurz . 
21. D. oleifolia, Wall. . 
22. D. jiamcans, Hiern 
23. D. sapotoides, Kurz . 
24. D. niqt'icans, Wall. 
25. D. Ehenum, Kon, 


. Burma. 
. Burma. 
. Burma. 
. Burma, Andamans. 
. Burma. 
. E. Bong.-.!. 
. S. India, Ceylou. 



248 



EBKNACEvE. 



Section VIII. PITONIA 

26. D. lanceafolia, Roxb. 

27. D. undulata, Wall 

Section IX. LEUCOXYLON 

28. D. buxifolia, Hiern 

Section X. DANZLEEIA 
9Q ( D. montana, Roxb. ") 
' ( D. cordifolia, Roxb. j 

30. D. Lotus, Linn. 

31. D. Xaki, Linn 

32. D. chartacea, Wall 

33. D. vaccinioides, Ldl 



34. 7X Chloroxylon, Roxb. 

Section XL PAEALEA 

35. D. ramiflora, Roxb. 

36. D. ovalifolia, Wight 

Section XIV. CAVANILLEA 



E. Bengal. 
Burma, Andamans. 

S. India. 



N. India, S. India, and E. 

Bengal. 
N. India. 
E. Bengal. 
Burma. 
Andamans. 
S. India. 



E. Bengal. 

S. India, Ceylon. 



37. D. 



*. Per, 



Section XV. AMUXIS 

38. D. Toposia, Ham ..... E. Bengal, Ceylon. 

Unclassified 

39. D. grata, Wall. .... Nepal. 

40. D. orixensis, Wight . . . . S. India. 

41. D. pyrrhocarpa, Miq ..... Andamans. 

D. insignis, Thw. ; Beddome cxlv., is a large tree of the Anamalai Hills and Ceylon. 
Z>. sylvatica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 537 ; Beddome cxliii. Vern. Telia gada, Tel. 
KaTca suroli, Kan., is a common tree of the Western Ghats, with a white, strong wood. 
D. burmanica, Kurz ii. 133. Vern. Tai-beng, Burm., is a large tree of Burma, 
chiefly found in the Eng forests. D. pruriens, Palz. ; Beddome cxliv., is a small 
tree of the Western Ghats of Bombay, Mysore, Malabar and Ceylon, whose fruit 
is covered with stinging hairs. D. pilosula, Wall. (Gunisanthus pilosulus, DC. ; 
Kurz ii. 125), is a tree of the hills of Sylhet, the Pegu Yoma and the Andaman 
Islands. D. stricta, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 539, is a tall tree of Eastern Bengal and 
Chittagong. D. nigricans, Wall., is a tree of the Khasia Hills and Sylhet. 
Z>. lancecefolia, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 537; Brandis 297; Kurz ii. 136. Vern. Ardinia. 
Kumaun ; Gulal, Beng. ; Soilo, Khasia or Cachar, is an evergreen tree of Eastern 
Bengal and Tenasserim, extending westwards to Kumaun, and said by Roxburgh to 
have a hard, durable timber. D. buxifolia, Hiern (Z>. microphylla, Beddome cxlv.), 
is a large tree of the Anamalai Hills, Wynaad and S. Kanara. Z>. Kaki, Linn. ; 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 527, is a fruit tree of China and Japan found by Hooker in 
the Khasia HiUs, and said by Roxburgh to grow in Nepal. It is cultivated in India 
and called " Wilayati gab" D. Chloroxylon, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 538; Beddome clxiii. ; 
Brandis 297. Vern. Ninai, Bombay ; Illinda, aulanche, nella ulemira, Tel. ; Aiidi'Ji 
Gondi, is a tree or large shrub of Southern India from Guzerat and Orissa south- 
wards, having a hard and durable yellow wood. D. ramijtora, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 535. Vern. Gulal, uri gab, lleng., is a large tree of Eastern Bengal with a strong 
hardwood. D. Toposia, Ham.; Kurz ii. 128. (D. racemosa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 
.">:;;.) VYrn. Toposi, ffulal, Beng.; Kahakaala, Cingh., is a tree of UK- mountains 
of E. IVn^al and of (Joylon, with an edible fruit. 

Tho structure of the wood of the different species of f)it>.\/)//ro$ is 
very uniform,, and is distinguished by small JMMVS, often in radial lino, 
and line, VI.T) numerous, uniform und equidistant medullary rays 



Diospyros."] KUI 

closely packed. In most- species ilu-rc are numerous wavy, concentric 
lines across the rays. In several respects the structure of the ebonies 
resembles the structure of Sapolacece. 

1. D. Melanoxylon, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 530 ; Brandis 294. D. Wight- 
iana, Beddorne t. 67. (Including D. Tupru, Buch., D. exsculpla, 
Ham. ; Beddome t. 66, and D. tomenlosa, lloxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 532.) Vern. 
Teudn, kendii, temrn, abnus Hind. ; Kend, kyou, Beng. ; Tumri, lummer, 
tumid, Gondi; Tetidh, Baig-as ; Tnmri, temrn, t'unbitrni, Mar.; Tt'mli, 
luntbali, karnnl/nimbi, Tarn.; Tumi, tumid, tnmida, lltnmurri, damddi, 
Tel.; Kendhu, Uriya; Balai, Kan. 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark inch thick, greyish black; the inner 
substance black and charcoal-like, with numerous transverse and longi- 
tudinal cracks exfoliating in regular oblong scales. Wood hard, of a 
light pink colour, with irregular-shaped masses of black ebony in the 
centre. No annual rings. Pores small, scanty, generally in radial 
lines. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous, equidistant and 
uniform, visible on a radial section. Numerous fine, wavy, concentric 
lines visible in the sapwood. The ebony is jet black with purple streaks, 
extremely hard, pores and medullary rays difficult to distinguish. 

Throughout India, but not in Burma. 

The weight and transverse strength have been determined by the following 
experiments : 

Puckle, in 1859, in Mysore, with bars 2' X 1" X V . found W = 75 

Skinner, in 1862, No. 62 W=80;P=1180 

Cunningham, in 1854, in Gwalior, with bars 2' X I" X \" W = 77 ; P = 862 

The Central Provinces List of 1873 .... gives W = 85 

Kyd found W = 49'5, P = 547 ; R. Thompson 49'6 : this was probably the outer 
wood; Wallich gives 61 ; Sniythies' measurements of our specimens give : outer wood 
54 Ibs., ebony 72 Ibs., but the good specimens with only ebony weigh 77, which is the 
best weight to take, and which accords with Brandis' statement that the weight per 
cubic foot varies from 75 to 80 Ibs. Besides Skinner's and Cunningham's values 
for P, Fowke gives P = 756. The wood is used for building, shoulder-poles and 
carriage shafts, and the ebony for all purposes of fancy work and carving. The 
fruit is edible. 

P 170. Hoshiarpur, Punjab (Stewart, 1866), the specimen referred to 

at p. 137 of the "Punjab Plants" . . t .69 

P 469. Ajmere 59 

O 1492. Kheri, Oudh 55 

O 2981. Bahraich, Oudh 48 

C 828. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar ....... 53 

C 1113. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 

C 2754. Moharli Reserve, Central Provinces .... 

C 1237. Gumsur, Madras ..... 65 

C 1301. 77 

C 1302. 68 

D 2008. Mysore 73 

D 2045. 70 

No. 26. Salem Collection 82 

2. D. Kurzii, Hiern; Kurz ii. 131. Andamanese Marble Wood. 
Vern. Teaka/i, thitkya, Burm. ; Peeha-da, And. 

An evergreen tree, with very thin, smooth, grey bark. Wood hand- 
some, streaked with black and grey; the grey wood hard ; the black wood 
very hard, with alternate streaks of black ebony and grey wood. The 

2 H 



250 EBENACE*:. \_Diospyros. 

mass of ebony occupying the centre of the tree is large and very 
irregular in outline, and frequently encloses interrupted concentric belts 
of light-coloured wood. Pores small and very small, often oval and 
subdivided, between the very fine and extremely numerous, uniform 
and equidistant, wavy, medullary rays. Numerous, very fine transverse 
bars across the rays. 

Andaman Islands. 

Weight of the ebony 80 Ibs. per cubic foot ; tbe specimens partly ebony, partly 
grey wood, give 57 to 62 Ibs. Brandis in his Memo, of August 25th, 1874, gives 
70 Ibs. The wood is used for cabinet work and should be better known, as a substitute 
for the Ceylon Calamauder wood, which it resembles in appearance. It is said byMajor 
Ford to be used in the Andamans for handles and sheaths of blades, and for furniture. 
Home's surveys gave 224 trees or 1 tree per acre ; so it is pretty common. 

Ibs. 

B 2203. Andaman Islands (1866) 57 

B 2498. (Home, 1874, No. 15) .... 80 
B 521. 62 

3. D. ehretioides, Wall.; Kurz ii. 129. Vern. OuJc-chingza, Burm. 
A large tree with dark-grey bark. Wood dark grey, with darker 

streaks, moderately hard, even -grained. Pores moderate-sized, scanty, 
often oval and subdivided. Medullary rays fine, numerous. Numerous 
fine, wavy, concentric lines across the rays. 

Burma. 

Weight, according to Brandis' List of 1862, No. 73, 41 Ibs. ; our specimens give 
53 Ibs. The wood is used for house-posts. 

Ibs. 

B 1422. Tharrawaddi, Burma 54 

B 2542. Burma (1862) 52 

4. D. OOCarpa, Thw. Enum. 180. Vern. Radoembaireya, Cingh. 
Wood purplish brown, with black streaks, moderately hard. Pores 

moderate-sized. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. Numerous 
fine, wavy, concentric lines. 

Concan, Mysore and Ceylon. 

A handsome wood. Weight, 45 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 
No. 40. Ceylon Collection (marked Diospyros sp.) . . . .45 

5. D. quaesita, Thwaites Euum. 179; Beddome cxlv. ; Braudis 296. 
Calamander Wood. Vern. Kaloomidereya, Cingh. 

A large tree. Wood hard, consisting of irregular alternate layers of 
black ebony and greyish brown wood. Pores scanty, moderate-sized, 
in short radial lines. Medullary rays fine, numerous, equidistant, 
traversed by innumerable wavy concentric lines. 

Ceylon. 

Weight, according to Adrian Mendis' List, 57 Ibs. per cubic foot ; Skinner, No. 62, 
60 Ibs. ; our ^.crimc-n gives 63 Ibs. Skinner gives P = 751. 

The most valuable ornamental wood in Ceylon ; it is now scarce, but is much iu 
demand. 

Ibs. 

D 2923. S. India or Ceylon 53 

No. 12. Ceylon t'oll.vtion (D. Iti'mnta) 57 



EBENACEJ:. 251 

6. D. Ebenum, Konig; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 529; Beddorae t. 65; 
Brandis 296 ; Tbwailes Enum. 179. Ebony. Vern. Mans, abnus, 
tendu, Hind.; Kendhu, Uriya ; Acha, tumbi, shengutan, kaka-tati, tai, 
Turn.; Tukiy Tel.; Karemara, Kail. ; Tai, tendu, abnus, Mar. ; Mallali, 
Manjarabad ; Kaluwara, ding. 

A large tree. Wood grey, with irregularly-sbaped masses of jet- 
black ebony near tbe centre, frequently witli ligbter-coloured streaks. 
Structure of the wood similar to that of D. Melanoxylon, but pores 
sligbtly larger, oval and subdivided, not in radial lines. The structure 
of the ebony is exceedingly indistinct. 

South India and Ceylon. 

Weight, according to Beddorae 811bs.; Adrian Mendis, 71 Ibs.; our specimens 
give 61 to 70 Ibs. ; A. Mendis gives P = 720. The wood is used for inlaying and 
ornamental turnery, but the demand for it is not very great. 

Ibs. 

W 731. South Kanara 61 

W 750. 70 

No. 13. Ceylon Collection (marked Diospyros sp.) . . . .71 

7. D. montana, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 538; Beddome cxliii. ; Brandis 
296. Vern. Bireti, keindu, temru, pasendu, Pb. ; Tendu, dasdnndu, 
lohari, bistend, Hind. ; Hakar-tendl, Banda; Passnd, Bhurtpur ; Temru, 
Meywar; Ambia, Banswara; Hddru, Panch Mebals ; Kanchan, kadal, 
pattewar, patwan, C.P. ; Muchi tanki, yerragoda, micha-tummiirra, Tel.; 

Tiniruy timburni, Mar. ; Goindu, kala goindu, balkuniki, jagalagante, 
Kan. 

A moderate-sized tree, with thin, pinkish grey, smooth bark, when old 
exfoliating in thick irregular flakes. Wood yellowish grey, soft, no 
heartwood, no annual rings. Pores numerous, small, in radial lines 
between the closely-packed medullary rays, which are very fine, and on 
a radial section distinctly visible as horizontal plates. White streaks 
parallel to t the medullary rays. 

Most parts of India except Siiidh, the Northern Punjab and Burma. 

Weight, 45*5 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is durable and would be good for 

furniture. 

Ibs. 

C 192. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 47 

C 1167. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 44 

8. D. cordifolia, Willd. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 538 ; Beddome cxliii. ; 
Kurz ii. 130. D. montana, Roxb. (part) ; Braudis 296. Vern. Ban- 
gab, Beng. ; Vackana, kaka ulimera, Tel. ; Gyutbeng, Burm. 

Wood reddish, moderately hard. Pores small, often oval and sub- 
divided. Medullary rays very fine and very numerous, with fine, wavy, 
transverse lines across. 

Bengal, South India and Burma. 

Weight, 47 Ibs. per cubic foot ; Kurz (evidently quoting Brandis' List of 1862, 
No. 74) gives 49 Ibs. ; Skinner, No. 60, gives 70 Ibs. P = 1017, but this may be a 
mistake for some other species. 
Wood useful for cabinet-work. 

Ibs. 

E 715. Chittagong (^foishkanda, Bong.; Chapraka, Magh) . . '15 
B 2541. Burma (18(52) 4'J 



EBENACE^:. [Diospyros. 

9. D. Lotus, Linn. ; Brandis 297. Vern. Amluk, maluk, Pb. 

A middle-sized tree with dark-brown or black tesselated bark. 
Wood grey, moderately hard, close-grained. Pores small, in radial 
groups. Medullary rays very fine, closely packed. No concentric lines. 

Punjab Himalaya, in Hazara and Kashmir, from 2,500 to 6,000 feet; Afghanistan, 
Beluchistan, extending to Southern Europe (Mathieu, PI. For. p. 205). 

Growth slow, 10 rings per inch of radius (Brandis}. The fruit is sweetish and is 
eaten fresh or dried, by the Afghans ; Mathieu says that in Southern Prance it is 
eaten when half-rotten like the Medlar. 

H 3183. Dungagalli, Hazara, 5,000 feet. 

10. D. Embryopteris, Pers. ; Beddome t. 69 ; Brandis 298 ; Kurz ii. 
128. D. glutinosa, lioxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 533. Embryopteris glutinifera, 
Roxb. Vern. Gab, makur-kendi, Beng. ; Hind.; Kusi, Banda; Kendu, 
Ass.; Gusvakendhu, Uriya ; Tiimbika, pani-ckika, Tarn.; Tumil, tumika, 
Tel. ; liolle-tupra, Coorg ; Kusharta, Kan. ; Timberee, Cingh. 

An evergreen shrub or small tree, with dark -green foliage and long 
shining leaves. Bark smooth, dark grey, almost black, with a greenish 
tinge. Wood white, moderately hard, close-grained. Pores small, scanty, 
in short radial lines. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous, uniform 
and equidistant. 

Throughout India and Burma, except the arid and dry zones in the Punjab and 
Sindh. 

Growth moderate, 7-8 rings per inch of radius (Brandis}. Weight, our specimen 
gives 53 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used in building, in Ceylon for masts and 
yards. 

The fruit is large, reddish ; it contains a viscid pulp, which is used as gum in 
bookbinding, and in place of tar for paying the seams of fishing-boats. Its use for 
" gabing " boats is general throughout the rivers of Lower Bengal and Assam. An 
infusion is used to render fishing-nets durable. It is full of tannin and is used in 
medicine as an astringent. The oil extracted from the seeds is used in native medicine. 

Ibs. 
O 3161. Dehra Dun 52 

11. D. pyrrhocarpa, Miq. ; Kuvz ii. 136. Vern. Tat/, Buvm. 

An evergreen tree. Wood reddish brown, moderately hard to hard. 
Pores small, in short radial lines. Medullary rays very fine, closely 
packed, with fine transverse lines across them. 

Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 52 Ibs. per cubic foot. Major Ford says the fruit is eaten by the Burnn-Mj 
and is used as a red dye for linen ; that Chinese umbrellas are dyed with the juice, 
which also has the property of rendering them waterproof. 

Ibs. 

B 1991. Andaman Islands (Kurz, 1866) 50 

B 2244. (1866) 54 

12. D. sp. from the Andamans (B 2232, Gl Ibs.) Vero. Moony, 
Burm., has very small scanty pores, often in short radial lines behuvn 
the closely-packed, very fine, uniform, medullary rays. No concentric 
lines; white streaks parallel to the medullary rays. 

Major Ford says that " the wood is hard, compact and close-drained, dark-purplish 
grey \vilh n:irro\v streaks of jet Mack rhony. The hark and fruit of this tree produce 
a beautiful black dye. Tin- Burmese us.- the wood for llutes and other wind instru- 
ments, for earrings, carved inia i< luiv frames, &o. The hlack heart- 



s.~\ ]. in 253 

wood of large trees has a diameter of about 4 or 5 -inches." It may possibly be D. 
pilosiila, Wall. 

13. B 1997 collected on the Andamans by Kurz in 1866 and marked Z>. 

io/t/u/d(<t (Ilingado) is a large tree with small black wood in the centre of large 

\Vood purplish grey. I'ores, small, sometimes in short radial lines between the 

closely-packed, very line, undulating, medullary ra}s. Weight, 49 Ibs. Numerous 

wavy concentric lines. 

B 2472 from Andamans (Kurz, 1866) marked Mala andamanica, with bluish-grey 
wood, is similar in structure to the preceding number. Weight, 49 Ibs. per cubic foot. 



ORDER LXVI. STYRACE^). 

Contains two Genera of Indian trees or shrubs, Symplocos and Styrax. Styrax 
contains about 3 or 4 Indian species. S. serrulatum, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 415; Kurz 
ii. 142; Gamble 54. Vern. Kum-jameva, Beng. ; Chamo, Lepcha, is a small evergreen 
>f Sikkiin, Eastern Bengal and Chittagong. S. virgatum, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 142 is 
a small evergreen tree of Eastern Bengal. Both these species yield a kind of gum 
benjamin or benzoin of inferior quality. 8. rugosum, Kurz ii. 141, is an evergreen 
tnc of the Martaban Hills, a. Benzoin of the Malay Archipelago yields the true 
"Gum Benzoin," which is used in medicine, in perfumery, and to make incense. 
S. officinale of the Levant yields the gum known as " Storax," used in medicine and 
perfumery. 

E 3320, Darjeeling, 6,500 feet, probably 8. virgatum, Wall., has a thin bark ; 
while, close-grained moderately hard wood with faint white, regular, concentric bands. 
The pores are scanty, usually subdivided; and the medullary rays short, fine, very 
numerous. 

1. SYMPLOCOS, Linn. 

Contains 25 to 30 species of Indian trees, generally small. S. spicata, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 541; Beddome cxlix. ; Brandis 300 ; Kurz 'ii. 146; Gamble 54. Vern. 
Lodh, Hind. ; Lodh bholia, bilri, Beng. ; PalyoJc, Lepcha; Boothgani, Burghers, is a 
tree of the North-East Himalaya, Western Ghats and Tenasserim, whose leaves are used 
in d3 r eing and whose seeds are strung as beads and hung round children's necks to prevent 
evil. S. racemosa, Koxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 539; Brandis 300; Kurz ii. 144; Gamble 53. 
Vern. Lodh, Beng.; Chamlani, Nep. ; Palyok, Lepcha ; Kaiday, Mechi ; Singyan, 
Bhutia, is a common small tree of the plains and lower hills of Bengal and Burma, 
chiefly in dry forests. The leaves and bark are used in dyeing. S. Gardneriana, 
Wight ; Beddome t. 237, is a handsome tree of the Western Ghats. Mr. Mann says 
that S. grandiflora, Vern. Bumroti, Ass. ; Moat soom, Phekial, is used to feed silk- 
worms (the Muga worm, Anthercea Assama) and as a dye in Assam. 

Wood white, close-grained, apt to warp and split. Pores very small. 
Medullary rays very fine. 

1. S. crataegoides, Hamilton ; Brandis 298 ; Kurz ii. 147. Vern. 
Itii, Idndar, loj, losk, Pb. ; Loclh, Kumaun ; Loja, Sutlej. 

A large shrub or small tree. Bark light grey, corky, with long 
vertical cracks. AVood white, hard, close-grained, splits and twists in 
seasoning. Pores small and very small, uniformly distributed. Medul- 
lary rays numerous, fine and very fine. Annual rings visible. 

Himalaya from the Indus to Assam, heiw.rn 3/M"0 and 8,000 feet ; Khasia Hills ; 
Hills ofMarlaban. 



254 STYRACEJS. [Sywplocos. 

Growth slow, 15 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 45 to 54 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
Wood durable, has been recommended for turning and would do for carvings, if 
properly seasoned. The leaves and bark give a yellow dye. This may be the Lood 
tree on which, according to Mr. Brownlow of Cachar, the silkworms Attacus Atlas 
and A. Canningi are fed. 

Ibs. 

H 54. Nagkanda, Simla, 7,000 feet 54 

H 2880. 

H 3018. Kotgarh, 

H 429. Kuruwa Forest, Jaunsar, 6,000 feet 45 

2. S. lucida, Wall.; Kurz ii. 143; Gamble 54. Vern. Kharani, 
Nep.; Chashing, Bhutia. 

A small evergreen tree. Bark thin, brown. Wood white, soft. 
Annual rings distinctly marked by a continuous line of pores. Pores very 
small, numerous. Medullary rays fine and very fine, numerous. 

Sikkim Himalaya and hills of Martaban. 

Growth moderate, 6 to 11 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 36 Ibs. per cubic 
foot. Used for fuel and rough house-posts. 

Ibs. 
E 2390. Rangbul Forest, Darjeeling ' . 36 

3. S. ramosissima, Wall.; Brandis 299; Gamble 54. Vern. Lodh, 
Hind. ; Kala k/iarani, silingi, Nep ; Tungchong, Lepcha. 

A small evergreen tree with dark red bark. Wood white, soft, even- 
grained. Pores numerous, very small. Medullary rays fine and very 
fine, unequally distributed. Annual rings visible. 

Himalaya from the Jumna to Bhutan ascending to 7,500 feet, Khasia Hills. 
Growth moderate, 6 to 9 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 37 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
Brandis says that in Sikkim the yellow silkworm is fed on its leaves. 

Ibs. 

E 367. Rangbul, Darjeeling, 7,000 feetj 37 

E 3336. Rangirum, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet 

4. S. sp. ; Gamble 54. Vern. Lai chandan, Nep. 

Wood white, soft, close-grained, Annual rings marked by a white 
line. Pores extremely small. Medullary rays fine, numerous. Wood 
with vertical streaks of bright red colour ; the red wood, which is most 
abundant in the root, is pounded and used for caste marks by Nepal ese. 

Ibs. 

E 370. Kalapokri, Darjeeling, 9,000 feet 45 

E 2391. Thosum La, Dumsoug, 8,000 feet 

(It is possible that this may prove to be Daphniphyllum himalayense, Mull. Arg.) 



ORDER LXVII. OLEACEJE. 

Contains 10 Indian Genera, belonging to 4 Tribes, viz. : 

Tribe I. Jasminese ..... Jasminum and Nyclanthcs. 
II. Syringeae ..... Schrebera and Syringa. 



III. Fraxinea? 

,, IV. Oleinese ..... Osmanthus, Linociera, Olea, 

Ligustrum and Myxopyrum. 

NyctantJics Arbor-trix/is, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 86 ; Beddomc t. 210 ; Brandis 
'.*! I ; Kur/ ii. 155. Vern. ll>n\ */'/"'///, kaifinffhar, NdJicrwa, scoJi, uihari, Hiiul. ; 
Ilitrsinghar, sepMlikd, Beng. ; Pakvr. /(/.//'//, X-/i/-/. Tb. ; M'.ifi, Moywar; 



Jitsminnw.] OLEACE^I. 255 

JCirsahdr, Baigas ; Ehersari, Gondi ; Gongo seoli, Uriya ; Khurasli, Mar. ; Karasai, 
Bhil ; Manja-pu, pagJiala, Tarn. ; Poghada, Tcarchid, Tel. ; Hursing, Kan. ; Tsay- 
beeloo, Burra., is a large shrub . of the Sub- Himalayan forests from the Chenab 
to the Sarda, Oudh, Bengal, Central India and Burma, with a brown, close- 
grained wood, used only for fuel. The leaves are used for polishing wood, and 
the flowers give an orange dye. It is often cultivated for ornament. Myxopyrum 
smilacifolium, Bl. ; Kurz ii. 160, is a climbing shrub of the Darjeeling Terai, Eastern 
Bengal, Chittagong and Martaban. 

Wood with few exceptions light-coloured, moderately hard or hard, 
most species without heartwood. In the genera Fraximis, Jasminum, 
Syringa and Ligustrum, the annual rings are marked by continuous lines 
or belts of pores. In the other genera the pores are small and uniformly 
distributed, except in Osmanthus, where they are in reticulate tails. 
Medullary rays sharply defined. 

1. JASMINUM, Linn. 

Contains a large number of Indian shrubs, erect or climbing, of little importance. 
J. Sambac, Aiton ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 88; Brandis 311. Vern. Chamba, mugra, bel, 
Hind. ; Mallikaphal, Beng. ; Sapai, mali, Burm., is a fragrant climbing shrub culti- 
vated throughout India. J. hirsutum, Willd. ; Brandis 312 ; Kurz ii. 154. 
(J. pubescens, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 91 ; Gamble 55). Vern. Kunda, Hind. ; Parirajhar, 
Nep., is a common shrub of the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards, 
Bengal and the Central Provinces. 

1. J. revolutum, Sims; Brandis 313. Vern. Chamba, juari, tsonu, 
tsuman, summun, kuja, Pb. ; Sonajdhi, Kumaun. 

A small shrub with soft, thin, grey bark. Wood white, moderately 
hard, even-grained. Annual rings marked by a narrow continuous belt 
of pores, which are small, while the pores in the outer part of the ring 
are extremely small. Medullary rays extremely fine, very numerous. 

Afghanistan, Salt Range, Himalaya from the Indus to Nepal, Nilgiris and Ceylon. 
Growth slow, 25 to 40 rings per inch of radius. 

Ibs. 
H 2891, H 3027. Nagkanda, Simla, 7,000 feet 45 

2.3. J. grandiflorum, Linn.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 100; Brandis 313 ; Kurz ii. 350. 
Vem. Chambel,jati, Hind.; Myablay, Burm. found in the Himalaya and often culti- 
vated (No. H 3026, Nagkand'a, 8,000 feet) and J. officinale, Linn. ; Brandis 313. 
Vern. Chamba, chirichog, Jciri, Kashmir ; Bansu, kwer, dumni, Chenab ; Dassi, 
samsem, Ravi; Suni, somun, Sutlej ; Cliambeli, Kumaun, a climber of the Salt Range 
and Himalaya from the Indus to the Sarda (No. H 2879, Nagkanda, 8,000 feet) have 
white woods with a structure resembling that of J. revolutum. 

2. SCHREBERA, Roxb. 

1. S. swietenioides, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 109 ; Beddomet. 248 ; Brandis 
305; Kurz ii. 156. Vern. Mo&a, goki, ghant, gantha, Hind.; Patali, 
ghanta patali, Bandelkhand; Jantia, Uriya; HaJckam, mokob, Tel. ; Hoga- 
linga, Tarn. ; GliaUdr, Baigas ; Karindi, mokha, dhahkdj Gondi ; J/tan, 
Kurku ; MokJcaJc, Bhil; Kalgante, Coorg; Thitsivaylway , Burm. 

A deciduous tree with grey bark, inch thick, exfoliating in thin 
irregular scales. Wood brownish grey, hard, close-grained, polishes 
well. No heartwood, but irregular masses of purple or claret-coloured 
wood in the centre, and scattered throughout the tree. Annual rings 
indistinct. Pores small, uniformly distributed, often in radial groups, 



256 OLEACEJE. [Schrelera. 

Medullary rays fine, numerous, uniform and at equal distances, con- 
spicuous on a radial section as narrow plates. 

Kuinaun, Burma, Central and South India. 

Weight, 56 Ibs. per cubic foot ; Brandis says 50 Ibs. The wood is durable,- works 
freely and does not warp or split. It is used for combs, weavers' beams and turning. 

Ibs. 
C 829. Bairagarh Keserve, Berar . . . .59 

C 2772. Melghat, Berar .... . .... 

C 193. Manila, Central Provinces (1870) . - . .51 

C 1108. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces . . .... 

C 1410. Moharli . . . ... 

B 1413. Burma 59 

B 3149. (1862) 54 

3. SYRINGA, Linn. 

Contains 2 species. 8. persica, Linn. ; Brandis 306. Vern. Hiasmin, Kashmir, is 
a glabrous shrub found wild by Dr. Stewart at 8,000 feet on the Suliman Range and 
cultivated in the Punjab and Kashmir. 8. vulgaris, Linn., is the " Lilac" so much prized 
in European gardens and occasionally cultivated in the Himalaya. 

1. S. Emodi, Wall. ; Brandis 306. Vern. Ban phunt, ban dalMr, 
banchir, razli,juari, rangkrun, Jcehimu, lolti, leila, shafri, shapri, duden, 
chilanghati, Pb. ; Ghia, Kumaun. 

A large shrub with grey bark, -^ inch thick. Wood smooth, hard, 
with a small, dark-coloured heartwood. Annual rings well marked by 
a narrow porous belt. Pores small in the spring wood, extremely small 
and arranged in irregular groups in the autumn wood. Medullary rays 
fine, numerous. 

Safed-koh, North-West Himalaya from the Indus to the Sarda, ascending to 
11,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 20 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 59 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

H 2911. Nagkanda, Simla, 8,000 feet 

H 3023. 9,000 , 59 

4. FRAXINUS, Tournef. 

Contains 3 Indian species found in the North-West Himalaya. F. excelsior, 
Linn. ; Brandis 303. Vern. Sum, kum, Pb. The Ash, is found in the valleys of the 
Jhelum, Chenab and Kavi between 4,000 and 6,000 feet. F. Mooreroftiana, Wall. ; 
Brandis 304. Vern. Shang, Afg. ; Hanuz, nuch, sliilli, chuj, siju,chum, t/tiim, sandal, 
shangal, butru, Pb. ; Auqa, gaha, North-Western Provinces, is a large shrub or small 
tree of Afghanistan, the Trans-Indus and the North-West Himalaya from the Jlielum 
to Kumaun. It is often gregarious, has a slow growth (20 rings per inch of radius) 
and a light-brown, heavy, hard, close-grained wood which is used for tool handles and 
makes good fuel. 

Wood moderately hard, white in some species; with a brown heart- 
wood. Pores large and numerous in the spring wood; small, scanty -md 
often arranged in groups in the autumn wood. Medullary ravs lino, 
uniform, equidistant. In F.jloribunda, excelsior, and other species the 
wood consists of alternate layers of soft porous spring wood, and hard, 
compact, autumn wood. 

1. F. floribunda, Wall.; Brandis 302. Vern. Banarisfi, Afg. ; Sinn, 
sunnu, shun, hum, hamu, tunn-if, Pb. ; Angan, <w<ju y ila/d'i'.ri, North- 
Western Provinces ; Kangn, tahdsi, Nep. 



Fraxinns.] OLEACK^B. 257 

A large deciduous tree. Bark grey, corky, with longitudinal fur- 
rows. Wood white, with a light red tinge, no heartwood, soft to moder- 
ately hard. Annual rings marked by an almost continuous line of large 
pores, the layers cutting differently under the knife. Pores in the outer 
part of the annual ring smaller. The large pores of the annual rings are 
well defined on a longitudinal section. Medullary rays fine, numerous, 
giving the wood a mottled appearance on a radial section. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Sikkim, between 5,000 and 8,500 feet. 
Growth slow to moderately fast, averaging 13 rings per inch of radius for our speci- 
mens ; Wallich says 8 rings ( Ttrandis] . Weight, 48 Ibs. per cubic foot. The wood is 
tough and hard, and is used for oars, jampan poles, ploughs and other purposes. 

Ibs. 

H 612. Parbatti Valley, Kulu, 7,000 feet 47 

H 904. Upper Chenab, 8,000 feet 

H 2971. Kami Tal 49 

H 3190. Dungagalli, Hazara, 7,000 feet . . 

The structure is exceedingly similar to that of F. excelsior, the European Ash 
(No. 2974), but that species has a distinct brown heartwood. 

5. OSMANTHUS, Lour. 

Contains 2 or 3 species. O. fragrans, Lour.; Gamble 54. (Olea fragrans, 
Thunb. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 105 ; Brandis 309.) Vern. Shilling, silang, Kumaun ; 
Tungrung, Lepcha, is a small tree of the Himalaya from Kumaun to Bhutan, some- 
times gregarious, but more often planted for the sake of its very sweet-scented flowers. 
The wood is whitish, mottled with brown ; the flowers are used to keep insects away 
from clothes in Kumaun, and in China to flavour tea. 

1. 0. nov. sp. Vern. Silingi, Nep, ; Chashing, Bhutia. 

A small tree, with grey bark, white twigs, and opposite coriaceous 
leaves. Wood white, hard, close-grained, seasons well, mottled on ver- 
tical sections. Pores very small and extremely small, arranged in wavy, 
irregular, anastomosing oblique bands, which form a most elegant net- 
work on a horizontal section. Medullary rays fine, uniform, equidistant, 
numerous, traversed by parallel concentric lines of soft texture. 

Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet. 

The structure of the flowers shews it to be a species of OsmantJius. The leaves are 
opposite, small, about 1 inch long, serrated ; the flowers white, the berries purple, 
resembling small plums, and the bark of the twigs yellowish white, with raised specks. 

Ibs. 

E 379. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet 53 

6. OLEA, Linn. 

Contains 6 to 8 species of Indian trees. 0. dioica, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i, 106 ; Beddome 
cliii ; Kurz ii. 157 ; Gamble 54. Vern. Atta-jam, Beng. ; Kala Tciamoni, Nep. ; Timber 
nyok, Lepcha ; Joli, Tarn. ; Parjamb, burra-nuge, mudla, Kan. ; Karambu, Mar., 
is a tree of the forests of Northern and Eastern Bengal, Chittagong and South Kanara ; 
giving, according to Beddome, a valuable stiong timber. O. dentata, Wall ; Kurz ii. 
157, is an evergreen tree of the Burma forests. O. europoea, Linn., the Olive, has been 
introduced on the Himalaya and the Nilgiris. 

Wood hard, with a distinct heartwood in a few species. Pores small, 
numerous, subdivided or in short radial groups. Medullary rays uniform, 
equidistant, fine or very fine. 

2 i 



258 OLEACE.E. [Olea. 

1. 0. ferruginea, Royle; Brandis 576. 0. cuspidata^W&lL; Brandis 
307. Vern. Khwan, shwan, Trans. -Indus ; Zaitun, Afg. ; Ko, kohu, kdo, 
lean, Pb. ; Kau, Hind. ; Khan, Sind. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark grey, thin, smooth when 
young, when old exfoliating in large narrow strips. Sapwood whitish ; 
heartwood large, regularly shaped, from light brown or olive brown to 
nearly black, smooth, extremely hard. Annual rings distinctly marked by 
a belt of closely-packed pores. Pores in the rest of the annual ring ex- 
tremely small, in irregular patches of soft tissue. Medullary rays fine, 
uniform, very numerous, equidistant. 

Sind, Suliman Range, Salt Bange, North-West Himalaya, extending as far as 
the Jumna eastwards, and ascending to 6,000 feet. 

Weight, 65 to 82 Ibs. per cubic foot, averaging 73 Ibs. Brandis says that Sind 
wood weighs 65 Ibs., but his specimen from the Sind hills reaches 82 Ibs. The wood 
polishes well and is highly prized for turning, for combs, agricultural implements and 
fuel. The fruit is eaten, but is rarely found on the trees owing to the fondness of 
crows for it. Oil has been extracted from it, but only in small quantity though of good 
quality. The wood is worth trying as a substitute for boxwood or for the wood of the 
European olive and for inlaying work, as it is often prettily marbled. 

Ibs. 

H 162. Shahpur (Stewart, 1866) 65 

H 118. Vaziri-Rupi, 4,000 feet 73 

H 779. Chamba, 3,500 feet 71 

H 425. Koti Forest, Jaunsar, 6,000 feet 75 

P 2729. Hills of Sind 82 

2. 0. glandulifera, Wall. : Beddome t. 238; Brandis 309. 0. pani- 
culata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 105, not paniculate, R. Brown (an Australian 
species). VeTn..Q6ttlij > aba*,*4ra,pJutl9h ) Pb.; Gair,galdu,garur t Kumaun. 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark J inch thick, grey, uneven, exfoliating in 
brittle scales. Wood reddish grey, hard. Annual rings marked by a 
distinct line. Pores moderate-sized, oval, subdivided, uniformly distri- 
buted. Medullary rays fine, numerous, prominent on a radial section. 

Outer Himalaya from the Indus to Nepal, between 2,500 and 6,000 feet. Nilgiris 
and Anamalai Hills in South India. 

A section of a tree 43 years old, in the Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, shewed 43 rings 
on a radius of 10 inches (Brandis) ; this would give 4' 3 rings per inch or fast growth : 
our specimens give 12 to 33 rings per inch of radius. Weight, on an average, 54'5 Ibs. 
per cubic foot. The wood is durable, takes a good polish and is not liable to be eaten 
by insects. 

Ibs. 

H 928. Hazara, 3,000 feet 59 

H 2940. Suni, Simla, 3,000 feet 55 

H 222. Garhwal Hills (1868) 50 



7. LIGUSTRUM, Linn. 

Contains about 6 species of shrubs or small trees. X, rdbustum, Hook, f . and 
Th. ; Beddome cliii. ; Brandis 310; Gamble 54 (Phillyrea robusta, Roxb. PI. Ind. i. 
101. Olea rolusta, Kurz ii. 158) Vern. Keri, banpatara, Hind. ; Jamu, Nep., is a 
small tree of the outer Himalaya from Kumaun eastwards, Bengal, Southern India and 
Burma, with a hard durable wood. Z. nepalense, Wall. ; Roxb. PL Ind. i. 149 ; Brandis 
310. Vern. Gumgacha, Nep. ; and L. bracteolatitm, Don ; Brandis 310, are small lives 
of Kumaun and Nepal. L. micropfit/lluM, Beddome cliv., is a shrub of Coorg. The 
European Trivet is L, vitfgarc, Linn. 



Lignstrum.'] oi.i 

1. L, compaction, Hook, f, and Tli. ; Braudis 310. 

A large shrub. Bark grey, -fa inch thick. Wood white, moderately 
hard. Annual rings marked by a narrow porous belt. Pores small in 
the spring wood, extremely small in the autumn wood. Medullary rays 
fine and very fine, numerous. 

North- West Himalaya from the Beas to the Sarda, at 3,500 to 6,000 feet. 
Growth slow, 17 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 64 Ibs. per cubic foul. 

Ibs. 

H 3059. Koti, Simla, 6,000 feet .... ... 64 

8. LINOCIERA, Swartz. 

Contains about 6 species. L. intermedia, Wight. (Chionanthus intermedia, 
Beddome t. 239) and L. malabarica, Wall. (C. malabarica, Beddome cliv.) are large 
trees of the Western Ghats, while Kurz under Chionanthus describes 4 species from 
Burma and the Andamans. 

No. 3211 is L. macrophylla (Chionanthus macropkyllics, Kurz ii. 159) from a 
cultivated tree in the Saharaupur Gardens ; it has a brown bark, ^ inch thick ; pinkish 
white wood ; pores small, arranged in radial lines or groups ; and medullary rays fine, 
bent where they touch the pores. 



ORDER LXV1II. SALVADORACE^E. 

Contains 2 genera, Salvadora and Azima. Azimatetracantha, Lamk. ; Kurz 
ii. 161, is a straggling, dioecious, thorny shrub of South India and Burma. It is very 
common, and the leaves and bark are used in native medicine as an expectorant. 
(Wight 111. t. 152, p. 156.) 

1. SALVADORA, Linn. 

1. S. persica, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 389 ; Brandis 315. 8. Wighti- 
ana, Beddome t. 247. The Tooth-brush Tree. Veru. Ardk, Irak, Arab. ; 
Kablar, kharidjar, pilu, Sind ; Jhdl, Rajputana; Kauri van, kauri-jal, 
jhdr, jhit, Pb. ; Opa, ughai, Tarn. ; Waragu-wenki, ghunia, Tel. ; Pilu, 
'Mar. 

A small evergreen tree, with thin grey bark. Wood white, soft. 
Pores small, in short radial lines, but enclosed in oval patches of soft tissue. 
Numerous fine concentric bands of soft tissue, separating broader bauds 
of firm texture, in which the fine and numerous medullary rays are dis- 
tinctly visible. 

Wild in Sind, Rajputana, Guzerat, Konkan and the Circars. 

The tree is generally small, but in favourable circumstances attains 30 to 40 
feet, with a short trunk, often crooked and fluted, 8-10 feet long and 4-5 feet in girth. 
Specimens have been seen as much as 14 feet 9 inches in girth. Weight, 40'5 Ibs. 
(Dalzell) ; 46 Ibs. (Fenner) ; our specimen gives 38 Ibs. It is very little used and 
is not even a good fuel. The twigs are used as tooth-cleaners ; the root bark is very 
acrid and acts on the skin like a blister ; the shoots and leaves are pungent, but 
are considered as an antidote to poison, they are eaten as salad and given as fodder 
to camels ; the fruit also is pungent, bitter and aromatic, and is used medicinally. 

bs. 
P 1381. Sind .38 



SALVADOR AC I-..K. [Salvador a. 

2. S. oleoides, Linn. ; Brandis 316. Vern. Kabbar,jhdr, didr, mithi- 
didr, Sind ; Jdl, van, vdni, mithi van, Pb.; Jhal, Hind. ; Ughai, koku, Tarn. ; 
Pttu, Mar. 

A large evergreen shrub or tree. Bark \ inch thick, whitish 
grey, tesselated. Wood light red, moderately hard, with small, irregular, 
purple heartwood. Pores large and small, oval, often subdivided into 
irregular patches of soft tissue, which are joined by wavy, irregular 
zigzag bands. Medullary rays fine, numerous, distinct, at unequal dis- 
tances. 

Arid zone. Sind and Punjab, often forming the greater part of the vegetation of 
the desert ; ascends to 3,000 feet in the Trans-Indus hills and to 2,400 feet in the Salt 
Range. 

Weight, 491bs. (Brandis) ; oar specimens give 541bs. (Punjab) and 38 Ibs. (Sind). 
Wood sometimes used for building and agricultural implements, Persian wheels and 
the^ knee timbers of boats. Is a bad fuel and leaves a great deal of ash. The 
fruit is sweet and is eaten. 

11)3. 

P 942. Multan (with heartwood) * 54 

P 1382. Sind (no heartwood) ... .38 



ORDER LXIX. APOCYNE^3. 

A large Order containing 33 genera, only a few of which are of any importance' 
They belong to 3 Tribes, viz. 

Tribe I. Carissese . . Allamanda, Willoughbeia, Chilocar- 

pus, Melodinus, Winchia and 
Carissa. 

II. Plurneriese . . . Rauwolfia, Alyxia, Hunteria, The- 

vetia, Cerbera, Ochrosia, Koptsia, 
Rhazya, Vinca, Plumeria, Eller- 
tonia, Alstonia, Taberncemuntana 
and Holarrhena. 

III. Echitidere .... Tallaris^Parsonsia^ottsia^^righ- 

tia, Nerium, Strophanthus, Para- 
meria, Urceola, Ichnocarpus, 
Epigynum, Anodendron, Chone- 
morpha and Beaumontia. 

Among these genera, however, four contain only introduced plants. Allamanda cat ha r- 
tica, Linn. ; Kurz ii. 164, is a large yellow-flowered shrub from America, much culti- 
vated in India and run wild in tidal backwaters of the Western Coast (Beddome). 
Thevetia neriifolia, Juss. ; Kurz ii. 168. Vern. Zard kuntt, Hind. ; Hpayoungban, 
Burm., is a handsome yellow-flowered small tree, much cultivated in Bengal and Burma. 
It has long narrow leaves and a hemispherical drupe, from the seeds of which a bright 
yellow oil can be obtained. Vinca rosea, Linn v the Madagascar Periwinkle, is a small 
pink-flowered shrub commonly planted in India and Burma. Plumeria acutifu/ia, 
Poiret; Brandis 323; Kurz ii. 179; Gamble 65. Vern. Gul achin, golainchi, 
chameli,H'm(\. ; Xhair champa, Bombay; Champa pungdr, Gondi ; Kanagala, Kan.; 
Tayopsagah, Burm., is a gouty-branched tree with large, yellowish white, fragrant 
flowers, commonly found in gardens in India and Burma. Van Someren calls it the 
" Pagoda tree." 

{Seventeen other genera contain only climbing shrubs. Willoughbeia contains 2 
species. W. edulis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 57 ; Kurz ii. 165. Vern. Luti-am, Beng., is a large 
climber of Chittagong with edible fruit. It yields a kind of caoutchouc, as does also 
W. martabamca, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 165. Vern. Thit tyvukmcajf, Burm., of Teiuisserini. 






Carissa.] APOCYNEJL 261 

Beaumontiagrand\ftor&,'Y?2&;\ Kurz ii. 179; liambl.-SC. (Echitesgrandijlora, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 14). Veru. Barbari, Nep., is a large climber of Northern and Eastern Bengal, 
with a large trumpet-shaped flower. Chonemorpha wacrophylla, G. Don ; Brandis 328 ; 
Kurx. ii. 187; Gamble 56 (Echites macrophylla, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 13). Vern. Gar 
badero, Hind.; YokchounriJc, Lepcha ; llarki, Sylhet, is a largo milky climbing shrub 
of Northern and Eastern Bengal and the Andaman Islands, with broad leaves, beauti- 
ful large white flowers, and long fruit, yielding a kind of caoutchouc. Vallaris dit-ho- 
toma, Wall. ; Brandis 327 ; Kurz ii. 181 (Echites dichotoma, Uoxb. Fl. Ind. 19). Vern. 
Dudhi, Kumaun ; Happur-mali, Beng., is a large twining shrub of the Sub-Himalayan 
tract from the Ganges eastwards, Central and South India and Burma (C 2921 Central 
Provinces). Urceola esculenta, Bth. ; Kurz. ii. 184 (Chavannesia esculenta, DC.), is a 
climber of Tenasserim, said by Mr. G. W. Strettell to be common all over Pegu and to 
yield a superior kind of caoutchouc (to this genus also belongs U. elastica, Roxb., 
giving the Borneo rubber). The remaining genera of climbers, Chilocarpus, Melodinus, 
Winchia, Alyxia, Ellertonia (South India), Parsonsia, Pottsia, Strophanthus, 
Parameria, Ichnocarpus (Northern and Eastern India), Epigynum, and Anodendron, 
are chiefly Burmese, but contain few species of any forest importance. 

Rauwolfia serpentina, Bth. ; Kurz ii. 171 (Ophioxylon serpentinumiWilld.. ; Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. i. 694; Beddome clvi. ; Gamble 55.) Vern. Chandra, Beng. ; Patalgani, Tel. 
is a small undershrub of Bengal, Burma and South India; and R. densiflora, Bth.; 
Beddome clvi., an erect shrub of the Western Ghats and Ceylon. Hunteria Roxburghiana, 
Wight ; Beddome clviii., is a shrub of the Tinnevelly Ghats. Ochrosia contains 2 small 
trees : O. salubris, Bl. ; Kurz ii. 172, of the tidal forests of the Andamans, and O. Bor- 
bonica, Gmel. ; Beddome clviii., of similar localities in Ceylon and probably Travancore. 
'Kopsiafruticosa, DC. (Calpicarpum Roxburghii, G. Don ; Kurz ii. 178.) Vern. Salap 
Burin., is an evergreen large shrub of Burma, often planted. Rhazya stricta, De- 
caisne; Brandis 322. Vern. Vena, Salt Range ; Gander a, Trans-Indus; Sewar, sihar, 
ishwarff, Sind, is a shrub of the arid zone of the Punjab, Sind and Afghanistan ; its 
wood is used for fuel, and the fruit and leaves in native medicine. 

Wood white, soft (hard in Carissa), without heartwood. Pores small 
or very small. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. Alstonia is 
anomalous in having moderate-sized pores, distant rays and concentric 
lines of soft texture. 

1. CARISSA, Linn. 

Contains 4 species. C. Carandas, Linn. ; Beddorne clvi. ; Brandis 320 ; Kurz ii. 169 ; 
Roxb Fl. Ind. i. 687. Vern. Karaunda, karunda, garinga, karrond, timukhia, gotho, 
Hind. ; Kurumia, bainchi, Beng. ; Karekai, heggarjige, Kan., is a small tree cultivated, 
for its fruit in many parts of India, and wild in Oudh, Bengal and South India. C. 
Dalzellii, Beddome clvii., is a small tree of Coorg, S. Kanara and the Bombay Ghats. 

1. C. diffusa, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 689; Beddome clvii. ; Brandis 321 ; 
Kurz ii. 169. Vern. Karaunda, Hind.; Gdn, garna, garinda, Pb. ; San 
karunda, Uriya ; Wakoilu, Tel. 

A small, thorny, evergreen shrub, with light grey bark. Wood hard, 
smooth, close-grained, said when very old (in Kangra) to be black and 
fragrant (Braudis). Annual rings marked by an interrupted line of 
pores. Pores very small and extremely small. Medullary rays very 
fine, very numerous. 

Wild in most parts of India, especially in the drier zones as in the plains of the 
Punjab, the Sub-Himalayan tract up to 4,000 feet, and in Trans-Indus territory; 
also on the coast of South Andaman (Kurz). 

It is generally gregarious, often forming undergrowth in forests of Pinus 
longifolia, bamboo, and occasionally teak. It spreads rapidly in clearings, coppices 
freely, and gives an excellent fuel. It is used for turning and combs, and to make dry 
fences. Growth slow, 15 rings per inch of radius. 

P 112. Bhajji, Simla, 4,000 feet. 



2G2 APOCYNEJ3. [Certera. 

2. CERBERA, Linn. 

1. C. Odollam, Gaertn.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 692 ; Beddome civil.; 
Brandis 322; Kurz ii. 171. Vern. Dabur, d/iakur, Beng.; Kada ma, kat- 
arali, Tarn. ; Gon-kadura, Cingh. ; Ka-lwah, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Wood grey, very soft, spongy. 
Annual rings marked by a sharp line. Pores small, in short radial lines. 
Medullary rays indistinct. 

Coast forests of India and Burma. 

Growth fast, 5 to 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 21 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
The wood is only occasionally used for firewood. The seeds give an oil which is used 
for burning, 

Ibs. 

E 400. Sundarbans 21 

3. ALSTONIA, R. Brown. 

Contains about 3 species. A. venenata, R. Br. ; Beddome clx. ; Gamble 65. Vern. 
Chatwa, Nep. ; Parbo, Lepcha, is a shrub of Sikkim and the Nilgiris. A. spectabilis, 
R. Br. ; Kurz ii. 183, is a large evergreen tree of the Andamaos. 

1. A. scholaris, R. Brown; Beddome t. 242; Brandis 325 ; Kurz ii. 
183; Gamble 55. Vern. Cfiatwan, chatinn, Beng.; Satiun, chatiun, 
satwin, satni. Hind.; Chatiwan, Nep.; Purbo, Lepcha; Satiana, Ass.; 
Satwin, Mar. ; Satlni, Cachar ; Pala, wodrase, Tarn. ; Eda-kula, pala 
garuda, Tel. ; Mukampala, Mai. ; Janthalla, Kan ; Rookattana t Cingh. ; 
Chaile, chalain, Magh ; Let-top, toungmayobeng, Burm. 

A tall evergreen tree with dark grey bark and whorled branches. 
Wood white, soft, even-grained, seasons badly, and soon gets mouldy and 
discoloured. Pores moderate-sized, oval, subdivided. Medullary rays 
fine, wavy, irregularly distributed, with numerous intermediate extremely 
fine rays. Numerous, fine, wavy concentric lines at unequal distances. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards ascending to 3,000 feet, Bengal, 
Burma, South India. 

Weight, 28 Ibs. per cubic foot, according to our specimens ; Brandis gives 40 Ibs., 
and Kyd (Echites scholaris) 40'5 Ibs. and P = 710. It is not durable, but is easily 
worked. The wood is used for boxes, furniture, scabbards, coffins and other pur- 
poses, and is made into blackboards in Burma. It is used occasionally in Darjeeling, 
Assam and Cachar for tea-boxes. The wood and bark are bitter ; the latter is used as 
a tonic, anthelmintic and antiperiodic. The tree is readily recognised by its branches 
and leaves in whorls, the leaves are smooth, shining, parallel veined, milky. 

Ibs. 

E 577. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 28 

E 718. Chittagong 28 

E 1270. Lakhimpur, Assam 31 

W 863. South Kanara 28 

No. 75. Ceylon Collection 20 

4. TABERN^EMONTANA, Plum. 

Contains about 12 species of shrubs or rarely small trees found in Eastern 
Bengal, South India and Burma. Several species are cultivated for ornament. T. 
recurva, Koxb. ; Kurz ii. 174. Vern. Tau-sa-lap, Burm., is a shrub of Chittagong and 
Burma, with handsome white ilowers. T. dichotoma, Boxb., T. crispa, Roxb., and 
T. verticellata, Beddome clix., are shrubs of the Western Ghats and Ceylon. 



Tabernamontana.] APOCYNE^J. 263 

1. T. coronaria, Willd. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 23; Beddome clix. ; 
Brandis 322 ; Gamble 55. Vern. Chandni, taggai, taggar, Hind. ; Asuru, 
Nep. ; Krim, Lepcha. 

An evergreen shrub with silvery grey bark. Wood white, moderate- 
ly hard, close-grained. Pores very small. Medullary rays fine, numer- 
ous. 

Kumaun, Eastern Bengal, Konkan. Cultivated throughout India. 
Growth fast, 5 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 47 Ibs. per cubic foot. The 
fruit has a red pulp, which may give a dye. 

E 2392. Sivoke Forest, Darjeeling Terai 47* 

5. HOLARRHENA, R. Brown. 

1. H. antidysenterica, Wall.; Beddome clx.; Brandis 326; Kurz ii. 
182 ; Gamble 55. Vern. Karra, kaura, kora, kura, kuar, kari, karchi, 
dhildi, Hind. ; Kogar, kiam, Pb. ; Kachri, Oudh ; Samoka, girchi, Gondi; 
Kurakat, Kurku; Ankhria, Bhil ; Dhowda, Guz. ; Kirra, karingi, Nep.; 
Dudhali, dudhkuri, Mechi ; Dudcory, Ass. ; Madmandi, Garo ; Patru- 
fcurwan,Vriya,', Tepali, Tarn. ; Pala, hodaga, Tel,; Kurra, Mar. ; Let- 
toukgyee, Burm. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark Jinch thick, brown, rough, exfoliating 
in small irregular flakes. Wood white, soft, even-grained. Annual 
rings marked by a faint line. Pores very small, very numerous, often 
in radial lines. Medullary rays fine and very fine, very numerous. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab eastwards ascending to 3,500 feet, Oudh, 
Bengal, Burma, Central and South India. 

Growth moderate, 7 to 8 rings per inch of radius. The weight and transverse 
strength have been determined by the following experiments : 

Weight. P= 



Kyd (1831) in Assam with bars 
' 2 feet X 1 in. X 1 in. found 



(H. antidysenterica) 47 417 
(H. pubescens) 34 523 



Skinner (1862) in South India, No. 134, found . .38 562 

Smythies in 1878 with our six specimens ... 38 ... 

The wood is largely used for carvings, especially at Saharanpur and Dehra Dun ; 
in Assam for furniture; in South India for turning. The bark, leaves, fruit and seeds 
are used medicinally, the bark as a tonic and febrifuge and in dysentery. Hamilton in 
Aikin's List of Wallich's specimens says beads are made of the wood in Assam to be 
worn round the neck as a medicine. 

Ibs. 

258. Garhwal (1868) 33 

263. , 34 

O 3083. Gonda, Oudh 

C 2801. Melghat, Berar . 36 

C 1158. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces . . . . .... 

C 2734. Moharli 44 

C 957- Guzerat 41 

No. 52. Salem Collection (marked Wrightia tinctoria) . . .39 

2. H. mitis, R. Br.; Beddome clxi. ; Thwaites Enum. 194 Vern. 
Kiriivalla, Cingh. 

A tree. Wood white, close-grained, soft, in structure resembling that 
of H. antidysenterica. 

Ceylon. 

Ibs. 
No. 46. Ceylon Collection (Echites lanceolate) 35 



264 APOCYNE^E. \_Wrightia. 

6. WRIGHTIA, R. Brown. 

Contains 4 to 6 species. W. Wallichii, DC. ; Beddome clx., is a small tree of the 
Western Ghats. W. coccinea, Sims ; Kurz ii. 193. (Nerium coccineum. Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 2.) Vern. Pallam, Beng., is a small tree of Northern and Eastern Bengal 
and Chittagong. 

1. W. tomentosa, Rom. and Sch. ; Beddome clix ; Brandis 323 ; 
Gamble 55. W. -mollissima, "Wall. ; Kurz ii. 192. Nerium tomentosum, 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 6. Vern. Keor, kildwa, Pb. ; Dttdhi, dharanli, daira, 
Hind.; Karingi, kirra, Nep. ; Selemnyak, Lepcha; Pal kurwdn, Uiiya; 
Harido, Cuttack ; Telia pal, koila-mukri, Tel. ; Kala inderjan, Mar. ; 
Atkuri, Ass. ; Lettouk them, Burm. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark i inch thick, grey, corky. Wood 
yellowish white, moderately hard, close-grained. Annual rings marked 
by an interrupted line of pores. Pores very small, in short radial lines. 
Medullary rays very fine and extremely fine, very numerous, closely 
packed. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Beas eastwards, Oudh, Bengal, Burma, Central and 
South India. 

Growth moderate, 8 rings per inch of radius. Weight, according to Kyd 34 Ibs. 
per cubic foot ; our specimens give 44'5 Ibs. Kyd gives P = 523. The wood is 
used for turning and carved work. The bark of the stem and roots are given as an 
antidote to snake-bite. Mr. Manson says the milky juice is used to stop bleeding 
by the Nepalese. 

Ibs. 

C 830. Bairagarh Eeserve, Berar 41 

W 998. Poona 48 - 

W 994. Sahyadri Ghats, Ahmednagar 49 

E 623. Eakti Forest, Darjeeling Terai 40 

2. W. tinctoria, R. Br. ; Beddome t. 241 ; Brandis 324 ; Kurz 
ii. 193. Nerium tinctorium, B/oxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 4. Vern. Dudhi, Banda ; 
Khitni, Meywar; Paid, veypale, Tarn.; Tedlapdl, Tel.; Kala Mdu, Mar. 

A small deciduous tree. Wood moderately hard, close-grained. Pores 
scanty, very small, in short radial lines. Medullary rays extremely 
fine and numerous. 

Rajputana, Central and South India. 

Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, Wallich gives 40, our 
specimen 49 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used for carving and turning. The leaves 
are used for dyeing. 

Ibs. 

P 456. Ajmere ... 49 

P 3222. Nagpahar, Ajmere . . . . . . . .... 

7. NERIUM, Linn. 

N. Oleander, Linn. ; Brandis 329, is the Oleander Tree of the Mediterranean, often 
cultivated in India. 

1. N. odorum, Solander; Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 2; Brandis 328. Veru. 
Kanira, kaner, ganhira, Pb. ; Kanyur, Kumaun. 

A large shrub. "Wood greyish white, soft. Pores very small, in radial 
lines. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. 

South-West and Central India, Sincl, Afghanistan, Outer Himalaya to 5,500 feet. 
Oft<*n cultivated. 



APOCYNI 205 

The bark and root arc poisonous, and the leaves used in native medicine. 

Ibs. 
H 3057. Murree Hills, 5,000 feet . v 37 



ORDER LXX. ASCLEPIADE^]. 

A large Order of shrubs or undershrubs, generally scandcnt. It contains about 
11 genera with woody steins, divided into 5 tribes, viz., 

Tribe I, Periploceie . . . . . Cryptolepis, Finlaysonia, 

Streptocaulon and Peri- 
ploca. 

II. Secamoneas Toxocarpus. 

* III. CynancheaB ..... Calotropis and Raphistemma. 

IV. Marsdeniea? Gymnema, Marsdenia and 

Pergularia. 
V. Ceropegiese ..... Leptadenia 

Cryptolepis Biichanani, Roem. and Sen. ; Brandis 330; Kurz ii. 199 (Nerium 
reticulatum, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 8). Vern. Karanta, Hind., is a twining shrub of most 
parts of India, rare in Burma. Finlaysonia obovata, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 197, is a 
climber of the tidal forests of Burma. Streptocaulon tomentosum, Wight, and 
S. extensum, Wight; Kurz ii. 198, are climbers : the first of the En g forests, the 
s.-eond of the lower mixed forests of Burma. Periploca contains 2 species. 
P. phylla, Decaisne; Brandis 330. Vern. Barrarra, bane, Trans-Indus; Bdta, 
Jhelum and Chenab, is a shrub of the arid and northern dry zones in the Punjab and 
Sind ; and P. calophylla, Falc. ; Brandis 330 ; Gamble 56. Vern. Maslara, Nep. ; 
Par gin, Lepcha, a small shrub of the Outer Himalaya from the Jumna to Ehutan 
ascending to 6,000 feet, and of the Khasia Hills. 

Toxocarpus laurifolius, Wight, Kurz ii. 199, is a large climber of the forests 
of the Pegu Yomah. 

Calotropis contains 2 species. C. gigantea, R. Br. ; Brandis 331 ; Kurz ii. 200; 
Gamble 56. (Asclepias grgantea,^^^o. Fl. Ind. ii. 30) Vern. Maddr, safed-ak, Hind.; 
Uk, Sind ; Akand, swetakand, Bang. ; Auk, Nep. ; Yercum, Tarn ; Yekka, Kan. ; 
Kadrdti, Gondi ; Mayo-beng, Burin., is a large shrub found almost all over India 
cliielly in waste land. Its inner bark gives a valuable fibre of fine silky texture, 
which is very strong, and is used for bow strings, fishing nets and lines, and is 
found to be durable in water. The seeds are surrounded by silky hair, which is said to 
be made into thread in Borneo. It is difficult to spin, but mixed with one-fifth of 
cotton it gave, in experiments made by Mr. Monckton in Madras, a good wearing cloth, 
capable of being washed and dyed. It is well suited for stuffing pillows. The fibre 
of the stems was found to bear 552 Ibs., against 407 borne by Sunn hemp, (Crotalaria 
juncea) and 224 Ibs. borne by "coir" (Royle, Fibrous Plants of India, pp. 306 to 310) 
The wood is made into gunpowder charcoal in Kattiawar and the Dekkan, and the 
powdered root is used in medicine as an alterative, tonic and emetic. The acrid 
in ilky juice is also used for various medicinal purposes. C. procera, R. Br. ; Brandis 331 ; 
Kurz ii. 200. Vern. Spahuakka, Afg. ; Ak, muddr, Hind., is a shrub smaller than 
the preceding, but found in drier parts of India than it. It is chiefly found in 
the Sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus to the Jhelum, Oudh, Central India and I he. 
Dekkan. The fibre, wood, silk from the seeds, and root, are used in the same way as 
those of C.gigantea. Raphistemma pulcheUum, Wall.; Gamble 58. Vern. Choiffi- 
brik, Lepcha, is a handsome climber of the North-East Himalaya. 

Gymnema tingens, W. and A.; Gamble 56, occurs inSikkim Hills; and G.acu- 
minatum, Wall.; Kurz ii. 202, in Chittagong and Tenasserim. Marsdenia contains 4 
species, most of which give a strong fibre. M. tinctoria, R. Br. ; Brandis 332 ; Kurz 
ii. 201; Gamble 56 (Asclepias tinctoria, Roxb., Fl. Ind. ii. 43) Vern. Kali Jura. 
Nep.; Ryom, Lepcha, of the North-East Himalaya and Burma, is a climbing shrub 
from whose leaves a black or blue dye resembling indigo is obtained. ^Jl/. tena- 
cissima,W. and A.; Brandis 333; Kurz ii. 201 (AscUpias tenaciisiina\ Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 51), a climber of Kumann, Oudh and Behar extending to Chittagong and 
Ava, gives a beautiful, strong, silky fibre called " Uajmahal filnv'' used for bow- 
strings. Roxburgh states that a line of it broke with a weight of 248 Ibs. when 



266 ASCLEPIADE^. [Marsdenia. 

dry and 343 Ibs. when wet, while common hemp only withstood 158 and 190 Ibs. 
Royle says that a rope (1| inch) broke with 903 Ibs., strong European rope 
breaking with 1,203 Ibs. M. Roylei, Wight ; Brandis 333. Vern. Pathor, Chenab ; 
Tar, veri, Salt Range ; Rurang, Simla (H 3194. Naldehra, Simla, 6,000 feet, with 
a white porous wood and annual rings marked by large pores), and M. lucida, 
Edgew. ; Brandis 333. Vern. 2)udhi, Kumaun, are small climbers of the North- West 
Himalaya. Pergularia contains 2 species : P.pallida, W. and A. ; Brandis 334 ; Kurz 
ii. 202. Vern. Surkila, Kuinaun, of Northern India ; and P. odoratissima, Linn. ; 
Brandis 334 ; Kurz ii. 203 ; Gamble 56. Vern. Kanja luta, Icunjalt, Beng. ; Sim- 
pletluk, Lepcha, of Bengal, Burma and the North- West Himalaya as far as the Jumna, 
often cultivated. 

Leptadenia viminea ; Bth. and Hook. f. (Orthanthera viminea, Wight; 
Brandis 335) Vern. Mowa, laneldr, Trans-Indus; Matti, Beas; Khip, Delhi; 
Kip, Sind ; ChapJcia, Kumaun ; Mahur, Hind., is a glabrous shrub of the arid and 
northern dry region from Sind to Oudh. The flower-buds are eaten as a vegetable, 
and a rope is made of the fibre. Hemidesmus indicus, R. Br. (Asclepias Pseudo-sarsa y 
Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 39,) Vern. Anantamul, Beng., is a climber whose roots are used as 
a substitute for sarsaparilla. There are also numerous small climbers of other genera 
found in the Indian forests, but none sufficiently large to be worth mention. 



ORDER LXXL LOGANIACEJE. 

Contains 4 Indian genera, Buddleia, Fagrcea, Strychnos and Gardneria. 
Gaertnera, Beddome clxiv, contains only Ceylon plants. Gardneria ovata, Wall. ; 
Kurz ii. 227 ; Gamble 57. Vern, Banjahi, Kumaun; Talcpadik, Lepcha, is a climber of 
the North-East Himalaya and Eastern Bengal. Kurz has divided this Order among 
several neighbouring ones, placing Strychnos in Apocynese ; Fagrcea in Gentianea3 ; 
Buddleia in Pedalinese ; and Gardneria in Solanese ; we have, however, considered 
it better to follow Bentham and Hooker, and retain the Order, although the diverse 
structure of the wood of the different genera would seem to accord with Kurz's views. 

The structure of Strychnos and Fagrcea is similar in Laving scattered, 
large, ramified pores (intercellular ducts ?) and small pores in concentric 
bands or irregular patches ; and very sharply marked medullary rays in 
the firmer tissue intervening between the irregular patches. The struct- 
ure of Bnddleia is altogether different. 

1. BUDDLEIA, Linn. 

Contains 4 or 5 species. J5. macrostachya, Bth., is a shrub of the Himalaya from 
Simla eastwards, the Khasia Hills and Sylhet. 

Wood soft or moderately hard, noheartwood. Annual rings distinctly 
marked by a belt of numerous pores, the pores in the outer wood being 
smaller and often arranged in groups or concentric lines. 

1. B. asiatica, Lour.; Beddome clxiii; Brandis 318 ; Kurz ii. 250; 
Gamble 56. B. Neemda, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 396. Vein. Mail, dhaula, 
shiuntra, Kumaun ; Bana, Simla; Newarpati, Nep. ; Ponddm, Lepcha; 
Nimrfa, budhlola, Chittagong; Ki/oungmee koo, Burm. 

A large evergreen shrub. Bark thin, grey. Wood grey, moderately 
hard. Annual rings distinctly marked by a belt of closely-packed pores 
in the spring wood. Pores small, not all of equal size, scanty except 
along the annual rings. Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

Sub-Hiin;il;i yan tract from the Indus eastwards, ascending to 4,000 ft., Bengal, 
Uurm:i, South Indiii ; cliidl y found in second growth I'oivsts. deserted village sites ami 
savannahs. 



HtMlc'id.] LOGANIAI 2C7 

Growth fast, 44 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 44 Ibs. per cubic foot. It has 
white, long, toiuentoso leaves and long spikes of <- fragrant white flowers. It is very 
ornamental and is often grown in gardens. 

H 110. Sutlej Valley, Simla, 4,000 feet 44 

2. B. paniculata,Wall. ; Brandis 318; Kurz ii. 251; Gamble 56. 
B. crispa, Bth. Vern. Spera wuna, Afg. ; l)holtu> ghuttia, sodhera, 
sndhari, North-Western Himalaya; Sinna, Nep. 

A large evergreen shrub. Bark thin, light grey, peeling off in long 
strips. Wood white, moderately hard, close-grained. Annual rings marked 
by a belt of small pores. Pores in the autumn wood very small, in groups 
and in oblique lines. Medullary rays fine. 

Himalaya, from the Indus to Bhutan, ascending to 7,000 ft. 

Growth moderate, 11 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 41 Ibs. per cubic foot. 

Ibs. 

H 158. Simla, 7,000 ft 41 

H 2882. Nagkauda, Simla, 7,000 feet 

3. B. Colvillei, Hook. f. and Th. ; Gamble 56. Vern. Puri singbatti, 
Nep. ; Pya-shing, Bhutia. 

A small tree. Wood reddish brown, soft. Pores of two sizes : large 
near the annual rings, smaller in the autumn wood, these latter grouped, 
the groups being enclosed in patches of soft tissue, which are arranged 
in interrupted concentric bands. Medullary rays fine. 

Eastern Himalaya, 9,000 to 12,000 feet. 

Growth slow, 13 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 35 Ibs. per cubic foot. An 
extremely handsome tree with masses of dark crimson flowers, which appear in August 
and make the tree very conspicuous in its habitat on the summit of Mount Tonglo. 

Ib9. 

E 2393. Tonglo, Darjeeling, 10,000 feet 35 

2. FAGB^EA, Thunb. 

Contains about 6 species. .F. coromandelina, Wight ; Beddome t. 244. Vern. 
Gi)nnnt,a, Kan., io a small handsome flowered tree of the Eastern Ghats of South 
India. F. auricularia, Jack, and F. carnosa, Jack ; Kurz ii. 204, are large shrubs of 
Tenasserim. 

1. F. fragrans, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 461 ; Kurz ii. 205. Vern. Anan, 
Barm. 

An evergreen tree. Wood hard, brown, close-grained, beautifully 
mottled. Pores of two classes, large ones scanty, often subdivided, 
small ones in narrow, wavy, concentric bands, which alternate with broader 
bands of firm and dark-coloured tissue in which the numerous fine medul- 
lary rays are distinctly visible. The large pores (vessels or intercellular 
ducts) are prominent on a vertical section. 

Burma. 

Wright, according to Baker, 70 Ibs.; Wallich, 52'5 Ibs.; Simpson, 57 Ibs.; Major 
Seaton 60 Ibs.; our speciments vary from 53 to 65 Ibs. Baker's four experiments 
with Tavoy wood, with bars 7' X 2" X 2 V gave P = 553; Simpson's gave 387, but 
the wood was a bad specimen. The wood is very durable, and is not liable to the 
attacks of ''Teredo. " It is one of the most important of the reserved trees of Burma, 



268 LOGANIACB^. 

especially in Tavoy ; and is used for house-building, bridge and wharf piles, boat- 
anchors and other purposes. 

Ibs. 

B 289. Burma (1867) 53 

B 550. Martaban 65 

B 3073. Burma (1862) 57 

2. F. racemosa, Jack ; Kurz ii. 205. Vern. Thit-hpaloo, Burin. 

A. moderate-sized evergreen tree. Wood moderately hard, greasy to 
the touch and with a scent like that of India-rubber. Pores of two sizes : 
moderate -sized pores scattered, often oval and subdivided, and extremely 
small pores in narrow, wavy, concentric bands, alternating with broader 
bands of firmer tissue, in which the fine, numerous medullary rays are 
distinctly visible. 

Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 50 Ibs. per cubic foot. Major Ford says it is strong and durable, that the 
wood is used for house-posts, and the root bark as a cure for fever. 

B 1990. Andamans (Kurz, 1866) 52 

B 2294. (Ford, 1866) 48 



3. E 1450. (56 Ibs) brought by Dr. Griffith from the Mishmi Hills in 1836, has 
the structure of Fagrcea. It is probably F. olovata, Wall. ; Beddoine clxiv ; Kurz ii. 
205 ; Gamble 56. Vern. SunaMari, Nep. ; Longsoma, Magh ; Nvoungkyap, Buniiau 
evergreen tree, often scandent or stem clasping, found in the forests of Northern 
and Kastern Bengal, Chittagong and Burma. 

3. STRYCHNOS, Linn. 

Contains 6 to 8 species of Indian trees or climbing shrubs. S. Wallichiana, 
Steud. ; Kurz ii. 167, is an evergreen tree of the forests of the Pegu Yomah. 8. cinna- 
momifolia, Thw. and S. colubrina, Linn. ; Beddoine clxiii are gigantic climbers of the 
Western Ghats, while S. laurina, Wall, and S. acuminata, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 166, are 
large evergreen climbers of Tenasserim, the latter also occurring on the coasts of South 
Andaman. 

1. S. potatornm, Linn. fil. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 576; Beddome clxiii; 
Brandis o!7 ; Kurz ii. 167. The Clearing Nut Tree. Vero. Nirmali, nd 
mat, Hind.; Kotaku, Uriya ; Ustumri, Gondi ; Teltancottai, tettian y Tain.;. 
Chilla, indupa, induga, katakamu,jndapa, Tel.; Nirmali, chillinj, Mar.; 
Ustumri , Gondi; Tettam-parel, Mai. ; Chillu, Kan.; Ingini, Ciugh. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree. Bark -j^th inch thick, greyish brown 
and sometimes almost black, with numerous small angular, exfoliating 
scales. Wood white when fresh cut, turning yellowish grey on exposure, 
hard, close-grained, seasons well. No heart wood, no annual rings. 
Pores of two classes : large pores scanty, very small pores numerous, 
arranged in irregularly ramified patches, which are extremely variable in 
shape, giving the wood a remarkably fantastic pattern on a cross section. 
These patches are joined by white concentric lines which may possibly be 
annual rings. Medullary rays white, fine and moderately broad, numerous, 
sharply defined in the darker tissue. The large pores, which are promi- 
nent on a radial section, are filled with a white shining substance and aiv 
often ramified. They are probably not vessels, but large intercellular 
ducts. 



I.OGANIAI 269 

Bengal, Central and South India. 

Weight, 57 Ibs. per cubic Coot. Wood durable, used for building, carts and 
agricultural implements. The pulp of the fruit is eaten, and the ripe seeds are used 
to clear muddy water by merely rubbing the inside of the jar with the seed. 

Ibs. 
C 1101. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces ..... 55 

C 2979. Bijeragogarh, Central Provinces 

D 1060. South Arcot 61 

No. 44. Salein Collection 56 

2. S. NllX-VOmica, Linn.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 575; Beddome fc. 243; 
Brandis 3J.7 ; Kurz ii. 166. The Snake Wood, Nux-vomica or Strychnine 
Tree. Vern. Kuchli, kajra, Hind. ; Kuchila, Beng. ; Kerra, korra, Uriya 
Yetti, Tarn. ; Hushti, musadi, Tel. ; Kasaraka y kujarra, khasca, kasara- 
gadde, Kan. ; Kara, jhar katcliura, Mar. ; Kanjaram, Travancore ; Goda 
fadvru,CMgh t ; Khaboung, Burm. 

A moderate-sized evergreen tree, with dark grey bark. Wood brown- 
ish grey, hard, close-grained, splits and warps. Pores of two classes : 
very large pores (intercellular ducts) scanty, filled with a white substance, 
very prominent on a vertical section, where they are often branching ; and 
small pores in irregularly shaped, ramified patches, which are joined by 
concentric and oblique white lines. Medullary rays fine and moderately 
broad, prominent in the firm, shining, hard tissue intervening between 
the patches above described. 

Bengal, Burma and South India. 

Weight, according to Skinner, No. 119, 56 Ibs. (P = 1160) ; Brandis' experiments 
(3) made in 1864 with Burma wood in bars 3 ft. X 1 inch X 1 inch gave weight 49 Ibs. ; 
P = 623 ; his list of Burma woods of 1862, No. 75, gave 52 Ibs. ; our specimens give 
an average of 57 Ibs. The wood is used in Burma for carts, agricultural implements, 
and fancy cabinet-work. The seeds contain 0'28 to 0'53 per cent, of strychnia mixed 
with brucia, poisonous alkaloids. The pulp of the fruit is eaten by birds. 

Ibs. 

W 1224. North Kanara 65 

W 727. South ,,.... 59 

B 3072, Burma (1862) 49 



ORDER LXXII. BORAGINE.E. 

Contains 4 genera belonging to 3 tribes, viz., 

Tribe I. Cordieso Cordia. 

II. Ehretieae Ehretia and Rhabdia. 

III. Heliotropiese ..... Tournefurtia. 

Rhabdia viminea, Dalzell; Brandis 341, 577; Kurz ii. 211, is a small shrub of 
sandy and shingly river beds in Kumaun, Bengal, South India and Burma. 

Tournefortia viridiflora, Wall. ; Gamble 57. Vern. Ampati, Nep. ; Tungrong, 
Lepcha, is a climbing shrub of the North-East Himalaya, with soft brown wood having 
11 it- anual rings marked by darker lines, and large pores (E 3299, Chunbati, Darjeeling, 
3,000 feet). The Heliotrope, Heliotropiutn peruviamim, Linn., in some places in the 
hills and especially on the ISilgiris, reaches to the size of a shrub, and may be used for 
hedges. 

Pores small or moderate-sized, the transverse diameter generally less 
than the distance between the rays, which are uniform and equidistant, 
generally short, either fine or moderately broad. Cordia has concentric 
bands of soft texture which arc wanting in Ehrelia. 



270 BORAGIM [Cor ilia. 

1. CORDIA, Linn. 

Contains 13 Indian species. C. Wallichii, G. Don; Beddome t. 24,5. Vern. 
Chandle, Kan., is a tree of the Western Ghats, Mysore and Bombay, with woolly leaves. 
C.grandis, Roxb. ; Kurz ii. 208 ; Gamble 57 ; Roxb. PI. Ind. i. 593. Vern. Asari, Nep. ; 
Thanat, Burm. ; is an evergreen tree of Northern and Eastern Bengal and Chittagong. 
C. octandra, DC. ; Beddome clxvi. (C. serrata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 591.) Vern. Gadgondori, 
Hind., is a small tree of Travancore. C. monoica, Roxb. PL Ind. i. 592 ; Beddome 
clxvi. Vern. JPida, Hind. ; Panugeri, Tel., is a small poor-looking tree of the barren 
parts of the Circar forests. C. polygama, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 594 ; Beddome clxvi. ; 
Kurz ii 207. Vern. Bottukuru, patcha, Tel., is a small tree of the mountains on the 
Corornandel Coast and the Eng forests of Martaban. C. Perottetii, DC. ; and C. 
fulvosa, Wight, are small trees of the Western Ghats. The above are white-flowered 
species. C. subcordata, Lamk. ; Kurz ii. 209 (C. campanulata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 
593) is a handsome large shrub of the Andainans and Tenasserim, with red flowers, 
often cultivated. C. speciosa, Willd., and C. tectonifolia, Wall., are small trees with 
handsome scarlet flowers, cultivated in gardens, but introduced from the West Indies. 

Numerous concentric lines of soft tissue, which sometimes are inter- 
rupted, but generally with the medullary rays divide the wood into 
oblongs or squares. Medullary rays prominent on a radial section. 

1. C. Myxa, Linn. ; Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 590 ; Beddome clxv. ; Brandis 
336; Kurz ii. 208; Gamble 57. Vern. Lasora, bhokar, gondi, Hind.; 
Laswara, Pb. ; Lesuri, giduri, Sind; Borla, baurala, Kumauu; Bohari, 
buhal } Beng. ; Boeri, Nep. ; Nimat, Lepcha ; Dolakari, Mechi ; Gondi, 
Uriya; Vidi,verasu, Tarn.; Pedda boku, virgi, nakkera, ir&i, iriki, Tel. ; 
Semar, goden, gondan, Mar. ; C/iotte, Kaa. ; Selte, Gondi ; Silu, Kurku ; 
Lasseri, Baigas; Lolii, Cingh. ; Chaine, Magh ; Thanat } toung thanat, 
Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Bark i to f inch thick, grey or 
brown, rough with shallow longitudinal wrinkles and furrows. Wood 
grey, moderately hard. Pores of two sizes, a few moderate-sized or large, 
uniformly scattered and frequentl} 7 double, the rest very small in narrow 
continuous concentric belts of soft tissue. Medullary rays alternately 
fine and broad, the rays with the white concentric lines dividing the 
wood into marked squares or oblong compartments. Medullary rays 
prominent on a radial section as rough horizontal plates, having a 
mottled appearance. 

Salt Range, Sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab to Assam ascending to 
5,000 feet, Khasia Hills, Bengal, Burma, Central and South India. 

Growth moderately fast, 3 to 9 rings per inch of radius (Brandis) ; our specimens 
do not shew the rings well, with the exception of two, which give 1 to 2 rings per inch, 
which must be called very fast. The weight is very variable. Brandis in Burma List 
of 1862, No. 82, gives 33 Ibs. per cubic foot; our specimens vary from 23 to 421bs., but 
the average is 33 Ibs. Brandis in For. Fl., p. 337, says 33 to 49 Ibs. The wood, in spite 
of its noftness, is fairly strong, and seasons well, but is readily al tacked by insects. It 
is used for boat-building, well-curbs, gun-stocks and agricultural implements, in P>rno-al 
for canoes. It might be tried for tea-boxes. It is an excellent fuel. The bark is 
ni:nl- into ropes and the lihre is used for caulking boats. The leaves are nsed as plates 
and in Pegu to cover Burmese cheroots. The fruit (Sclestaii} is eaten, it is \vry 
mucilajrinons and is nst-d in native medicine. The viscid pulp is used as birdlime. 
The kernel is eaten and is used for marking linen, but the mark is fugacious. 

Ibs. 

O 250. Garhwal (1808) PJ 

O 1:570. (Jon.la, Oudh 38 

C IH'.K Aliiri Reserve, Central 1'roviiuv* ;?7 

K r.|-J Kak'i Forest, Darj-rlin- T.-rai 



Car <lla.] BORAGINE^:. 271 

E 2394. Bamunpokri, Darjecling Terai 

E 714. Chittagong 23 

B 2543. Burma (1862) .86 

No. 42. Salem Collection (marked Spondias mangifera) . . .32 

2. C. Macleodii, Hook. f. and Th. ; Brandis 337. \em.Dhenffan, 
dJidman, dhdian, dewan, da/ii, dahipalds, dihgan, Hind.; Dhaiwau, 
Sattara; Daiwas, d/iaim, bhoti, Mar.; Bot, Gondi ; Lauri kassamdr, 
Kurku ; Gadru, Ajmcre. 

A middling-sized deciduous tree, with thick, grey, soft, corky bark. 
Heartwood light brown, beautifully mottled with darker veins, even- 
grained, very hard, strong, tough and elastic, seasons well and works 
easily. Pores small, in irregular concentric belts of white tissue, often 
joined by white lines without pores. Medullary rays white, fine and 
moderately broad, prominent. 

Central and South India, Dekkan. 

Weight, 40 to 50 Ibs. (Brandis) ; our specimens give 49 to 53, average 51 Ibs. 
The wood is used for furniture, picture frames and other ornamental work ; also for 
fishing-rods, which are said to be excellent. It deserves to be better known and more 

in use. 

Ibs. 

P 3219. Nagpahar, Ajmere 

C 180. Mandla, Central Provinces (1870) 53 

C 2985. Jubbulpore (1863) 50 

C 831. Bairagarh Eeserve, Berar 49 

3. C. vestita, Hook. f. and Th. ; Br^ndis 338. Gynaion vestitum, 
A. DC. Vern. Kumbi, karuk, Pb. ; Kum paimdn, pin, indak, chinta, 
ajdnta, bairula, berula, Hind. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, dark grey, exfoliating 
when old in large woody scales. The wood has the same structure and 
appearance as that of C. Macleodii, except that the concentric lines are 
occasionally interrupted. 

Sub-Himalayan tract, from the Jhelum to the Sarda Eiver, Oudh. 
Weight, 52 to 53 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood strong, used for wheel and well work. 
The fruit is eaten, it is preferred to that of C. Myxa. 

Ibs. 

O 231. Garhwal (1868) 52 

O 2998. (1874) 53 

O 3232. Dehra Dun 

4. C. fragrantissima, Kurz ii. 207. Vern. Toungkalamet, Burm. 

A deciduous tree. Wood moderately hard, reddish brown with 
darker streaks, beautifully mottled, has a fragrant scent. Pores small, in 
roundish patches, which are joined by fine, concentric lines. Medullary 
rays short, moderately broad, distinctly marked on a vertical section. 

Burma, chiefly in the hills of Martaban and Tenasserim. 

Weight, 48 to 51 Ibs. per cubic foot. It is a beautiful wood and should be better 
known. It has a handsome grain, and its fresh, fragrant odour makes it very pleasant 
to use. Pieces sent to London for sale in 1878 realized 4-10 per ton. 

Ibs. 

B 285. Burma (1867) 48 

B 1428. Tharrawaddy, Burma 51 

5. C. Rothii, Rom. and Schultes ; Brandis 338. C. angustifolia, 
Hoxb. Fl. Ind. i. 595. Vern. Gondi, gondni, gundi. Hind. ; Liar, lidi, 
Sind ; Narvilli, Tarn. 



BOHAOIM [C'ofi/ia. 

A small tree. Bark grey or brownish grey, with deep longitudinal 
furrows. Wood grey, compact, hard. Pores small, often subdivided. 
Medullary rays fine and moderate- sized. Numerous fine bands of softer 
tissue which on a transverse section divide the wood between the 
medullary rays into small squares. 

Dry zones of North-West and South India. 

Growth moderate, 10 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 42 to 52 Ibs. per cubic 
foot (Brandts) ; our specimen gives 46 Ibs. Used for fuel, in Sind for building, and in 
Cutch for agricultural implements. The bark when wounded gives a gum, and the 
liber is made into ropes. The pulp of the fruit is eaten. 

Ibs. 
P 449. Ajmere . .... 46 

2. EHRETIA, Linn. 

Species about 8. E. serrata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 596 ; Brandis 339 ; Kurz ii. 210 ; 
Gamble 57. Vern. Pursan, kalthaun, Pb. ; Puny an, punjlawdi, panden, Tcoda, 
Icurkuna, arjun, Hind. ; Narra, Garhwal ; Shaursi, Kumaun ; Rend, Kurku ; Ridi, 
Baigas ; Nalshuna, chillay, Nep. ; Bual, Ass. ; Kala-aja, Beng., is a tree of the Sub- 
Himalayan tract from the Indus to Bhutan ascending to 5,000 feet, Eastern Bengal, 
and Chittagong. Brandis says " the wood is light brown, with white specks, fairly 
even and compact, soft, not heavy, easily worked, made into scabbards, sword-hilts, 
gun-stocks, and employed for building and agricultural implements." Aikin in Wallich's 
List of 1831 gives 3'3 rings per inch of radius for the rate of growth. Kyd gives for 
the weight, 37 Ibs. per cubic foot, and P = 530. The fruit is eaten. E. aspera, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. i. 598 ; Beddome clxvi. Vern. Telia juvi, Tel., is a small bushy tree of dry 
barren places in South India ;i as is also E. buxifolia, Roxb. FL Ind. i. 598 ; Beddome 
clxvi. Vern. Bapana-buri, Tel. E. ovalifolia, Wight ; Beddome clxvi., is a small 
tree of Coimbatore, Madura and Tinnevelly up to 2,000 feet, and E. Wightiana, 
Wall. ; Beddome clxvi., a small tree of the Tinnevelly Ghats. 

1. E. Isevis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 597; Beddome t. 246 ; Brandis 340 ; 
Kurz ii. 210. Vern. Chamrur, koda, darar, datranga, Hind. ; Tamdo/i, 
Banda ; Mosonea, Uriya ; Dotti, disti, gilchi, Gondi ; Datranga, Mar. ; 
Paldatam, redda pul-mera, sereyad, Tel.; Kappura, Kan. 

A moderate-sized tree. Bark J inch thick, grey. Wood greyish 
white, hard. Annual rings indistinctly marked. Pores small, grouped 
in small clusters or radial lines. Medullary rays fine, short, numerous, 
distinctly visible on a radial section. 

Suliman Range, Punjab, Sub-Himalayan tract, Oudh, Bengal, Burma and the 
Andaman Islands, Central and South India. 

Growth moderate, 6 to 8 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 33 to 38 Ibs. per cubic 
foot. Wood tough, durable, used for agricultural implements and building. The 
fruit is eaten, as is also the inner bark in times of famine. 

11)8. 

O 257. Garhwal (1868) 3:1 

1155. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 3S 

2. E. obtusifolia, Hochstetter; Brandis 340. 

A small shrub. Bark grey, thin. Wood resembling in structure 
that of .E. loevis* 

Salt Range in the Punjab, Sind and Rajputana. 
P 3245. Ajmere. 

3. E. Wallichiana, Hook. f. and Th.; Gamble 57. Vern. Bocri, 
duwari, Nep. ; Kulet, Lcpclia. 

A large tree, sometimes gregarious. Wood irroy, moderately hard. 
Annual rings marked by light-coloured belts. Pores small and moderate- 



.] BORAG1NEJ3, 273 

sized, in scattered groups and short radial lines. Medullary rays short, 
fine, uniform, distinctly marked on a radial section. 

Darjeeling Forests, from 2,000 to 7,000 1 (.. 

Growth moderate, 7 rings JKT inch of r;itlius. Weight, 33 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
The wood is used for building, for charcoal, and occasionally for making tea-boxes. 

lbn. 

E 690. Sepoydura Forest, Darjeeling, 5,500 feet .... 33 



ORDER LXXIII. CONVOLVULACEJE, 

Contains 7 genera of Indian shrubs or climbers, viz., Erycibe, Rivea, Argy. 
re la, Lettsomia, Ipomcea, Parana and Ncuropeltix. 

With few except ions such us the erect-growing AV//r/Y,r (flunicrdfa, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 
213, of Tenasserim, they are all large climbers, often with showy flowers, but of very 
little lores! ink-rest. Argyreia speciosa, Sweet. ; Brandis 313, is the well-known 
" Elephant Creeper." 



ORDER LXXIV. SOLANE^B. 

An Order of no special forest interest, though of considerable economic importance 
producing the potato, capsicum, tomato, tobacco, datura and Cape gooseberry. It 
contains 2 genera of Indian shrubs or small trees, Lycium and Solanum. Lycinm 
curopceum, Linn. ; Brandis 345. Vern. Ganger, Jcangu, ckirchitta, niral, Ph., is a 
thorny shrub of the Punjab, Sind and Guzerat, whose fruit is eaten. It is used as 
fuel, and the branches are made into wattled frames for the walls of huts. Solanum 
contains several shrubs, many of them occurring in waste places- The largest is 
perhaps, 8. verlascifolium, Linn. ; Kurz ii. 225 ; Gamble 58. Vern. Dursul, Nep. ; 
.S'/ror, Lepcha, a small tree or large shrub of Northern and Eastern Bengal and Burma. 
It has a grey bark and light yellow soft wood with scanty, moderate-sized, often 
subdivided pores and numerous short, medullary rays. The annual rings are marked 
by a line of larger pores. (E 3344. Kalimpuug, Darjeeling, 4,000 feet.) 



ORDER LXXV. SCROPHULAEINE^l. 

Contains only very few genera of woody plants, sucb as Brand-is iu and . 

Srandisia contains two species, one from Bhutan, the other, 13. discolor, Hook. f. and 
Th. ; Kurz ii. 250, from the hill forests of Martaban at 2,000 to 3,000 feet elevation. 

The Paitlownut, P. impcrialis, Bth., a handsome-flowered tree often cultivated 
for ornament, belongs to this Order. 

1. WIGIITIA, Wall. 

1. W. gigailtea, Wall. ; Gamble 581. Vern. Lakori, Nep.; Bop y 
Lcpcha. 

Bark grey, smooth, of unequal thickness, on the outside \ inch thick, 
much thinner where it touches the stem of the supporting tree. Wood 
white, moderately soft, porous. Pores large, often subdivided, equally 
distributed. Medullary rays moderately broad, uniform, not equidistant. 

Hill forests of Sikkim and Bhutan, from 3,000 to 7,000 feet 

A huge epiphytic tree which climbs by sending out hori/ontal. stem -clasping, 
aerial roots round the stem of the tree on which it grows, often .sin-wing its ma 
pink flowers above the summit of the latter. 

The wood is used to mako Buddhist idols ; it is light and very soft, but rl--, 

The stem is often 3 to 4 feet in girth. 
E 3323, Rangivum, Darjeeling, 6,000 feet. 

'I L 



274 OESNERACEj;. \Leptoltta. 



ORDER LXXVI. GESNEEACE^}. 

An Order scarcely worth mentioning, as it contains hut one shrubby plant, the 
rest being mostly handsome-flowered, herbaceous plants of the damp zones. 

1. LEPTOBCEA, Bth. 

1. L. multiflora, Bth. ; Gamble 58. Championia mullijlora, C. B^ 
Clarke. Vern. Tungrangmook, Lepcha. 

A small shrub. Bark grey, peeling 1 off in papery lakes. Wood 
yellowish white, hard, close and even-grained. Pores very small but 
distinct, in short radial lines. Annual rings marked by closer pores. 
Medullary rays extremely fine. 

Hills of N. E. Himalaya up to 3,000 feet. 
E 3314. raiikabari, Darjeeling, 2,000 feet. 



ORDER LXXVII. BIGNONIACEJE. 

Contains 8 genera of Indian trees, belonging to 2 tribes, viz., 

Tribe I. Bignoniero Mttlingtonia and Qroxylum. 

II. Tecoineae Tecoma, Dolichandrone, He- 

terophragma, Stereosperm it in, 
and Pajanclia. 

Mayodendron igneum, Kurz Prel. Report of Pegu, Appendix D ; Burma For. PI. 
ii. 233, is a handsome tree with scarlet flowers found in the Martaban Hills up to 
8,000 feet 

To this family belong Amphicome arguta, Royle, a herb with largi- perennial root- 
stoek, round on rocks in the North-West Himalaya; the Catalpa, C. bignonioidtt, an 
Amerienn tree with a greyish, handsomely-marked, very durable wood, often planted in 
Europe and now largely cultivated in America, and said to be good for sleepers; and 
numerous other large American trees with fine timber. 

With few exceptions, this Order is characterised by irregular concen- 
tric bauds of soft texture. The pores are moderate-sized and frequently 
filled with resin, and the medullary rays line, the distance between the 
rays being generally equal to the transverse diameter of the pores. 

1. MILLINGTONIA, Linn. fil. 

1. M. hortensis, Linn. ; Beddome t. 219 ; Brandis 347; Kurz ii 
/>/// noni'Jt xubertHHiy Koxb. I'M. Ind. iii. 111. The Indian Cork Tree, Yern. 
jVi'wi* c/iambeli, ttkiix- nim, Hind.; At/kai/tf., l>unn.; Kat. malli, Tain. 

A large tree. Wood soft, yellowish white. Tores small, numerous. 
Medullary rays line, the distance between the rays somewhat larger than 
the transverse diameter of the pores. The sju'eimen from the Sahuranpm 
o-;ird'iis ^lirws distinct annual rings marked by more numerous and 
larger pores in the spring wood. 

Cultivate.! in a\vmu-s H nd ^.inlen> in most parts of India, believed to he ind 
m IJunn.i and the Malay Ar.-liip.-l:ij,'i). Kurzf-ay-s it is rather raiv in the tiopieal \( 
Mailabaii down t<> Tena -serini 



Milling tonia.~] BIQNONIACE^. 275 

Weight, '12 ll>s, per cubic foot (Skinner, No. 27) ; P = 610. Our specimen gives 
lolhs. (irowth last, 4 to 5 rings per inch of radius, u.s far as we can judge from our 
3'oung specimen. 

11)8. 

O 3100. Saharanpur Gardens 40 

2. OROXYLUM, Vent. 

1. 0. indicum, Bth. ; Kurz ii, 237. Calosanthes indica, Bl. ; Brandis 
347 ; Gamble 59. Bignonia indica, ftoxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 110; Beddomo 
clxviii. Vorn. Muliti, mirianga, sori, tatpalang, td/.inonui//, Pb. ; Ullu, 
arlu, kharkath, pharkath, sauna, assar sauna, stiyona, Hind.; Taltunua t 
O.P. ; Tofilla, karamkanda, Nep. ; Kering, Garo; Cher pong t Mechi; 
Sozong, Rajbanshi; Pomponia, Uriya; Pana, vanga, achi, Tarn.; 
Pamania, pampana, dundillnm, dondlup, Tel. ; Uhatte, Gondi ; Telu t 
Miir.; Totilla, Cin^b. ; Kyounyyabcng, Burm. ; Raladah, And. 

A small tree. Bark i inch thick, light-brownish grey, soft, yields a 
green juice when cut. "Wood yellowish white, soft; no heartwood. Pores 
moderate-sized, uniformly distributed. Annual rings marked by more 
numerous pores. Medullary rays fine to moderately broad, prominent 
on a radial section. 

Sub-Himalayan tract from the Jumna eastwards ascending to 3,500 feet, Bengal 
Burma, Central and South India, Andamans. 

Growth last, 2,\ to 4 riu^s per inch of radius. Weight 30 Ibs. per cubic foot. The 
hark and fruit are used in tanning and dyeing ; the seeds are used to line hats and, 
between two layers of wickerworlc, to make umbrellas; they may be seen in Buddhist 
iomplcs in Sikkini, hung up in strings or made into ornaments to suspend from the 
roof. The tree is raxnaruible for its long, flat, sword-like capsule and large dull- 
coloured (lowers. Mr. Manson says that the ground-up bark mixed with "hardi" is 
used to cure sore backs in horses. 

Ibs. 

P 111. Sutlej Valley ...... i 

C 1179. Ahiri Reserve, ('(Mitral Provinces ..... 27 

E 5sj. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai \\'i 

E 2396. Bamunpokri, Darjeeling Forest . . . ... 31 

3. TECOMA, Juss. 

1. T. imdulata, G. Don ; Brandis 352. Blgnonia undidata, Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. iii. 101. Vern. Reoddna, rebddn, Trans-Indus; Lahura, luar y 
roir, ra/iira, Pb. ; Lohiiri, lo/tero, Sind ; Roira, Mhairwarra ; llakht reora, 
Mar. 

An evergreen shrub or small tree. Bark inch thick, corky, reddish 
brown. Heartwood greyish or yellowish brown, close-grained, mottled 
with lighter streaks, takes a fine polish. Pores small and moderate- 
sized, often subdivided, enclosed in small rounded patches, which are 
frequently arranged in concentric lines. Medullary rays short, fine and 
moderately broad, very prominent on a radial section as long, smooth 
plates. 

Suliman and Salt Ranges, Punjab plains, Rajputana, Guzerat. 

Weight, 44 Ibs. per cuhic foot (Brandts) ; our specimen gives 61 Ibs. The wood is 
tough, strong and durable, works and polishes well. It is highly pri/ed for furniture, 
carving work and agricultural implements. The flowers are bright orange and very 
handsome. 

KM, 
P 943. Salt Range, Punjab 



76 BIGNONIACEJE. [Dolichaiidfone. 

4. DOLICHANDRONE, Feuzl. 

Contains 5 Indian trees. D. arcuata, Hook.f. and Bth. Gen. Plant, ii. 1046 (Spat- 
hodea arcuata, Wight; Beddome clxix.) Vern. JRan~palai, Tarn. ; Mersinghi, Mar., is a 
tree of the Palghat and Coimbatore forests. D. crispa, Seem. (Spathodea crispa, Wall. ; 
Beddome clxviii. ; Brandis 350. Bignonia crispa, Buch. ; Roxb. PI. Ind. iii. 103) Vern . 
Pumbadri, Tarn., is a handsome, white-flowered tree of South India, especially Cud- 
dapah and North Arcot, and probably the Central Provinces. 

D. falcata and D. Rheedii have white, soft wood, without heartwood. 
Medullary rays very fine. Concentric bands of soft tissue very numerous. 
D. stipulate has hard, orange-coloured heartwood, and no concentric 
bands. 

1. D. stipulata, Seem. ; Bth. and Hook. f. Gen. Plant, ii. 1046. 
Spathodea atipulata, Wall. ; Kurz ii. 23 i. Bignonia slipulata, Roxb. PI. 
Ind. iii. 108. Vern. Petthan, malwa, Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Heartwood orange-red, beautifully 
mottled, hard, close-grained. Pores numerous, small, enclosed in round 
patches of soft tissue which are often arranged in wavy, concentric Hues. 
Medullary rays prominent, very fine, very numerous, generally filled 
with a yellow substance. 

Burma and Andaman Islands. 

Weight, Brandis' Burma List, 1862, No. 77, gives 48 Ibs. ; Skinner, No. 26, gives 
weight 64 Ibs., P = 1386; our specimens give 56 Ibs. per cubic foot. Wood used for 
bows, spear handles, oars and paddles. Major Ford says it is a durable wood for 
house-posts and makes good furniture. Flowers orange-yellow. 

Ibs. 

B 2544. Burma (1862) v ... 58 

B 2261. Andaman Islands (1866) 54 

2. D. falcata, Seem.; Benth. and Hook. f. Gen. Plant, ii. 1046. 
Spathodea falcata, Wall.; Beddome t. 71; Brandis 350. Bignonia 
xpalhacea, Roxb. l r l. Ind. iii. 103. Vern. lldivar, Oudh ; Kanseri, 
Mey war ; Mendal, manehingi, Banswara ; Mersingi, Mar.; Udda, wodi, 
Tel.; Mersingh, Bhil ; Karanjelo, Kurku ; Nir pongilam, Mai. 

A small deciduous tree. Bark i inch thick, bluish grey, exfoliating in 
irregular woody scales. Wood whitish, hard, close and even-grained, 
seasons well, shining and glossy ; no heartwood. Annual rings indistinct. 
Pores small, oval and subdivided, arranged in wavy, narrow, concentric 
bands. Medullary rays very fine, very numerous. 

Oudh, Rajpulana, Central and South India. 

Growth moderate, 7 to 8 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 42 to 43 Ibs. per cubic 
foot. Wood used for building and agricultural purposes. Flowers white, leaves small. 

Ibs. 

C 1139. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 42 

W 995. Sahyadri Ghats, Ahmednagar 43 

3. D. Rheedii, Seem.; Bth. and Hook. f. Gen. PI. ii. 1046. 
Spathodea Rheedii, Wall.; Beddome clxviii.; Kurz ii. 234. Vern. Deya- 
danga, Cingh. ; Thakootma, Burm. 

Wood white, soft. Structure similar to that of D. falcata, but 
medullary rays very prominent on a vertical section. 

Burma, Malabar, Ceylon and the Andamans. 

Growth moderate, 7 to 13 rings per inch of radius. Weigh 1, '23 Ibs. (Adrian Momlis) ; 
our specimens give 32 to 39 Ibs. ; JJrandis' Umma List, 1862, No. 79, gives 35 Ibs. 
Flowers white. 



Dolichandfone.] BIGNONIACEJE, 277 

Ibs. 

B 2545. Burma (1862) 32 

B 2252. Andaman Islands (1866) . 39 

No. 18. Ceylon Collection 23 

5. HETEROPHRAGMA, DC. 

Wood soft, no heartwood. Pores moderate-sized. Medullary rays 
fine, the distance between the rays being 1 equal to the transverse dia- 
meter of the pores. No distinct concentric bands. 

1. H. Roxburgh!!, DC.; Beddome clxix. Spathodea Roxlurghii, 
Spreugel ; Brandis 350. Bignonia quadrilocularis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 
107. Vern. Baro-kala-gorUj Tarn.; Bondgu, Tel.; Pullung ) warraSj 
Mar. 

A large tree. Bark \ inch thick, dark brown, exfoliating in small 
angular scales. Wood grey, rough, moderately hard. No heartwood, 
no annual rings. Pores moderate -sized, uniformly distributed. Medul- 
lary rays fine, visible ou a radial section as long narrow plates. 

Ghanda District, Godavari Forests and Western Coast. 

Growth moderate, 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 40 Ibs. per cubic foot. 
Flowers rose-coloured. 

Ibs. 
C. 1106. Ahiri Eeserve, Central Provinces 40 

2. H. adenophylla, Seem.; Bth. and Hook. f. Gen. PI. ii. 104-7; 
Kurz ii. 236. Vern. PcMan, Burm. 

A moderate-sized deciduous tree. Wood yellowish white, moderately 
hard. Pores moderate-sized, often subdivided, uniformly distributed. 
Medullary rays fine, numerous. 

Burma and Andaman Islands. 

Weight, 41 Ibs. per cubic foot. Flowers large, dull brown, 

Ibs. 
B 1421. Tharrawaddy, Burma . 42 

3. H. sulfurea, Kurz ii. 235. Vern. Thitlinda, Burm. 

A deciduous tree. Wood dark grey, soft, even-grained, in structure 
resembling that of //. Roxburghii. 

Burma, chiefly in Prorne District. 

Brandis' Burma List, 1862, No. 78, gives weight, 63 Ibs.; the specimen now 
weighs 42 Ibs. Flowers yellow. 

Ibs. 

B 2547. Burma (1862) 42 

6. STEREOSPERMUM, Chamisso. 

Contains 5 to 6 species. 8. amanum, Benth. and Hook. f. (SpatJiodea amtrjia, 
A. DC ; Brandis 349. Radermachera amana, Seem. ; Kurz ii. 232) is a tree introduced 
from the Mauritius, but wild inAva; it is cultivated in gardens. 8. nciirtiHthum, 
Kurz ii. 230. Vern. Thanday, with pale lilac flowers, is found in the forests of the 
PeguYoma; the wood weighs 33 to 36 Ibs. and is reddish brown, close-grained, but 
little used. 

Wood rough. Heartwood small, brown, sometimes wanting. Pores 
moderate-sized, often joined by concentric bands or lines of soft texture, 
which are sometimes interrupted. Medullary rays fine ; the distance 
between the rays equal to the transverse diameter of the pores. 



278 BIGNONIACE^:. [Stet'eospermum. 

1. S. chelonoides, DC.; Beddome t. 72; Brandis 352; Kurz ii. 
230; Gamble 58. Bignonia chelonoides, Linn.; Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 106. 
Veru. Pader, padri, parral, Hind.; Parari, Nep. ; Singyen, Lepcha; 
Sirpang, Mechi ; Bolzel, Garo ; Parolli, Ass. ; Pareya-auwal, Cachar ; 
Dharmara, atcapali, Beng. ; Tsaingtsa, Magh ; Padri, pon-padira, pathiri, 
vela-padri, Tarn. ; Tagada, thagu, kala goru, moka-yapa, pistil, Tel. ; 
Taitu, Berar; Pamphunia, Uriya; Kirsel, tuatuka,padul, Mar. ; Padurni, 
Bhil ; Nai-udi, mallali, Coorg ; Kall-udi, Kan. ; Lunu-madala, Cingh. ; 
Thakooppo, Burm. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark brown, varying in thickness up to i 
inch, outer bark corky. Wood hard, grey, no heartwood. Pores moder- 
ate-sized and large, joined by narrow, irregular, wavy, interrupted belts 
and lines of soft tissue. Pores frequently filled with a white substance of 
a resinous nature, which is prominent on a vertical section. Medullary 
rays short, wavy, moderately broad, numerous, prominent on a radial 
section as long, narrow, horizontal bands. 

Bengal, Burma, Central and South India. 

Growth moderate, about 7 rings per inch of radius. Weight, 45 Ibs. (Kyd) ; 42'5 
Ibs. (Wallich) ; 48 Ibs. (Skinner, No. 25) ; our specimens give 47 Ibs. Kyd gives 
P = 710 ; Skinner 642. The wood is moderately durable, elastic, easy to work ; it is 
used for building and is good for furniture. It is used for canoes and building in 
Assam, and for tea-boxes in Cachar. The roots, leaves and flowers are used medicinally. 

Ibs. 

C 1164. Ahiri Reserve, Central Provinces 40 

C 1172. 38 

C 1411. Moharli 46 

C 833. Bairagarh Reserve, Berar . 

E 659. Khookloong Forest, Darjeeling Terai 51 

E 673. Bamunpokri Forest 48 

E 632. Eastern Diiars, Assam 40 

E 1398. Chittagong 59 

D 1070. North Arcot 50 

B 2546. Burma (1862) 52 

2. S. Sliaveolens, DC.; Beddome clxix. ; Brandis 351 ; Kurz ii. 231 ; 
Gamble 59. Bignonia suaveolens, tioxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 104*. Vern. Paral 
padal, padidla, padaria, parur, Hind.; Pandri, C.P. ; Phalgataitu, 
Melghdt; Parari, Nep.; Singyen, Lepcha; Par id, Beng.; Patnli, 
Uriya; Padri, Tarn.;^ Kala-goru, knberakashi, padari, patali, Tel.; 
llooday, billa, Kan. ; Unt katar,padar } Gondi ; Padar, Kurku; Pandan, 
Bhil ; Parul, kalagori, Mar. 

A large deciduous tree. Bark J inch thick, grey, exfoliating in 
large, irregularly shaped, flat scales. Sapwood large, grey, hard. Heart- 
wood small, yellowish brown, beautifully mottled with darker streaks, 
very hard, seasons and polishes well. Pores moderate-sized, enclosed in 
long, wavy, concentric, interrupted bands of softer tissue. The pores are 
frequently filled with a white shining substance, which becomes yellow 
in the heartwood. Medullary rays fine, sharply defined, numerous, wavy, 
((ji